Sport Inspires

By Racquel Hudson – Art in Tanzania internship

“Sport has the power to change the world. It has the power to inspire. It has the power to unite people in a way little else does. It speaks to youth in a language they understand. Sport can create hope where once there was only despair. It is more powerful than the government in breaking down racial barriers.” – Nelson Mandela.

Nelson Mandela’s quote holds an accurate depiction of the effect that sports have on individuals and groups of people all over the world. Mandela expresses how sports can end the divide between people and cultures as well as inspire people to come together. Sports allow people to build bonds and establish relationships that typically would not have occurred in another setting. It is a form of communication that encourages people to express themselves through play. Essentially, in most countries, sport is not entirely competition-based. Instead, they are portrayed as an activity in which people can get out to have fun and exercise. There is less pressure on winning and more pressure on the expectation that people are communicating and expressing themselves with those around them.

In terms of children, sports help bring them out of their comfort zone and bring them great joy.  It is not always necessarily about competition, rather it is how it can make you grow and benefit as an individual. Sports are for people of all ages and backgrounds, which provides  structure for unity than any other method. It is all about what you like to do, who you engage yourself with, and how much you are willing to explore your options and try things that you did not expect to do.

Furthermore, sports are an essential source of socialization and social integration for informing young people and further their development. Social interaction through team sports teaches young people to associate with their friends, solve and prevent conflicts, communicate, and socialize better with their teammates. Whether it is the friends you bring or the people seated next to you, sporting events bring people together.  Perhaps it is the common interest in the different teams that starts the conversation. Whatever the reason, if you talk to any sports fan, you are bound to hear a story or two about mid-game encounters with interesting people.

For instance, sports in South Africa are largely separated into different parts on ethnic lines. In South Africa, sports are treated as a national religion, language group, and transcending race that helps unify the entire country. The focus of sport is primarily to create an active and winning nation. It focuses on bringing many opportunities for Africans to celebrate in sport while still instilling country values.

Especially, football(soccer) without a doubt is one of the most popular sports admired by most Africans. Football is an exciting game with origins tracing back to the 1800s, when the British, French, and Portuguese colonists introduced the sport to Africa. Unlike other sports, football required minimal resources, and for this reason, it has penetrated every part of Africa. Many African footballers had to surmount some obstacles, including poverty, amongst other things before they achieved all the glitz and glamour they are now associated with. The football talent in Africa mostly begins at the grassroots level, and for this reason, many football stars come from hardship.

Fredrick Odhiambo, also known as Abedi, was born in the city of Kisumu in Kenya. He grew up in the poorest neighborhood out of Manyatta. Like many people from that area, life was not easy. To Fredrick and other fellow African athletes, football is everything. It is not only something to keep them busy and out of trouble, but it was also a chance at a better life —a way out of poverty. Abedi fell in love with football at the age of ten, where he quickly began to establish himself as a leader playing as a center-back. He once said, “Growing up in the slums, if I didn’t play football, I would have never gone to school.” He grew up in a family of seven kids, where his parents could not afford to take them to school. One evening, he went out to play on the football field, some high school coaches noticed his talents and agreed to pay for his schooling. He received an opportunity to attend school, whereas thousands in his village are not as lucky.   Abedi’s journey growing up as a kid lead him to create a program and organization for people that were like himself and give them the opportunity to be included and engage positively as kids. 

On another account, Yaya Toure grew up with similar hardships as Abedi and used football as an outlet in order to prevail. Growing up with his four other siblings and both parents, Yaya Toure often tried to normalize his childhood experiences whenever he spoke about it, but the truth is he grew up poor. According to Toure, ” I did not have football boots until he was ten years old because his parents could not afford them.” However, his boots later served him as he impressed the coaches at the Asec Mimosas academy. He earned himself a move to Europe with Dutch club Waasland Beveren. That move served as a springboard that opened new opportunities at European clubs such as Metalurh Donetsk, Olympiacos, Monaco, Barcelona, and Manchester City. Yaya Toure had a long and distinguished career that saw him win two La Liga titles, one Champions League, one Copa del Rey, three Premier League titles, one FA Cup, one Nations Cup, and many others. Safe to say, he made up for all of his childhood struggles. He is a four-time African footballer of the year grant champ now and routinely is in the discussion of most noteworthy African footballers.

Tanzania’s Football team

Athlete development is a continuous process. It begins when an athlete first engages in a sport until an athlete withdraws from the sport itself. There are various stages of learning that outline the various stages of learning that an athlete undergoes to acquire new skills and techniques. Youth athletes are among some of the hardest-working people all across the world. Many factors contribute to their success. However, athletes at all levels have their motivation and will that push them to strive for greatness. We all have obstacles and hardships along the way, yet it is the process, the hope, the unity we partake in the sport of football that molds us along the way. Sport has the power to inspire.  

The value of using Gross Domestic Happiness (GDH) in a country (Tanzania)

James Mathew Mgaya – Art in Tanzania internship

To many Gross Domestic Happiness (GDH)/ Gross National Happiness (GNH) is new terminology but it bears most important value to the countries. Gross Happiness (GNH) is a measurement of the collective happiness in a nation.  The king of the Himalayan country of Bhutan introduced Gross National Happiness (GNH) in the 1970s as a measure of economic and moral progress as an alternative to Gross Domestic Product. The kingdom of Bhutan’s first legal code, written at the time of unification in 1729, stated that “if the government cannot create happiness for its people, there is no purpose for the government.”. GNH has nine domain pillars of measurement which currently work internationally. These pillars provide the foundation for the happiness, which is manifested into the nine domains of GNH: psychological well-being, standard of living, good governance, health, community vitality, cultural diversity, time use, and ecological resilience. In short, the country prefers people than self-governed interests by living with peace and harmony towards its citizens.

The value of GNH?

Encourage investment; a country with good Gross Domestic Happiness mean will attract more foreign direct investment (FDI) which will contribute to GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the certain country. More FDI means more foreign investors will start their business in Tanzania and increase our national revenue. In addition, it also encourages entrepreneurship and establishment of new companies and enterprises owned by local resident (Tanzanians).

