PROBLEMS THE AFRICAN YOUTH FACE

By Justina Ochieng – Art in Tanzania internship

According to the world economic forum’s report, the African youth population is rapidly growing and by 2050 it will form almost 60% of all the world’s youth population. This rapid growth has also bringing with it a lot of challenges facing the youths. Unemployment has been ranked top of a list of challenges faced by Africa’s youth today. The biggest challenge the youth face is that they’re often incapable of finding a productive place within society – either within the mainstream education system or satisfactory employment.

The list below also highlights some other challenges faced by youth: unemployment, poor education system, drugs and substance abuse, pressures of materialism, lack of affordable housing, negative stereotyping, pressures of 24-hour social networking, crime.

Unemployment

The biggest problem facing Africa’s youth is unemployment. The youth constitutes the highest population in Africa, and they are the most vulnerable, less privileged, and unattended to in society. Many young people have become victims of negativity and unproductiveness because they are neither schooling nor engaging in economic activities. There is a common saying: “an idle mind is the devil’s workshop.” This is the reality behind many young people getting into the streets, and involving themselves in robbery, drug/substance abuse, violence etc. The lack of adequate youth employment has made them dangerous to society, leaving them with no alternative but to engage in terrible acts that will give them money to support their bad habits. In order to eradicate and/or reduce the high unemployment rate among the youth, the government, CSOs, NGOs, youth organizations etc. must help get the youth engaged in profitable activities such as educational programs, vocational and entrepreneurial skill training to make them self-reliant. The opportunity WAYLead is providing, to positively impact and educate the youth in leadership, would advance growth as participants would give back to their respective communities. There is a need to invest in youth empowerment programs and accelerate awareness to create the enabling environment for employment.

Lack of proper information

The youth constitute a greater part of the population in most African countries. These young people live in a rapidly changing world, faced with many pressures. One of biggest problem among Africa’s youth, in my opinion, is the lack of the development of one’s mind. Young people, on the whole, experience disquieting irritations, perplexities and adjustment problems as a result of rapid social change. There is an increase in social vices among the youth leading to appalling incidences. I believe in order for such social vices and corrupt acts to be curbed, one’s mind must be developed. Bob Marley once said “None but ourselves can free our minds” The current socio-economic conditions in Africa block the progress of the African youth. Early marriages complicate matters for the youth. Ignorance, illiteracy, and insufficient knowledge about planned parenthood have resulted in an increase early childbearing. Once our minds are well developed, our way of life would change for the better.

Poor education system

One of the biggest problem facing Africa’s youth is our educational system, coupled with the lack of good employment opportunities that the educational curriculum prepares the graduates for. Africa’s youth find themselves stuck in a cycle of completing school and sitting at home without jobs mainly because our educational systems mainly  prepare us for non-existent white collar jobs. The very few enterprising youth who venture into entrepreneurship also find themselves lacking support in training and funding.

Time management

Stress & Time Management. Managing the pressure to succeed in every area of life and finding time to do it all seems to be one of the biggest challenges facing the youth today. Young people are expected to be successful, yet few of them are aware of effective time management.

Drugs and substance abuse

Drugs has become one the core problems facing youths. Out of every ten young people between the age of 16-35 years, seven have once in their lifetime use drugs or still using drugs. Many critics claim that the reason for this may be the stress and depression facing most of them due to unemployment, low self-esteem and worries about their futures. Drugs and substance abuse is mostly rampant along the coastal cities and towns of East Africa (Mombasa and Dar es Salaam).

Crime

Due to the hard economic times we are facing right now and the fact that most the African population live under a dollar a day, most of the youth have turned to crime to meet their economic needs. Robbery, stealing, burglary prostitution are among the top order of the day. Due to involvement these outlawed activities in most African countries, most the victims have found themselves lynched, gun down or in prison. Everywhere across Africa, especially in the drug infested regions, very young people lose their lives to crime and crime-related activities. Prostitution is also a problem. Many young women have turned to prostitution to make ends meet. Most cities at night are flocked by young girls selling off their bodies for a dime. Side effects being most of them end up contracting very deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS. Also there is the issue of early marriage. Very young girls who are supposed to be in school are sold of to marriages because their guardians are interested in the dowry they get in return. Because of that, most girls end up not continuing their education or making their dreams come true.

