The value of using Gross Domestic Happiness (GDH) in a country (Tanzania)

James Mathew Mgaya – Art in Tanzania internship

To many Gross Domestic Happiness (GDH)/ Gross National Happiness (GNH) is new terminology but it bears most important value to the countries. Gross Happiness (GNH) is a measurement of the collective happiness in a nation.  The king of the Himalayan country of Bhutan introduced Gross National Happiness (GNH) in the 1970s as a measure of economic and moral progress as an alternative to Gross Domestic Product. The kingdom of Bhutan’s first legal code, written at the time of unification in 1729, stated that “if the government cannot create happiness for its people, there is no purpose for the government.”. GNH has nine domain pillars of measurement which currently work internationally. These pillars provide the foundation for the happiness, which is manifested into the nine domains of GNH: psychological well-being, standard of living, good governance, health, community vitality, cultural diversity, time use, and ecological resilience. In short, the country prefers people than self-governed interests by living with peace and harmony towards its citizens.

The value of GNH?

Encourage investment; a country with good Gross Domestic Happiness mean will attract more foreign direct investment (FDI) which will contribute to GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the certain country. More FDI means more foreign investors will start their business in Tanzania and increase our national revenue. In addition, it also encourages entrepreneurship and establishment of new companies and enterprises owned by local resident (Tanzanians).

Valuation of currency; increase of value of the currency like Tanzanian shillings depend on interest rate, exports and imports , the purchasing power of currency in internationally, and foreign exchange reserves (the amount of currency held by foreign governments). Simply, the value of currency increases according to its circulation money within international borders by good diplomatic relations via international trade/financing/business. GDH can give a good standard of living. This means there will more available markets, purchasing power of consumer, and good money circulation.

Good diplomatic relation internationally; GNH gives good governance and psychological well-being. This leads to governments that can have good relationships to neighbouring countries and international collaborations economically, politically, and socially. Psychological wellbeing means, through its resource’s government can ensure life satisfactory in some degree of its services, creating peace and harmony among the citizens. Mentally stable countries bring relief to nearby countries and allow friendship due to available labour forces, no political unrest which attracts more investments to multinational companies and international relationship.

Increase of production nationally; GDH gives the government opportunity to build into its public policy decisions like good governance and sustainable development This is when government focus is on public good, boosting their citizen economy and infrastructures like in Tanzania’s strategic cities projects which gives formal and informal employment to the citizens. Building transportations means for the citizen to increase production from the producers towards the consumers, availability of water and electricity to the rural areas stimulating production and leading to urbanisation of rural areas which increases the connectivity between factories and available raw material.

Increase of national income; for citizens to enjoy, their government the needs sustainable income. For example, in Tanzania they use strategic projects to build infrastructure of public goods like roads, railways, bridges, aviation, and marine transports. This is life satisfactory to the citizens by means of transportation, bringing good income good to government and individuals. It creates formal and informal employment to the citizens while simultaneously creating income through toll bridges,  like Kigamboni, Dar es Salaam. Air Tanzania can create national income, and marine transport in lake zones create employment and national income. If citizens are happy with their government, it means no political unrest and its national income will thrive.

The verdict

There so much to talk about the Gross Domestic Happiness and the things can offer if considered. It is an alternative to Gross Domestic Product, which rather focuses strictly on quantitative economic measures. Gross National Happiness considers an evolving mix of quality-of-life factors. The centre provides an overview of national performance across these pillars, providing the foundation for the happiness, which is shown in the nine domains of GNH: psychological well-being, standard of living, good governance, health, education, community vitality, cultural diversity, time use, and ecological resilience.

The common issues for clean drinking water availability in the Eastern Africa

By Ekaterina Kilima – Art in Tanzania internship

The shortage of freshwater resources is considered a global problem which affects many parts of the world, including the Eastern African countries. It is often wrongly believed that, because the majority of the Earth’s surface is covered with water, the availability of clean drinking water for humans is abundant. In reality, only 3% of the global water is considered freshwater suitable for drinking (WWF). Therefore, there is a high need for a well-balanced management of the available water resources.

One of the main issues for high water demand in the Eastern Africa is the ongoing population growth and urbanization, which in fact increases the standards of living and requires more water per capita. For example, urban population in Tanzania has increased by 7.2 million people between 2005 and 2015 but the water sector bodies fail to respond adequately to these changes (GIZ 2018). It may sound like a paradox that, while the Eastern African states hold the largest amount of on ground water reservoirs on the continent, with Lake Victoria being the second largest freshwater lake in the world, at least half of the population is vulnerable to the water scarcity problem. Nonetheless, there are several socio-economic and socio-political causes which enhance the problem of drinking water availability.