Valuation of currency; increase of value of the currency like Tanzanian shillings depend on interest rate, exports and imports , the purchasing power of currency in internationally, and foreign exchange reserves (the amount of currency held by foreign governments). Simply, the value of currency increases according to its circulation money within international borders by good diplomatic relations via international trade/financing/business. GDH can give a good standard of living. This means there will more available markets, purchasing power of consumer, and good money circulation.

Good diplomatic relation internationally; GNH gives good governance and psychological well-being. This leads to governments that can have good relationships to neighbouring countries and international collaborations economically, politically, and socially. Psychological wellbeing means, through its resource’s government can ensure life satisfactory in some degree of its services, creating peace and harmony among the citizens. Mentally stable countries bring relief to nearby countries and allow friendship due to available labour forces, no political unrest which attracts more investments to multinational companies and international relationship.

Increase of production nationally; GDH gives the government opportunity to build into its public policy decisions like good governance and sustainable development This is when government focus is on public good, boosting their citizen economy and infrastructures like in Tanzania’s strategic cities projects which gives formal and informal employment to the citizens. Building transportations means for the citizen to increase production from the producers towards the consumers, availability of water and electricity to the rural areas stimulating production and leading to urbanisation of rural areas which increases the connectivity between factories and available raw material.

Increase of national income; for citizens to enjoy, their government the needs sustainable income. For example, in Tanzania they use strategic projects to build infrastructure of public goods like roads, railways, bridges, aviation, and marine transports. This is life satisfactory to the citizens by means of transportation, bringing good income good to government and individuals. It creates formal and informal employment to the citizens while simultaneously creating income through toll bridges,  like Kigamboni, Dar es Salaam. Air Tanzania can create national income, and marine transport in lake zones create employment and national income. If citizens are happy with their government, it means no political unrest and its national income will thrive.

The verdict

There so much to talk about the Gross Domestic Happiness and the things can offer if considered. It is an alternative to Gross Domestic Product, which rather focuses strictly on quantitative economic measures. Gross National Happiness considers an evolving mix of quality-of-life factors. The centre provides an overview of national performance across these pillars, providing the foundation for the happiness, which is shown in the nine domains of GNH: psychological well-being, standard of living, good governance, health, education, community vitality, cultural diversity, time use, and ecological resilience.

Tropical Diseases in Africa – Sleeping Sickness

by Shravya Murali – Art in Tanzania internship

Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as ‘Sleeping Sickness’ is a neglected tropical disease, and a recurrent public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The deadly sleeping sickness has robbed tens of thousands of lives of individuals in Africa annually, and about 65 million people continue to be at risk of falling prey to it. Fortunately, internationally coordinated efforts have led to a drastic drop in death rates after 2000, with the reported cases of infection being 992 in 2019. It is vital to sustain these global efforts to eradicate the disease for the safety of millions residing in Sub-Saharan Africa.

How does sleeping sickness spread?

This life-threatening disease is spread to humans via bites from tsetse flies that carry the parasite (Trypanosoma brucei) causing the disease. Tsetse flies are exclusively found in Africa, specifically in the south of the Sahara. While there are about 30 species or sub-species of the tsetse fly, only six are known to be able to transmit the sleeping sickness parasite to humans.

However, this disease can also spread from an infected individual to another individual via:

  1. Contaminated needles (i.e., sharing of needles with an infected individual)
  2. Sexual contact – reported to have resulted in the spread of the disease between humans in some cases.
  3. Pregnancy – The parasite is able to cross the placenta, thereby spreading from mother to fetus.
  4. Mechanical transmission – The parasite may spread from human-to-human through other insects that feed on blood.

What are the effects of the disease?

The disease can manifest in two forms caused by different subspecies of the Trypanosoma brucei sleeping sickness parasite – T.b.rhodesiense and T.b.gambiense. The former is commonly associated with the presentation of a painful inflammation, known as ‘chancre’, at the site of the bite. The latter rarely results in a chancre although this has been occasionally observed in infected travellers from non-endemic regions. The “Winterbottom’s sign”, or swollen lymph nodes, is more commonly observed in infections caused by T.b.gambiense.

Regardless of the subspecies of the parasite, the disease comprises of two stages at which it can be clinically diagnosed – the early stage, and the late stage. Furthermore, the symptoms are usually common, causing difficulties in identifying the subspecies that resulted in the disease.

In the early stage, the parasite is found in the blood and the lymphatic system. Its symptoms commonly include:

  • Restlessness
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Itchiness
  • Joint pain

Signs such as weight loss, intermittent fevers that occur could for a day up to a week, and swelling of the liver and spleen, are usually indicative of an early-stage infection.

In T.b.gambiense infections, the disease progresses slowly as it proceeds from the early stage to the late stage after about 300 to 500 days. On the other hand, T.b.rhodesiense infections advance quicky from the early to the late stage in only around 21 to 60 days.

The late stage is known to be riskier as the parasite enters the central nervous system and results in inflammation of the brain – a condition known as meningoencephalitis – which causes neuropsychiatric problems and tends to be fatal. Some of the neuropsychiatric issues include reversal of the sleep-wake cycle (hence the name “Sleeping Sickness”), hallucinations, anxiety, aggression, and mania. The patient may also enter coma, and if left untreated, this stage leads to death.

How is sleeping sickness treated?

The sleeping sickness, after infection, is normally treated by administered specific drugs depending on the stage of infection. For early-stage infection, pentamidine or suramin is used. Both drugs produce unwanted side-effects and can only be used for early-stage infections. While suramin can result in allergic reactions, pentamidine, is commonly well-tolerated by patients. In the late stage, melarsoprol, eflornithine, and nifurtimox are usually used. While melarsoprol can be used to treat both gambiense and rhodesiense infections, it is obtained from arsenic, hence resulting in serious side effects such as reactive encephalopathy – altering brain function. Eflornithine and nifurtimox are less toxic, but the former is only effective against gambiense infection, while the latter has not been studied for its effectiveness against rhodesiense infections. Hence, the current treatments against late stage rhodesiense infections are still inadequate, drawing an urgent need for sufficient treatment considering the quick progression of infection caused by this subspecies.

What could be done to prevent the disease?