Female genital mutilation

Female genital mutilation is still one of the great challenges facing young Africans especially in the underdeveloped places. Some tribes in East Africa still insist in this act as a right of passage into womanhood. Very innocent girls are subjected to this brutal act against their own will. In worst scenarios some girls end up contracting diseases like HIV/AIDS since you may find that a single scalpel is used to mutilate a bunch of girls without any proper sterilisation of any kind. Also some girls end up with wounds that affect their sexual life forever.

Social media peer pressure

Peer pressure has also pose as a challenge. Most youth are struggling to fit in and because of that they go extra mile to prove that they are worthy of recognition and praises from their peers. Most have taken the social media thing so far; faking lifestyles even ending up in great debts in the name of appeasing their fellows on Instagram, Facebook and WhatsApp. People have refused to face their on realities and where they stand economically, instead they end up imitating celebrities and other prominent people by the lifestyles they lead. Side effects; some have turned to crime to make ends meet. But we are advised as youth to choose wisely because the streets offer everything, from what’s best for us to what ruins us. So before impressing anyone we should think if there is anything positive we’ve gained from the whole experience.

What is been done to tackle these problems

Thanks to the governments and other concerned parties from the private sectors, a lot is being put in place to handle these situations. For example there are a lot of NGOs advocating the eradication of FGM, creation of awareness of drugs and substance abuse, HIV/AIDS and other chronic problems in the African continent. Due to the rapidly growing unemployment, most youth have turned to entrepreneurship and other creativities to earn a living. New business formation are being seen popping up each  day. This has drastically reduced the unemployment and the idleness that comes with it.

Conclusions

A lot has been done to tackle the problems facing the African youth and still much is yet to be done. It is everyone’s responsibility to play part in bringing the change we want. As the Swahili saying that goes ‘umoja ni nguvu utangamano ni udhaifu’, we need to unite in all the levels of our societies to make a positive impact. With the little every has whether is information, and ides or something tangible will make a difference if used for the right course. We should remember that if we do this kind-heartly without expecting anything in return, the benefits will be ours and our children’s children. Karma says that we get what we give. Its my hope this information will inspire you to be part of this great expedition to create a new Africa that we want and we will be proud of and also clear our name from all the stigmatization and misconception we are facing from the outside world.

SMALL SCALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP FOR WOMEN

By Jestina Blazi – Art in Tanzania internship

SMALL SCALE BUSINESS is the one marked by a limited number of employees and a limited flow of finances and materials.

ENTREPRENEERSHIP is a process of undertakes the risk of starting a new business venture, a person is called an entrepreneur·, an entrepreneur creates a firm.

Entrepreneur is defined as someone who has the ability and desire to establish, administer and succeed in a startup venture along.  

Small-scale business revenue 

is generally lower than companies that operate on a larger scale. The Small Business Administration classifies small businesses as companies that bring in less than a specific amount of revenue, depending on the business type. The maximum revenue allowance for the small business designation is set at $21.5 million per year for service businesses.

Smaller Teams of Employees

Small-scale businesses employ smaller teams of employees than companies that operate on larger scales. The smallest businesses are run entirely by single individuals or small teams. A larger small-scale business can often get away with employing fewer than one hundred employees, depending on the business type.

Small Market Area

Small-scale businesses serve a much smaller area than corporations or larger private businesses. The smallest-scale businesses serve single communities, such as a convenience store in a rural township. The very definition of small-scale prevents these companies from serving areas much larger than a local area, since growing beyond that would increase the scale of a small business’s operations and push it into a new classification.