Lake Victoria

One of these causes is an increasing water demand in agriculture which receives water for irrigation from the nearby freshwater resources such as rivers and lakes. Some amount of freshwater from the wetlands is being lost in the process because of inefficient irrigation methods. Due to the increasing population, the conflict between the water needs of citizens and the water needs of farming is going to become more explicit. Moreover, surface water reserves often get polluted because of the closely located industrial activities, for example oil extraction or transportation. Water contamination can also happen due to nutrient and wastewater transportation from urban and rural areas which is closely connected to poor sanitation practices. After getting polluted, this water cannot be used in households unless using multi-stage water filters.

Perhaps, one of the most complex causes for freshwater scarcity for the Eastern Africa is the trans-boundary ownership of the water sources as well as their weak management. Most countries in the Eastern Africa must share water resources with each other which often leads to uneven distribution of the fresh water (IJWRD 2016). Therefore, the problem is not in the lack of water reservoirs but in the unfair distribution and poor management. The inaccuracy of the water management involves inadequate implementation of the environmental law, corruption of interests among authorities but also lack of problem-specific knowledge and funds.

There is no universal list of solutions that would help all the countries in the Eastern Africa. The perfect mix of solutions for each country would depend on the criteria such as population, climate, level of corruption, economic and political stability, and others. However, there are some suggestions that are critical for each country. One, it is important to support local farmers in their transition to more efficient irrigation practices which would allow more water to be available for drinking and household needs. Second, governments should increase the global awareness on the positive changes in the region to attract more foreign investments. Governments should work closely with international organizations and NGOs to develop more sustainable projects to provide equitable access to clean drinking water. Third, it is critical to legally protect African wetlands from human-led contamination and avoid any disturbance of the ecosystem.

The Economic Consequences of Climate Change in Tanzania

Romaisa Hussain – Art in Tanzania Internship

Keywords: sustainability, climate change, environment, economic growth

Climate change has emerged as a potentially existential threat all across the globe that poses a serious risk to the survival of mankind and sustainable development. Over the last few decades, the world has witnessed changes in weather patterns as a result of global warming and human-caused greenhouse gas emissions. Based on a numerous lines of evidence, it is now more certain than ever that climate change is a threat multiplier that can amplify the effects of existing dangers. These threats include human security, scarcity of natural resources, environmental degradation, and poor economic growth.

The United Nations General Assembly set up the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 which serve as a blueprint for a sustainable future to be achieved by 2030. The 13th Sustainable Development Goal of the United Nations talks about Climate Action. The goal discusses the critical impact of climate change and encourages developing countries to move towards low-carbon emission in the environment. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) is a separate organisation working within the UN that deals with climate change and other environmental issues. The UN aims to adapt to low carbon development especially in the vulnerable regions that contribute towards climate action and sustainable natural resource management through collective action. Most of the states in the world are affected by climate change with East Africa being one of the most affected regions.

Tanzania is suffering the brunt of the consequences of climate change in East Africa. The agricultural-based economy of Tanzania has become vulnerable to the extreme climatic conditions. The majority of the population is located in the rural areas which heavily relies on agriculture and farming that is threatened by rising temperatures, droughts, and extreme rainfalls. The country is home to the world’s largest river system, the River Tanzanian. Despite immense water resources, Tanzania struggles with a shortage of water both spatially and temporally, which is worsened by the climate on its nine main river basins. In the recent years, there has been a severe decline in the water level in Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Jipe, as well as a decrease in the water level of about 7 kilometers in Lake Rukwa during the last fifty years. These are connected with climate change and are endangering towards socio-economic activities. The effect also puts the country’s hydropower system at risk. Furthermore, diseases such as diarrhea and malaria remain one of the prime causes of casualties in the country especially in the urban settlements consisting of poor infrastructure prone to flooding and increased temperatures. 

Tanzania’s economy relies on its natural and environmental resources where a good number of people depend on fisheries for their income which are at risk from rising sea waters and freshwater temperatures. Tourism is another aspect that has the potential to boost the economy of Tanzania as the country has a tropical climate and is home to wildlife, forests, beaches, mountains, rivers, lakes, and minerals. The attractions are found in abundance in national and marine parks, historical and cultural sites, and recreational sites. Currently, tourism generates 17.5 per cent of GDP and 25 per cent of export revenues, making it an important economic sector. Due the unpredictability of climate it is endangering the ecosystem services on which tourism relies. For example, the Serengeti National Park has been famous tourism spot for the wildlife migration for decades, contributing significantly to Tanzania’s economy and serves as a key source of employment. There is a growing fear that the climate has shifted dramatically, potentially affecting wildlife tourism. 