Due to the lack of drugs or vaccines to allow for immunity against sleeping sickness, the only way to prevent the disease currently is to avoid contact with tsetse flies. In countries where tsetse flies are found, the following precautions can be taken:

  • Checking vehicles before travelling in them, as tsetse flies are drawn to motion and dust from vehicles in motion.
  • Wearing fully covered clothing, such as pants and shirts with long sleeves.
  • Ensure that clothes worn are of neutral colours or blend with the environment, as tsetse flies are attracted to colours that stand out in the environment.
  • Avoiding bushes, where the tsetse flies often reside.
  • Using insect repellent to prevent bites from other blood-sucking insects other than tsetse flies that can spread the disease – as tsetse flies are not significantly affected by insect repellents.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) aims to completely eradicate the African Trypanosomiasis by 2030, with international research organisations coordinating to study potential treatments that are more effective, and drugs that may help prevent the disease. At the same time, it is also important that individuals play their part in avoiding transmission of the disease by taking the necessary precautions for the safety of all.

The Economic Consequences of Climate Change in Tanzania

Romaisa Hussain – Art in Tanzania Internship

Keywords: sustainability, climate change, environment, economic growth

Climate change has emerged as a potentially existential threat all across the globe that poses a serious risk to the survival of mankind and sustainable development. Over the last few decades, the world has witnessed changes in weather patterns as a result of global warming and human-caused greenhouse gas emissions. Based on a numerous lines of evidence, it is now more certain than ever that climate change is a threat multiplier that can amplify the effects of existing dangers. These threats include human security, scarcity of natural resources, environmental degradation, and poor economic growth.

The United Nations General Assembly set up the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 which serve as a blueprint for a sustainable future to be achieved by 2030. The 13th Sustainable Development Goal of the United Nations talks about Climate Action. The goal discusses the critical impact of climate change and encourages developing countries to move towards low-carbon emission in the environment. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) is a separate organisation working within the UN that deals with climate change and other environmental issues. The UN aims to adapt to low carbon development especially in the vulnerable regions that contribute towards climate action and sustainable natural resource management through collective action. Most of the states in the world are affected by climate change with East Africa being one of the most affected regions.

Tanzania is suffering the brunt of the consequences of climate change in East Africa. The agricultural-based economy of Tanzania has become vulnerable to the extreme climatic conditions. The majority of the population is located in the rural areas which heavily relies on agriculture and farming that is threatened by rising temperatures, droughts, and extreme rainfalls. The country is home to the world’s largest river system, the River Tanzanian. Despite immense water resources, Tanzania struggles with a shortage of water both spatially and temporally, which is worsened by the climate on its nine main river basins. In the recent years, there has been a severe decline in the water level in Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Jipe, as well as a decrease in the water level of about 7 kilometers in Lake Rukwa during the last fifty years. These are connected with climate change and are endangering towards socio-economic activities. The effect also puts the country’s hydropower system at risk. Furthermore, diseases such as diarrhea and malaria remain one of the prime causes of casualties in the country especially in the urban settlements consisting of poor infrastructure prone to flooding and increased temperatures. 

Tanzania’s economy relies on its natural and environmental resources where a good number of people depend on fisheries for their income which are at risk from rising sea waters and freshwater temperatures. Tourism is another aspect that has the potential to boost the economy of Tanzania as the country has a tropical climate and is home to wildlife, forests, beaches, mountains, rivers, lakes, and minerals. The attractions are found in abundance in national and marine parks, historical and cultural sites, and recreational sites. Currently, tourism generates 17.5 per cent of GDP and 25 per cent of export revenues, making it an important economic sector. Due the unpredictability of climate it is endangering the ecosystem services on which tourism relies. For example, the Serengeti National Park has been famous tourism spot for the wildlife migration for decades, contributing significantly to Tanzania’s economy and serves as a key source of employment. There is a growing fear that the climate has shifted dramatically, potentially affecting wildlife tourism. 

Threats to the sustainability of the natural resources and environmental degradation remain an issue in Tanzania such as the untimely harvesting and usage of natural resources, unsupervised cultivation process, and trespassing on water sources. Collectively, these can seriously affect the sustainable development goals of a country. Due to the unsustainable consumption of resources, there can be problems in the production of sources that may affect livelihoods. In addition to that, they can lead to the deficiency of food which could eventually lead to poverty. An increase in the population and high reliance on agriculture becomes rather burdensome on the environment and its natural resources which contribute negatively to climate change and water-deficient regions. 

One of the leading contributing factors to the environmental degradation is the unsustainable management of land and watershed. Many challenges are still needed to be tackled to reduce this issue including unexpected growth of human settlements, wildlife hunting, illegal farming and livestock, uncontrollable bushfires, weak inter-sectoral association, and stakeholder linkages. This may lead towards the social and economic development of the country as well as reduce poverty. The Tanzanian Government has marked the water-oriented issues as a major factor that has affected the environment. This has led to the implementation of national policies and necessary plans and strategies needed to tackle it. The visibility of climatic changes in Tanzania is increased by 60% which are seen in the form of a decrease in water sources, land degradation and the reduction in agricultural land. The Government also tends to focus on carbon emission with the protection of ecosystems and biodiversity, the saving of wildlife to abolish the hunting system as a means of income, reducing vehicle usage and improving urban planning in the country to promote urbanization. It also placed environmental sections under the sector ministries to ensure and monitor the environmental issues as well as raising awareness amongst the community. The Government also needs to guarantee that efforts are being made in terms of the development of the environment and climate change in national as well as subnational plans. 

The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) is one among many partners of the Government of Tanzania that has aided in the development of the environment and contributed to measures regarding natural resources and climate change issues. The UNDP encourages the Government and respective communities in terms of sustaining the environment and contributing to the reversal of environmental degradation. As long as the correct policies are implemented, the chances for preserving the ecosystems in terms of food, energy, wood i.e., timber, clean water, consistent climate etc. are possible. Over the past few years, Tanzania has recently experienced high growth rates of about 7.4%.

The impact of climate change has had a huge effect on the incomes of the people in Tanzania. It has had a severe impact on the economy, agriculture, natural resources, and livelihoods of people which exposes the vulnerable part of the country. It is, to say the least, that the Government of Tanzania is to be respected for the progress it has made regarding the development and exercising of policies and strategies to prevent degradation and the protection of the environment. The Government tends to cater to the environmental needs of the country and maintain its natural resources as a means of saving economic and social development. This would mean effectively establishing immediate measures to improve the damages caused. The Government also needs to guarantee that efforts are being made in terms of the development of the environment and climate change in national as well as subnational plans.