BECOMING AN ENTREPRENEUR

To be called an entrepreneur, the general career trajectory usually looks something like this:

  • Willingness and believe to start and be confident.
  • Ability to start with the small thing you poses and expands it.
  • Innovation skills for better competition.
  • Develop an idea for a unique or in-demand business.
  • Learn about and gain experience in a range of business roles, including finance and accounting, management, and marketing.
  • Make a business plan and establish a source (or sources) of funding.
  • Recruit talented workers and managers with the skills needed to develop, test, implement, support, and maintain the company’s products.
  • Devise strategies for launching the product or service, and for attracting and retaining customers.
  • Once the company is established, seek out ways to grow revenue by expanding into new areas and product lines.
  • Awareness of what you are doing without cares what others see.

As the business matures, the founder’s role is likely to include both long-term strategic planning and short-term tactical management and financial decisions. The past few years have seen an increase in entrepreneurial opportunities available to women who are looking to lead and succeed in their own businesses.

After generation more and maximize the business then you have to apply Diversification

Diversification is a risk management strategy that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio. A diversified portfolio contains a mix of products.

Most investment professionals agree that, although it does not guarantee against loss, diversification is the most important component of reaching long-range financial goals while minimizing risk. Here, we look at why this is true and how to accomplish diversification in your portfolio.

What Happens When You Diversify Your Investments? 

When you diversify your investments, you reduce the amount of risk you’re exposed to in order to maximize your returns. Although there are certain risks you can’t avoid, such as systemic risks, you can hedge against unsystematic risks like business OR financial risks.

The most common reason for diversification is the need to survive. Businesses fight for their survival in the market and are willing to expand their production lines to incorporate new products to earn bigger profits.

In cases where a business produces seasonal products that only earn revenue for a selected time of the year, diversification of products can ensure that revenue flow remains constant throughout the year.

For instance, the market demand for ice creams, juices, and soft drinks is more during summer but less in the winter season. If the companies producing these items diversify their production line to include winter apparel, they would be able to earn revenue for their business during the winter season.

Not every business needs diversification. Some use it purely to expand the grasps of their business further into every field of production. Depending on the strategies implemented and the demand for the goods produced, diversification can be a good investment or a waste of precious resources.

https://www.shopify.com/encyclopedia/entrepreneurship

find more about small BE

5 skincare items to pack for travels

By Darlene Joshua – Art in Tanzania internship

 Travelling can bring a ton of changes to our daily routines and lifestyles. Flying into different time zones, or simply driving through polluted areas can have a huge impact on your skin. Dehydration, puffy eyes, and breakouts can all result from these changes. Consequently, it is critical to take right skin care products with you that will preserve your skin through this lifestyle change.

 So, you have a few days before you go on your trip, you are surfing through the web to find the right skin care products but find yourself overwhelmed with thousands – if not millions – of skin care options. The last thing you need is to feel exasperated about which product to take with you. 

An attractive young woman applying cream to her face

 A few multi-functional and high-quality products are all you need to enjoy a worry-free trip while preserving your healthy skin. We have compiled a few products that will make a big difference in your trip. No longer so you have to worry about skin breakouts, flakiness, or dull skin.

  1. Face mist 

If your skin is prone to dryness and puffiness then a rejuvenating mist is sure to cure this skin problem. The Protective Dust Screen Mist by Accoje is a highly effective option because it is free from harsh chemicals like paraben and alcohol. Its triple protection technology forms a protective barrier on the skin to prevent micro-particles from clogging your pores. It is best suited for travels where your skin will be exposed to dust. All you need to do is spray it directly on your face and enjoy long hours of moisturized, and supple skin. As we have said before, skin care is a solemn ritual. Including a mist in your travel bag and replenishing skin moisture should top the list. 