Threats to the sustainability of the natural resources and environmental degradation remain an issue in Tanzania such as the untimely harvesting and usage of natural resources, unsupervised cultivation process, and trespassing on water sources. Collectively, these can seriously affect the sustainable development goals of a country. Due to the unsustainable consumption of resources, there can be problems in the production of sources that may affect livelihoods. In addition to that, they can lead to the deficiency of food which could eventually lead to poverty. An increase in the population and high reliance on agriculture becomes rather burdensome on the environment and its natural resources which contribute negatively to climate change and water-deficient regions. 

One of the leading contributing factors to the environmental degradation is the unsustainable management of land and watershed. Many challenges are still needed to be tackled to reduce this issue including unexpected growth of human settlements, wildlife hunting, illegal farming and livestock, uncontrollable bushfires, weak inter-sectoral association, and stakeholder linkages. This may lead towards the social and economic development of the country as well as reduce poverty. The Tanzanian Government has marked the water-oriented issues as a major factor that has affected the environment. This has led to the implementation of national policies and necessary plans and strategies needed to tackle it. The visibility of climatic changes in Tanzania is increased by 60% which are seen in the form of a decrease in water sources, land degradation and the reduction in agricultural land. The Government also tends to focus on carbon emission with the protection of ecosystems and biodiversity, the saving of wildlife to abolish the hunting system as a means of income, reducing vehicle usage and improving urban planning in the country to promote urbanization. It also placed environmental sections under the sector ministries to ensure and monitor the environmental issues as well as raising awareness amongst the community. The Government also needs to guarantee that efforts are being made in terms of the development of the environment and climate change in national as well as subnational plans. 

The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) is one among many partners of the Government of Tanzania that has aided in the development of the environment and contributed to measures regarding natural resources and climate change issues. The UNDP encourages the Government and respective communities in terms of sustaining the environment and contributing to the reversal of environmental degradation. As long as the correct policies are implemented, the chances for preserving the ecosystems in terms of food, energy, wood i.e., timber, clean water, consistent climate etc. are possible. Over the past few years, Tanzania has recently experienced high growth rates of about 7.4%.

The impact of climate change has had a huge effect on the incomes of the people in Tanzania. It has had a severe impact on the economy, agriculture, natural resources, and livelihoods of people which exposes the vulnerable part of the country. It is, to say the least, that the Government of Tanzania is to be respected for the progress it has made regarding the development and exercising of policies and strategies to prevent degradation and the protection of the environment. The Government tends to cater to the environmental needs of the country and maintain its natural resources as a means of saving economic and social development. This would mean effectively establishing immediate measures to improve the damages caused. The Government also needs to guarantee that efforts are being made in terms of the development of the environment and climate change in national as well as subnational plans.

References

Kijazi, A. L. (2019). The Contribution of the Global Framework for Climate Services Adaptation Programme in Africa (GFCS APA) in National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Process for Tanzania. doi:10.4236/acs.2019.94040

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. (n.d.). Current and future challenges and opportunities in Tanzania. Retrieved from https://um.dk/en/danida-en/strategies%20and%20priorities/country-policies/tanzania/current-and-future-challenges-and-opportunities-in-tanzania/

Ordu, E. I. (2021, April 7). Climate adaptation and the great reset for Africa. Retrieved from Brookings: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2021/04/07/climate-adaptation-and-the-great-reset-for-africa/

UNDP. (2016-2021). ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY, CLIMATE CHANGE AND RESILIENCE PILLAR, STRATEGY PAPER.

UNDP Annual Report 2020. (2020). Goal 13 CLIMATE ACTION. Retrieved from UNDP Organization: https://www.undp.org/sustainable-development-goals#climate-action

United Nations. (n.d.). Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development. Retrieved from Sustainable Deevelopment Goals: https://sdgs.un.org/goals

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA. (2007). NATIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMME OF ACTION (NAPA). Division of Environment.