References

Kijazi, A. L. (2019). The Contribution of the Global Framework for Climate Services Adaptation Programme in Africa (GFCS APA) in National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Process for Tanzania. doi:10.4236/acs.2019.94040

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. (n.d.). Current and future challenges and opportunities in Tanzania. Retrieved from https://um.dk/en/danida-en/strategies%20and%20priorities/country-policies/tanzania/current-and-future-challenges-and-opportunities-in-tanzania/

Ordu, E. I. (2021, April 7). Climate adaptation and the great reset for Africa. Retrieved from Brookings: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2021/04/07/climate-adaptation-and-the-great-reset-for-africa/

UNDP. (2016-2021). ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY, CLIMATE CHANGE AND RESILIENCE PILLAR, STRATEGY PAPER.

UNDP Annual Report 2020. (2020). Goal 13 CLIMATE ACTION. Retrieved from UNDP Organization: https://www.undp.org/sustainable-development-goals#climate-action

United Nations. (n.d.). Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development. Retrieved from Sustainable Deevelopment Goals: https://sdgs.un.org/goals

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA. (2007). NATIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMME OF ACTION (NAPA). Division of Environment.

USAID From the American People. (2020). Tanzania. Retrieved from climate links: https://www.climatelinks.org/countries/tanzania

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Tanzania vs Canada

Jeet Patel Art in Tanzania

What is Corporate Social Responsibility? Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the act of regulating company business models that assist a company or organisation to be socially accountable to the public and itself. Organizations can be conscious on the kind of the impacts they have in all aspect of society in areas like the environment or the economy.

The International Organization of Standardization (ISO) has provided guidance on how to achieve CSR. Organizations usually start investing in CSR once they a have reached a secure place to invest in it. The ISO came up with “ISO 26000” to help clarify what social responsibility is, and aids organizations in effective practices. ISO 26000 revolves under seven core principles and core subjects. These are the guidance points the ISO has come up with to help organization maximize their corporate social responsibility.

Core Principals

  1. Accountability
  2. Transparency
  3. Ethical Behaviour
  4. Respect for stakeholder interest
  5. Respect for the rule of law
  6. Respect for international norms of behaviour
  7. Respect for the human rights

Core Subject

  1. Organization Governance
  2. Human Rights
  3. Labour Practices
  4. The Environment
  5. Fair operating Practices
  6. Consumer Issues
  7. Community Involvement and Development

CSR around the world

CSR in Canada

CSR is becoming a major driving force for organisations in Canada. One of the main driving forces is due to the Canadian public looking to support organisations that are socially involved in making the community better. The tactics have changed over the years, organisations now plan strategic, social purpose-driven, and transformational models, that can be seen in local communities. It has become an essential part of business practices.

CSR in Tanzania

Tanzania has made huge strides in corporate social responsibility. Tanzania had enacted the Companies act in 2002 (an amendment of the Companies act of 1932) to try and keep up with global and local pressures of improving CSR. Even though this act requires audited financial reports to disclose details of the remuneration of directors and offices, there is no obligation to provide information on employee discrimination, health and safety, tax planning schemes, and pollution and environmental disruption cause by corporate activities. This  led to the enactment of Employment and Labour relations act and labour institutions act in 2004. The government has also come out with the health and safety act in 2003 and the worker’s compensation act in 2008. Tanzania’s main factors and initiatives that influence CSR in the country is due to many reasons.

Politically, the government has come with many different ways to promote CSR in the country, for example, the Presidential Award on CSR and Empowerment launched in 2012, to promote sustainable development of products, specifically in the extractive industry. The country also had the Tanzania Development Vision 2025, in an effort to reduce the country’s poverty levels. The country is also tracking towards primary education, gender equality, HIV/ AIDS, and access to sanitation.

The country is also down well in other factors and influences for CSR. Examples of this would include educating the population in different aspects through social programs in partnership with international organisations. Educating people on the importance of their natural resources and use it to their advantage through the different industries like agriculture and tourism, making sure to work with government organizations to help preserve the Tanzanian way, while sustainably providing goods and services.

President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete speaking at the launching ceremony of the presidential award on the Extractive Industry Corporate Social Responsibility and Empowerment

Local businesses and NGOs are also aided by international businesses through joint ventures and partnership in promoting good and services and finding ways to give back to the community. Even though there has been an increase in CSR in the country, there is still a long way to go. Without policies and regulations there is no way to monitor if organisations are trying to benefit their local communities. There are many barriers that could harm the further implementation of CSR. Some of these include:

  • Unreliable data on community needs
  • Misunderstand in communication between companies, organisations, and government
  • CSR used and a competition tool for business instead of being used to benefit the community
  • Lack of conscious consumers
  • Lack of recognition of good effort made

These are just some of the few barriers that can come in Tanzania’s path to have CSR businesses. However, this can be addressed by educating the public and creating policies to show data as well as meet the ISO’s standard guide on being having CSR.

Fernando, J. (2021, July 6). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/corp-social-responsibility.asp.

ISO 26000 – Social responsibility. ISO. (2020, November 30). https://www.iso.org/iso-26000-social-responsibility.html.

Johnnyspade. (2019, February 21). Corporate Social Responsibility in Canada: Trends, Barriers and Opportunities. Coro Strandberg. https://corostrandberg.com/publication/corporate-social-responsibility-in-canada-trends-barriers-and-opportunities/.

Kenton, W. (2021, May 19). International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/international-organization-for-standardization-iso.asp.

Vertigans, S., Idowu, S. O., & Schmidpeter René. (2018). Corporate Social Responsibility in Sub-Saharan Africa Sustainable Development in its Embryonic Form. Springer International Publishing.

PROBLEMS THE AFRICAN YOUTH FACE

By Justina Ochieng – Art in Tanzania internship

According to the world economic forum’s report, the African youth population is rapidly growing and by 2050 it will form almost 60% of all the world’s youth population. This rapid growth has also bringing with it a lot of challenges facing the youths. Unemployment has been ranked top of a list of challenges faced by Africa’s youth today. The biggest challenge the youth face is that they’re often incapable of finding a productive place within society – either within the mainstream education system or satisfactory employment.