 2) Face packs 

Face masks are great additions to any skincare regimen to target specific skin care issues. Face Masks are especially beneficial if you are headed to warm or hot destinations. Being in a humid environment means you will perspire more, sweat cannot dry up, leaving the skin feeling warm and sticky. This makes facial skin vulnerable to infections and breakouts. Masks can help restore skin’s PH balance, remove excess oils and tighten the skin pores. Face packs come in containers.

and you may need to travel light- especially in road trips. The Missha Pure Source Pocket Pack is a commendable product that comes in a compact size. Comes with a variety of textures and extracts like pomegranate, green tea, and shea butter. With gel like and thick creamy textures, you can choose from this range the one that best suits your skin type. 

3) Light facial oils 

Need a moisturizer that will keep the PH of your skin balanced even when you are out on a long walk on a sunny day? Then choose the WONDER Black Rice Facial Oil by Haru Haru Wonder a light weight and fast absorbing formula that does not leave a greasy residue on your face. Prolonged exposure to the sun or extreme winds and cold can cause evaporation of moisture from the skin and may lead to dry skin – this applies to all skin types. So if you are going to a place where you will be out in the sun all day this face oil is for you. Formulated with sweet almond, jojoba oil which promote collagen synthesis, soothes irritated skin and keeps it hydrated. this product immediately revives the skin’s elasticity. 

4) Sun blockers 

A sun-kissed glowing face looks amazing in Instagram pictures! But skin suffers a lot when constantly exposed to the harmful ultraviolet rays while you are basking at the beach. To prevent skin inflammation, pigmentation, and reddened skin it is absolutely necessary to pack your sunscreen with you. The Rovectin Double tone-up UV Protector SPF50+ PA++++ is an option; a mineral sunscreen infused with Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide. SPF50+ acts as a protective barrier on your skin by blocking 98% of ultraviolet rays. Vitamin E stimulates cell reproduction and fights free radicals, most importantly it traps moisture in your skin. Ideal for teen-age to mature skin, pack this for yourself and your mom. 

5) More Sun-protection 

They say you can never have too much sunscreen, and that is the truth! After a long day out doors your skin will still need to be replenished. Extra UV protection, moisturization, calmness and softness are just what your skin needs. Choose I’M REPAIR AFTER SUN soothing cream by Suntique because it provides a major boost of hydration. Infused with panthenol, it improves the skin’s elasticity, and smooth appearance. This is beneficial to the skin after spending the day outdoor where your skin is exposed to the hot sun or cold weather. It is an effective treatment for all skin types with special mention of ageing and dehydrated skin. 

A compact bag with all these items is all you need to maintain a youthful appearance and a room somewhere. They will cater to your skin problems while you enjoy the road trip and let you be free from worries. With all these products that we tried on, why wont you have all the fun? 

A GIRL CHILD IN TANZANIA DURING MENSURATION PERIOD

By Ayanna Albert – Art in Tanzania Internship

Down deep in the valleys very far away from town, were there is neither much electricity nor water to take. Down deep where a girl is also a shepherd of cattle’s as well but then thanks to education now she can attend.

Been a witness through my own campaigns as we visited these girls in the interior villages, their stories they told “where when they were on MP home they had to stay. These are girls who had same right to education and hence they would miss classes just because of the biological nature that God had created in them.”

Yes!! They are girls who can’t afford pads every month and yet some due to their biological being the piece of cloth that some use isn’t enough to carry the blood weight and hence they are forced to stay inside the whole days until the days are gone. So this basically means no school, no access to some of the things. So is now menstruation a disability to girls??(Some would ask) or is just the whole issue of poverty having and not of having.

So then further more this girl child is expected to perform well or maybe better further more than boys without including the stories of house chores, fetching water from a long distance as it was in the past and still to some.

The same girl child faces consequences when she fails to perform well in class such as forced marriage and they like.

So here is a cry to a girl child and an applaud to every movement around the world that supports such groups to purchase a reusable pads at least that they could wash again and again , back to those without water still this is still a question?