USAID From the American People. (2020). Tanzania. Retrieved from climate links: https://www.climatelinks.org/countries/tanzania

Relations between Tanzania and China could be central for future African ecological transition

By Alessandro Deligios – Art in Tanzania internship


In these last year’s China is exploiting her economic power to take more influence in geopolitical arena. According with the future model of geo-economic competition, China firstly seems try to become the leader State in Asia, secondly is taking more power in many areas of the word. One of the strategies to extend her influence is the Belt & Road Initiative (BRI), with which, through financing project in different word areas, China is able to deeply link the economy of various countries to her one and so create a global economic network that have Chinese economic and financial system as reference – the so-called Beijing consensus.
In particular China is focusing on East Africa and in this region Tanzania-China relationship is a key for Beijing to get a strategic economic position: in 2013 the Tanzanian ex-President Jakaya Kikwete signed an agreement for allow China to invest in the financing of Bagamoyo port project, around which it should have place a special economic zone, that expected China to have especial condition for example for water and energy provisions and the security that Tanzania wouldn’t have financing another competitor port. But in January 2016 the project has been annulled by the President John Magufuli because the agreement for him was like sell Tanzania to Chinese investors.


In climate discussion we know that African countries are the most affected by the problem brought by climate changes, especially by the global warming: the continent probably will be exposed to longer periods of drought and water provision will be always more difficult. About this we also know that China is one of the countries which release the highest levels of greenhouse gases. Despite the attempts of Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997 and started in 2005, and of Paris Agreement in 2016, emissions have not yet been limited in satisfactorily way. Developed countries have the responsibility to help the development in ecological transition and the GEF (Global Environment Facility) is a program managed by the UN and the Word Bank that give financing to the developing countries for they can get positive results related to four areas: climate changes, desertification, international water pollution and biodiversity. Good results are got in third and fourth areas, buty not in the first two.


At the start of April 2021, the First Minister Geoffrey Mwambe said that Tanzania would be ready for a new agreement about Bagamoyo port project if terms will be changed: in this Tanzania-China relations can be central for the ecological transition of all the Africa. Tanzania could advance conditions for the project according with UN 2030 Agenda sustainability goals, cooperating with others African countries for doing the same with others Chinese investments in Africa, when possible. With high chance China is so interested in extending her economic influence in Africa to get more global diplomatic weight to be disposed to accept conditions of sustainability for her projects. It could be one of the few ways to do that China – but not only, also other countries that would like investing in Africa – massively reduce her emissions. And this will be more powerful based on how many countries will collaborate: it should be a priority because fast growing economies have to develop in sustainable way and must do pressure on developed countries, especially on China in that global big player that is trying to extend own power.


Sources:

  • (About climate issue and international relations)
    J. Grieco, G. J. Ikenberry, M. Mastanduno, Introduzione alle relazioni internazionali, UTET, 2017
  • (About Bagamoyo port project)
    D, Ayemba, Bagamoyo port project timeline and all you need to know, 15 April 2021, on Construction Review Online
  • P. Mittal, Tanzanian Bagamoyo Port Project Story, 16 September 2020, on Belt and Road News.
  • A. D’Amaro, Un ponte tra Cina e Africa: il porto di Bagamoyo, Tanzania, 8 September 2020, on Lo Spiegone.

PROBLEMS THE AFRICAN YOUTH FACE

By Justina Ochieng – Art in Tanzania internship

According to the world economic forum’s report, the African youth population is rapidly growing and by 2050 it will form almost 60% of all the world’s youth population. This rapid growth has also bringing with it a lot of challenges facing the youths. Unemployment has been ranked top of a list of challenges faced by Africa’s youth today. The biggest challenge the youth face is that they’re often incapable of finding a productive place within society – either within the mainstream education system or satisfactory employment.

The list below also highlights some other challenges faced by youth: unemployment, poor education system, drugs and substance abuse, pressures of materialism, lack of affordable housing, negative stereotyping, pressures of 24-hour social networking, crime.

Unemployment

The biggest problem facing Africa’s youth is unemployment. The youth constitutes the highest population in Africa, and they are the most vulnerable, less privileged, and unattended to in society. Many young people have become victims of negativity and unproductiveness because they are neither schooling nor engaging in economic activities. There is a common saying: “an idle mind is the devil’s workshop.” This is the reality behind many young people getting into the streets, and involving themselves in robbery, drug/substance abuse, violence etc. The lack of adequate youth employment has made them dangerous to society, leaving them with no alternative but to engage in terrible acts that will give them money to support their bad habits. In order to eradicate and/or reduce the high unemployment rate among the youth, the government, CSOs, NGOs, youth organizations etc. must help get the youth engaged in profitable activities such as educational programs, vocational and entrepreneurial skill training to make them self-reliant. The opportunity WAYLead is providing, to positively impact and educate the youth in leadership, would advance growth as participants would give back to their respective communities. There is a need to invest in youth empowerment programs and accelerate awareness to create the enabling environment for employment.