The list below also highlights some other challenges faced by youth: unemployment, poor education system, drugs and substance abuse, pressures of materialism, lack of affordable housing, negative stereotyping, pressures of 24-hour social networking, crime.

Unemployment

The biggest problem facing Africa’s youth is unemployment. The youth constitutes the highest population in Africa, and they are the most vulnerable, less privileged, and unattended to in society. Many young people have become victims of negativity and unproductiveness because they are neither schooling nor engaging in economic activities. There is a common saying: “an idle mind is the devil’s workshop.” This is the reality behind many young people getting into the streets, and involving themselves in robbery, drug/substance abuse, violence etc. The lack of adequate youth employment has made them dangerous to society, leaving them with no alternative but to engage in terrible acts that will give them money to support their bad habits. In order to eradicate and/or reduce the high unemployment rate among the youth, the government, CSOs, NGOs, youth organizations etc. must help get the youth engaged in profitable activities such as educational programs, vocational and entrepreneurial skill training to make them self-reliant. The opportunity WAYLead is providing, to positively impact and educate the youth in leadership, would advance growth as participants would give back to their respective communities. There is a need to invest in youth empowerment programs and accelerate awareness to create the enabling environment for employment.

Lack of proper information

The youth constitute a greater part of the population in most African countries. These young people live in a rapidly changing world, faced with many pressures. One of biggest problem among Africa’s youth, in my opinion, is the lack of the development of one’s mind. Young people, on the whole, experience disquieting irritations, perplexities and adjustment problems as a result of rapid social change. There is an increase in social vices among the youth leading to appalling incidences. I believe in order for such social vices and corrupt acts to be curbed, one’s mind must be developed. Bob Marley once said “None but ourselves can free our minds” The current socio-economic conditions in Africa block the progress of the African youth. Early marriages complicate matters for the youth. Ignorance, illiteracy, and insufficient knowledge about planned parenthood have resulted in an increase early childbearing. Once our minds are well developed, our way of life would change for the better.

Poor education system

One of the biggest problem facing Africa’s youth is our educational system, coupled with the lack of good employment opportunities that the educational curriculum prepares the graduates for. Africa’s youth find themselves stuck in a cycle of completing school and sitting at home without jobs mainly because our educational systems mainly  prepare us for non-existent white collar jobs. The very few enterprising youth who venture into entrepreneurship also find themselves lacking support in training and funding.

Time management

Stress & Time Management. Managing the pressure to succeed in every area of life and finding time to do it all seems to be one of the biggest challenges facing the youth today. Young people are expected to be successful, yet few of them are aware of effective time management.

Drugs and substance abuse

Drugs has become one the core problems facing youths. Out of every ten young people between the age of 16-35 years, seven have once in their lifetime use drugs or still using drugs. Many critics claim that the reason for this may be the stress and depression facing most of them due to unemployment, low self-esteem and worries about their futures. Drugs and substance abuse is mostly rampant along the coastal cities and towns of East Africa (Mombasa and Dar es Salaam).

Crime

Due to the hard economic times we are facing right now and the fact that most the African population live under a dollar a day, most of the youth have turned to crime to meet their economic needs. Robbery, stealing, burglary prostitution are among the top order of the day. Due to involvement these outlawed activities in most African countries, most the victims have found themselves lynched, gun down or in prison. Everywhere across Africa, especially in the drug infested regions, very young people lose their lives to crime and crime-related activities. Prostitution is also a problem. Many young women have turned to prostitution to make ends meet. Most cities at night are flocked by young girls selling off their bodies for a dime. Side effects being most of them end up contracting very deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS. Also there is the issue of early marriage. Very young girls who are supposed to be in school are sold of to marriages because their guardians are interested in the dowry they get in return. Because of that, most girls end up not continuing their education or making their dreams come true.

Female genital mutilation

Female genital mutilation is still one of the great challenges facing young Africans especially in the underdeveloped places. Some tribes in East Africa still insist in this act as a right of passage into womanhood. Very innocent girls are subjected to this brutal act against their own will. In worst scenarios some girls end up contracting diseases like HIV/AIDS since you may find that a single scalpel is used to mutilate a bunch of girls without any proper sterilisation of any kind. Also some girls end up with wounds that affect their sexual life forever.

Social media peer pressure

Peer pressure has also pose as a challenge. Most youth are struggling to fit in and because of that they go extra mile to prove that they are worthy of recognition and praises from their peers. Most have taken the social media thing so far; faking lifestyles even ending up in great debts in the name of appeasing their fellows on Instagram, Facebook and WhatsApp. People have refused to face their on realities and where they stand economically, instead they end up imitating celebrities and other prominent people by the lifestyles they lead. Side effects; some have turned to crime to make ends meet. But we are advised as youth to choose wisely because the streets offer everything, from what’s best for us to what ruins us. So before impressing anyone we should think if there is anything positive we’ve gained from the whole experience.

What is been done to tackle these problems

Thanks to the governments and other concerned parties from the private sectors, a lot is being put in place to handle these situations. For example there are a lot of NGOs advocating the eradication of FGM, creation of awareness of drugs and substance abuse, HIV/AIDS and other chronic problems in the African continent. Due to the rapidly growing unemployment, most youth have turned to entrepreneurship and other creativities to earn a living. New business formation are being seen popping up each  day. This has drastically reduced the unemployment and the idleness that comes with it.

Conclusions

A lot has been done to tackle the problems facing the African youth and still much is yet to be done. It is everyone’s responsibility to play part in bringing the change we want. As the Swahili saying that goes ‘umoja ni nguvu utangamano ni udhaifu’, we need to unite in all the levels of our societies to make a positive impact. With the little every has whether is information, and ides or something tangible will make a difference if used for the right course. We should remember that if we do this kind-heartly without expecting anything in return, the benefits will be ours and our children’s children. Karma says that we get what we give. Its my hope this information will inspire you to be part of this great expedition to create a new Africa that we want and we will be proud of and also clear our name from all the stigmatization and misconception we are facing from the outside world.