A special note to this girl child;

Dear Girl child,

You’re beautiful, you are strong, and you’re worth beyond a thousand reasons why

There is nobody in the world like you

You got to get up (no matter what)

You got get up and make a move

Because the world won’t ever see you till you do

(Some of the lyrics song by Tatiana Manaois, song name: Like you)

By; Ayanna Albert Mushi

Women’s Empowerment in Accessing Financial Services

By Marina Joseph – Art in Tanzania internship

World Bank views financial inclusion as means that individuals and businesses have access to useful and affordable financial products and services that meet their needs – transactions, payments, savings, credit, and insurance – delivered in a responsible and sustainable way. Financial inclusion expands access to efficient financial services. Achieving inclusive growth means promoting often overlooked groups of people in the society such as women and poor people as they disproportionately face access to quality financial services. Empowering such groups helps increase participation in the economy and their standard of living improves simultaneous 

Women’s World Banking (WWB) is a global network comprised of 39 leading microfinance institutions from 27 countries. The network members are diverse in geography, size, and structure but united in the firm belief that microfinance must remain committed to women as clients, innovators, and leaders. In 2009 WWB was asked to review proposals by the G-20 Financial Inclusion Expert Group which they gladly did as it was an acknowledgement that women face different or additional barriers to entry in accessing finance.

WWB offered 9 suggestions to financial institutions interested in increasing access to finance for poor and low‐income women. The following are the suggestions

  1. Time: Acknowledge constraints on women’s time and mobility
  2. Confidentiality: Give women the choice of who they want involved in financial transactions
  3. Product design: Accommodate all levels of literacy in product design and marketing
  4. Documentation and collateral requirements: Be sensitive to the fact that requirements for documentation and collateral may exclude women  
  5. Loan size: Give women access to a range of loan sizes and structures  
  6. Accounting for cultural norms: Tailor marketing strategies to reach women
  7. Branding: Create a brand position that honors women  
  8. Institutional Culture: Ensure gender positive interactions
  9. Moving beyond credit: Offer a full suite of financial products  

World Bank’s empowerment sourcebook, ‘empowerment is the expansion of assets and capabilities of poor people to participate in, negotiate with, influence, control, and hold Empowering Women through Microfinance: Evidence from Tanzania 36 accountable institutions that affect their lives’. In a developing country such as Tanzania financial inclusion for women can have transformative effects. Tanzania’s policy makers have made steps in creating an enabling environment for women’s financial inclusion. 

In 2006 Alliance for financial inclusion (AFI) mentioned efforts that Tanzania is a country is undertaking to bridge that gap. The following are some of the existing and expanding policies to achieve that

Financial inclusion data disaggregated by gender 

The Bank of Tanzania has expressed its intent to collect sex disaggregated data and is in the process of expanding its financial inclusion database collecting data similar to Findex 2014. As a country it has developed policies based on FinScope surveys in 2006, 2009 and 2013, which provide financial inclusion data broken down by gender. A new FinScope survey will be conducted in 2016 and is expected to have an even stronger influence on policy direction.

  • Development of financial infrastructure

Significant progress and development have been made by Tanzania in developing payment infrastructures that are effective alongside its regulatory framework for mobile money. These infrastructures help in building information based on women as clients so they can be better served.  

  • Women’s financial inclusion as an explicit policy objective with quantitative targets

Tanzania’s 2013 Framework gives priority to poor rural households and their enterprises, including low-income women and youth, without specifying gender targets. Following the high-level conference on women’s financial inclusion held in Yamoussoukro in August 2015 and the 7th AFI Global Policy Forum (GPF) held in Maputo in September 2015, the Bank of Tanzania decided to introduce gender targets and indicators in the revised measurement framework, with the possibility of integrating gender issues into the Financial Inclusion National Framework itself ( Alliance for Financial Inclusion, 2016). 

  • Financial consumer protection regulation

The Financial Inclusion National Council recognizes the importance of financial consumer protection which has been emphasized with the growth of digital financial services. The Bank of Tanzania sees consumer     protection as particularly important for women as they are considered to be more vulnerable to the environment.