THE SCOPE OF AGRIBUSINESS AND AGRICULTURAL EXPORT IN TANZANIA.

By Rajabu Juma Rajabu – Art in Tanzania internship

THE SCOPE OF AGRIBUSINESS:

Agribusiness is a business sector encompassing farming and farming related commercial activities. It can be sometimes referred to as Commercial Agriculture.

Definition: Agribusiness is a combination of two broader things or words “Agriculture “and “Business” and refers to any business related to farming and farming related commercial activities. This involves all the steps required to send agricultural products or goods to the required Market, as we know agribusiness issues start primary from Production and then followed by Processing, Transportation and Distribution up to the finally step of Consumption.

Agribusiness include all activities within the agricultural food and natural resources industry involved in the production of food and fibre. Individual agribusinesses may sell items to farmers for production: provide services to other agricultural businesses: or be engaged in the Marketing, transportation, processing, and distribution of agricultural products or commodities.

DEFINIATIONS OF THE TERMS:

Agri Services – is the activities of value to the user or buyer. The activities are an intangible product.

Marketing – providing the products and services that people want, when and where they want them.

Agribusiness process inputs into outputs – An input is a resource used in production and an output is a result of the production process after processing the inputs.

Production – Is an act of making products such as goods and services.

Agribusiness provides people with food, clothing, and shelter. It also provides jobs for millions of people in science, research, engineering, education, advertisement, government agencies, trade organizations, and community organisations.

Agribusiness can be performed by both small farmers and large farmers. This is important component of the economy in the country because it contribute the huge amount to the national GDP. The agricultural sector is fundamental to the economy of developing countries especially in Tanzania.

According to the economics data included in the National Data of Tanzania Mainland of 2013-2019 by the National Bureau of Statistics at the current market price, the agriculture sector contributes 29.1 percent of the national GDP.

In November 2020, President Magufuli announced that in the next five years its government will put great emphasis on key economic sectors especially agriculture.

Agribusiness sectors

Agribusiness can be divided into major sectors like:

  1. The agribusiness INPUT SECTOR. Includes all resources involved in production or producing farm commodities. I.e., includes seeds, fertilizer, machinery, fuel, and credit. Production efficiency can also be linked to improvement in these agricultural inputs.
  2. The agribusiness OUTPUT SECTOR. Include any agribusiness that effects an agricultural commodities or goods between production and the consumer. I.e., include transportation, selling, storing, and inspection. Millions of people are employed in this sector of agribusiness.
  3. The AGRI-SERVICE SECTOR includes people who research new ways of producing and marketing of Agri-products. They protect food producers and provide specialised services to all areas of agriculture. Both public and private agencies are responsible for the actions of the Agri-services sector.

Economic Impact of the Agribusiness Industry in Tanzania

  • Creation of employment opportunities both direct and indirect to agricultural activities
  • Expansion of trade and Market
  • Source of government earnings like taxes
  • Improvement of productivity performance
  • Improvement of living standards of the citizens
  • Development of Industrial sectors from raw materials obtained from agriculture
  • Poverty reduction.
  • Construction of infrastructure like roads, industries, and schools

AGRICULTURAL EXPORT IN TANZANIA.

Agribusiness is a very wide scope that also looks into the agricultural exportation.

Agricultural export means the way a country produces agricultural products for exportation or to sell them outside the country. Tanzania is the one among many countries that engage in exportation of Agri-products to other countries. Examples of other countries are; Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Mozambique, Congo, Zambia, Burundi, India, United of Arab Emirates, and China.

Tanzania’s major export are of agricultural communities such as Coffee, Cotton, Tobacco, Cashewnuts, Tea, Cloves, Sisal, and Maize. Additionally, some farmers raise livestock exports including cattles, goats, sheep, pigs, and chickens as well as small numbers of turkeys, ducks, rabbits, donkeys, and horses.

Most common foods and cash crops in Tanzania are maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, bananas, sorghum, and sugar canes.

Agriculture is a source of food, industrial raw materials, and even foreign exchange earnings from the countries that Tanzania exports the agricultural products or commodities. Agriculture is a critical economic sector representing 29.1 percent of the National GDP and almost three quarters of the productive workforce and more than 30 percent of export earnings. Agricultural export have been growing at about 6 percent per year while food crops have been growing about 4 percent per year.

Importance’s of Agricultural exports in Tanzania Economy:

  • Employment opportunities both direct and indirect
  • Provide taxes to support government services
  • Create International relationships
  • Market expansions and Trade growth like forex markets
  • Improve productivity for the farmers

SUSTAINABLE FISHING AND OVERFISHING

By Rajabu Juma Rajabu – Art in Tanzania internship

SUSTAINABLE FISHING

The overexploitation of the Lake, Rivers, Seas, and ocean is leaving them without fish. This is confirmed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) in one of its latest reports. It calls for sustainable fishing model to ensure the survival of species and fishing activities. Sustainable Fishing contributes to protecting marine fauna and conserving the Oceans and Seas.

Sustainable fishing is one that is harvested at a sustainable rate where the fish populations does not decline overtime because of fishing practices. The sustainability in Fisheries combines theoretical discipline  such as the population dynamics of fisheries, with practical strategies such as avoiding overfishing through techniques such as individual fishing quotas, curtailing destructive and illegal fishing practices by lobbying for appropriate laws and policies, setting up protected areas, restoring collapsed fisheries, incorporating all externalities involved in harvesting marine ecosystems into fishery economies, educating stakeholders and the wider public, and developing independent certification programs.

Sustainable Fishing means leaving enough fish in the ocean, respecting habitats and ensuring people who depend on fishing can maintain their livelihoods. As also to ensure the fish harvesting is not fully exploited by keeping fish stock remains for future generations.

SUSTAINABLE FISHING PRACTICES:

There are ways to fish sustainably, allowing us to enjoy seafood while ensuring that populations remain for the future. In many indigenous cultures people have fished sustainably for thousands of years. Today’s sustainable fishing practices reflect some lessons learned from these cultures.

Due to issues such as overfishing global fish stocks are in trouble today. It has been estimated that approximately 70% of Fisheries worldwide have been over exploited or have already collapsed. So, what can we do to remedy this challenging situation and help our global fish stocks rebound?

We can remedy this challenge by using sustainable practices that you can use when you fish at your favourite local fishing holes. These include:

  1. Hook and lining (Pole Catching). This fishing technique involves using a fishing pole that have one line and several hooks. This allows fishermen to quickly release bycatch.
  2. Harpooning: Fishermen use hand thrown harpoons or barbs that are fired from a gun to catch large fish like Swordfish with very little bycatch.
  3. Traps: This fishing technique involves guiding fish into boxed or reef nets placed near the water surface that allows the fish to be tipped into a holding tank. Wire mesh traps that lie on the bottom can also be used sustainably if they are not dragged a long the ocean floor.
  4. Longlining: This technique uses a very long central fishing line that has many smaller lines of baited hooks attached to it. If these longlines are placed deep in the water and if special circle hooks are used, they greatly reduce the incident of bycatch.
  5. Gillnetting/ Drifting: A massive curtain of net that is suspended using floats or anchored using weights. The netting is essentially invisible so fish swim into the net and get their gills caught.
  6. Trawling: Think about a huge net being dragged behind a boat. The boat is hoping to catch large schools of fish within the net and tire them out forcing them into the back of the net. This practice can be done on the bottom of the ocean or in mid water.

  • Trolling. You have probably seen this one along coastline where a boat has multiple lines being dragged behind a boat. This is a sustainable approach to open water fishing because soon after being caught fish are brought to the boat and released without much stress as other methods. It has minimal bycatch and sustainably approach.

ADVANTAGES OF SUSTAINABLE FISHING:

Sustainable fishing is a more artisanal and small-scale method with social, economic, and environmental benefits, some of which are based by FAO code of conduct for responsible fisheries some of these are summarized below:

  • Protect Marine Fauna.

Sustainable fishing respect marine ecosystems and adapt to the reproductive rate of fish to maintain a balance and ensure the survival of all species. Fishing must be at a level that ensures it can continue indefinitely and fish populations can remain productive and healthy.

  • Avoid waste

In sustainable fishing the bycatch is used for example to make fish meal to minimize food waste. Fishing activity must be managed carefully so that other species and habitat within the ecosystem remain healthy.

  • Contribute to food security.

Sustainable small-scale Fisheries account for about 66% of all catches destined directly for human consumption so due to this it enables to protect the full exploitation of fish resources.

  • Reduce pollution.

Sustainable fishing generates less waste minimize energy consumption and reduce the use of chemicals that damage the ozone layer and the whole fish ecosystem.

  • Certifies the sustainability of the catches.

International standards such as the MSC (Marine stewardship council ) standard determine whether a fishery is sustainable and is being well managed MSC certified Fisheries must comply with relevant laws and be able to adapt to changing environmental circumstances.

OVERFISHING;

Catching so many fish at a time can result in an immediate pay off for fishers. Fishing with this consistency leads to few fish of each species left in the sea or ocean. If fish population is small, it cannot be easily replenished through reproduction. Taking wildlife from sea faster than population can reproduce and keep up with is known as overfishing.

OVERFISHING: Is catching too many fish at once so the breeding population becomes too depleted to recover. Overfishing often goes hand in hand with wasteful types of commercial fishing that haul in massive amounts of unwanted fish or other animals which are then discarded.

CAUSE OF OVERFISHING:

  1. Poor Fisheries Management. This happens when the fisheries organisations are not stable on formulating and monitoring the rules and regulations for fishing practices. With this kind of situation, it will enable fisheries with the freedom to harvest at their maximum ability.
  2. Unsustainable fishing. Means  to catch or harvest fish without considering the needs for the future generations, like the current generation, exploiting fish stocks for their own needs only and not considering the others.
  3. Illegal and Unregulated Fishing activities. This happens when fishers harvest fish populations illegally without any recorded reports for the government. In addition, the fishers are harvesting resources like open access area due to government and Fisheries regulations being weak.
  4. Bycatch. The incident of catching non targeted species such as dolphins, Marine turtles and seabirds also resulted to overfishing because those untreated species may be depleting and destroying their reproduction.
  • Overcapacity. When the fishing vessels of all sizes are entering in water bodies such as ocean or seas many with increasing capacity and efficiency to catch and carry out more fish will result to overfishing. Because the vessels have ability to harvest fish more than the stock available in their habitat.

IMPACT OR EFFECTS OF OVERFISHING:

  • Ghost fishing.

This is occurring when lost or discarded fishing gear that is no longer under a fisherman control continues to trap and kill fish, crustaceans, marine mammals, sea turtles, and sea birds. Derelict fishing nets and traps can continue to ghost fish for years once they are lost under the water surface or depleted.

  • Fish depletion.

Overfishing can occur in waters bodies of any size such as lake, sea, ponds, rivers or oceans and can result to resources or stocks to be depleted, reduction in biological growth rates, and low biomass levels. Which leads to fish populations to be depleted or full exploited.

  • Ecosystem destruction.

Excessive overfishing in water bodies will result to destruction of some marine ecosystems like fish habitat near shorelines as well as in the deep sea, and destruction of fish reproduction. When more fish are taken out of the ocean or sea it creates an imbalance that can erode the food web and lead to losses of other important marine life including vulnerable species like sea turtles and corals.

  • Decreasing food and economic security.

Demand for fish continues to increase around the world and that means more business and jobs are dependent on dwindling stocks. When fish disappears so do jobs and coastal economies are drive over exploitation and environmental degradation.

SOLUTIONS OF OVERFISHING

  • Catching control

Thereare still little control countries have with their fisherman. There needs to be control so the Fisheries know what catch an endangered species of fish is or not. The control could be done before and after the fishing, so the controller could see the catch.

  • Protect some Marine areas.

We haveto know where the real habitats of some endangered fish species are and protect the area. By protecting these areas fisheries will not be allowed to fish in those areas . The protection of some marine areas we will help the water ecosystem recovery by giving the time for them to recover.

  • Fish farming.

The other way we could be done to increases fish stocks or populations without harming the water ecosystems is by farming the fish (Aquaculture) . We create another small ecosystem that will not hamper another ecosystem. By feeding and taking care of our fish, they will breed and creates more fish stocks.

  • Fishing licence.

This is an act of providing fishing license to the fishermen, just like a licence for the owner of the gears and licenses for those who practice fishing. This will help  monitor the fishers who harvested resources illegally without any permission and make easily managed overfishing.

  • Public education provided.

The government must use their Fisheries extension to provide the knowledge to fisherman on how maximum sustainable yield is important and practise to keep reproduction of fish stocks continuous for future generations.

  • Seasonal fishing. The government should implement rules and regulations for fishing to be conducted at a specific period of time. This will help by giving fish stocks more time to reproduce and grow at a healthy state and remedy the fish depletion problem to the maximum.

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR IN TANZANIA

By Rosemary David – Art in Tanzania internship

Child labour or child labor refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful. Such exploitation is prohibited by legislation worldwide, although these laws do not consider all work by children as child labour; exceptions include work by child artists, family duties, supervised training, and some forms of child work.

All over the world, children are being exploited through child labour. This mentally and physically dangerous work interferes with schooling and long-term development -the worst forms include slavery, trafficking, sexual exploitation and hazardous work that put children at risk of death, injury or disease.

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR IN TANZANIA

Personal Variables

Physical and mental attributes of children influence their abuse. Physical disabilities have long been associated with child abuse and neglect, as these children are often victims of discrimination, sexual exploitation and social exclusion. More often than seldom, the abused or the victims of abuse do not report such cases to the authority, for fear of reprisal by the abuser who may be a parent and due to ignorance.

Socio – economic Aspects

Modern socio-economic developments have diminished the traditional role and power of women. This change in status, has brought about strains in family life and decreased the value of children, resulting into more frequent occurrences of child abuse and neglect.

Social – cultural Aspects

Social-cultural aspects, play a vital role in contributing to the increasing rate of child labour in many developing countries today. Traditionally, children have been viewed as personal property and were generally expected to work. There was a maximum division of labour, where girls were expected to do all the house chores and the boys went hunting. These roles were meant to prepare the children for future adulthood, especially girls who were often subjected to early marriages when they clocked the age of puberty, while their male counterparts went to school. It is however important to note that, some of the household work is too excessive and exploitative and can be categorized under child labour.

Family Characteristics

Family characteristics have played a crucial role in the employment of children based on the type of family (polygamous and monogamous), family size and the employment of parents. Household poverty, is one of the underlying causes of child labour that affects school enrollment, as many cannot afford school fees and school materials. Child labour becomes a majority option for most families for survival, which eventually affects the academic performance of some children, who labour for fees which endangers them physically and psychologically. While it might seem obvious that, children had to fend for their families, parental consent to work, comes in the way as a major issue of maximum consideration in child employment.

Single Parenthood

Many studies indicate that, children who reported their parents as no longer staying together, or those who had lost one of their parents and in most cases drained in poverty, engaged in work. The increasing number of orphans and children raised by single parents, undoubtedly necessitated the employment of children.

Community Variables

At community level, societal transformation and challenges therein, act as a stressor on families and diminishes the capability of families to look after their children properly. The rampant slum developments, which are a manifestation of poor socio-economic conditions and overcrowding, represent a bigger challenge to the life of a child than the society itself.

 Political Factors

Political factors, refer to conditions that cause civil and national strife and unrest including wars inter alia as considered. Children migrate to bigger cities in search for help. These children sometimes go accompanied by their parents and some unaccompanied, especially orphans. War zones, serve as catchment areas for vulnerable children who end up on the streets and involve themselves in child labour for survival.

The Social Capital Theory

The social capital theory offers a beginning point in the theoretical analysis of the street children phenomenon in Tanzania. This theory draws a correlation between family structure and home-leaving. Most of street children end up being employed at small age.

THE IMPORTANCE OF MENSTRUAL HYGIENE EDUCATION TO ADOLESCENCE STAGE IN TANZANIA

By Rosemary Balyagati – Art in Tanzania internship

Menstruation (also termed period or bleeding) is the process in a woman of discharging (through the vagina) blood and other materials from the lining of the uterus at about one monthly interval, from puberty until menopause (ceasing of regular menstrual cycles), except during pregnancy. This discharging process lasts about 3-5 days.

What are the signs and symptoms of menstruation?

Beside the bleeding, other signs and symptoms of menstruation may include headache, acne, bloating, pains in the low abdomen, tiredness, mood changes, food cravings, breast soreness and diarrhea.

When does menstruation begin? When does it end?

The menstrual cycle is a hormonal driven cycle; day 1 is the first day of your period (bleeding) while day 14 is the approximate day you ovulate, if an egg is not fertilized hormone levels eventually drop and at about day 25 the egg begins to dissolve, and the cycle begins again with the period at about day 30. Menstruation begins day 1 and normally ends days 3-5 of the menstrual cycle.

The average age for a girl to get her first period in the range of age is about 8 to 15 years old. Women usually have periods until about ages 45 to 55.

So at this average age of her first period is the time for menstrual hygienic education has to be given to girls.

Importance of menstrual hygienic education at adolescences stage.

Menstruation is a basic right for women and girls around the world, in many countries there are huge barriers to Menstrual Hygienic education for girls living in poverty. Menstrual hygienic education is essential in ensuring girls get the support they need on their periods and to able to ask questions about menstrual challenges. Menstrual hygienic education is a step towards removing shame from talking about periods for many girls in countries like Tanzania.

Menstruation is seen as taboo in Tanzania; therefore girls feel uncomfortable talking to family, peers and teachers, let alone attending school during their cycle. Most girls during their menstrual period experience stigmatization, this excludes girls from learning about their own bodies and from opportunities to learn about hygiene and use of sanitary products.

Lack of sexual education in schools, particularly in Tanzania, means that boys add to the stigma around periods. Girls are embarrassed by comments made by boys who do not understand menstruation. Menstrual hygienic Education is the key for both male and female students to aid in eradicating period poverty.

Menstrual hygienic education breaks down the barriers faced by girls in Tanzania and many other developing countries. Cultural barriers often stand in the way of providing girls with knowledge and ability to manage their periods, therefore menstrual education provides an open space to break down taboos. By normalizing menstrual education schools will become better equipped with period-friendly toilets and sexual education classes that will benefit all students.