Lack of proper information

The youth constitute a greater part of the population in most African countries. These young people live in a rapidly changing world, faced with many pressures. One of biggest problem among Africa’s youth, in my opinion, is the lack of the development of one’s mind. Young people, on the whole, experience disquieting irritations, perplexities and adjustment problems as a result of rapid social change. There is an increase in social vices among the youth leading to appalling incidences. I believe in order for such social vices and corrupt acts to be curbed, one’s mind must be developed. Bob Marley once said “None but ourselves can free our minds” The current socio-economic conditions in Africa block the progress of the African youth. Early marriages complicate matters for the youth. Ignorance, illiteracy, and insufficient knowledge about planned parenthood have resulted in an increase early childbearing. Once our minds are well developed, our way of life would change for the better.

Poor education system

One of the biggest problem facing Africa’s youth is our educational system, coupled with the lack of good employment opportunities that the educational curriculum prepares the graduates for. Africa’s youth find themselves stuck in a cycle of completing school and sitting at home without jobs mainly because our educational systems mainly  prepare us for non-existent white collar jobs. The very few enterprising youth who venture into entrepreneurship also find themselves lacking support in training and funding.

Time management

Stress & Time Management. Managing the pressure to succeed in every area of life and finding time to do it all seems to be one of the biggest challenges facing the youth today. Young people are expected to be successful, yet few of them are aware of effective time management.

Drugs and substance abuse

Drugs has become one the core problems facing youths. Out of every ten young people between the age of 16-35 years, seven have once in their lifetime use drugs or still using drugs. Many critics claim that the reason for this may be the stress and depression facing most of them due to unemployment, low self-esteem and worries about their futures. Drugs and substance abuse is mostly rampant along the coastal cities and towns of East Africa (Mombasa and Dar es Salaam).

Crime

Due to the hard economic times we are facing right now and the fact that most the African population live under a dollar a day, most of the youth have turned to crime to meet their economic needs. Robbery, stealing, burglary prostitution are among the top order of the day. Due to involvement these outlawed activities in most African countries, most the victims have found themselves lynched, gun down or in prison. Everywhere across Africa, especially in the drug infested regions, very young people lose their lives to crime and crime-related activities. Prostitution is also a problem. Many young women have turned to prostitution to make ends meet. Most cities at night are flocked by young girls selling off their bodies for a dime. Side effects being most of them end up contracting very deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS. Also there is the issue of early marriage. Very young girls who are supposed to be in school are sold of to marriages because their guardians are interested in the dowry they get in return. Because of that, most girls end up not continuing their education or making their dreams come true.

Female genital mutilation

Female genital mutilation is still one of the great challenges facing young Africans especially in the underdeveloped places. Some tribes in East Africa still insist in this act as a right of passage into womanhood. Very innocent girls are subjected to this brutal act against their own will. In worst scenarios some girls end up contracting diseases like HIV/AIDS since you may find that a single scalpel is used to mutilate a bunch of girls without any proper sterilisation of any kind. Also some girls end up with wounds that affect their sexual life forever.

Social media peer pressure

Peer pressure has also pose as a challenge. Most youth are struggling to fit in and because of that they go extra mile to prove that they are worthy of recognition and praises from their peers. Most have taken the social media thing so far; faking lifestyles even ending up in great debts in the name of appeasing their fellows on Instagram, Facebook and WhatsApp. People have refused to face their on realities and where they stand economically, instead they end up imitating celebrities and other prominent people by the lifestyles they lead. Side effects; some have turned to crime to make ends meet. But we are advised as youth to choose wisely because the streets offer everything, from what’s best for us to what ruins us. So before impressing anyone we should think if there is anything positive we’ve gained from the whole experience.

What is been done to tackle these problems

Thanks to the governments and other concerned parties from the private sectors, a lot is being put in place to handle these situations. For example there are a lot of NGOs advocating the eradication of FGM, creation of awareness of drugs and substance abuse, HIV/AIDS and other chronic problems in the African continent. Due to the rapidly growing unemployment, most youth have turned to entrepreneurship and other creativities to earn a living. New business formation are being seen popping up each  day. This has drastically reduced the unemployment and the idleness that comes with it.

Conclusions

A lot has been done to tackle the problems facing the African youth and still much is yet to be done. It is everyone’s responsibility to play part in bringing the change we want. As the Swahili saying that goes ‘umoja ni nguvu utangamano ni udhaifu’, we need to unite in all the levels of our societies to make a positive impact. With the little every has whether is information, and ides or something tangible will make a difference if used for the right course. We should remember that if we do this kind-heartly without expecting anything in return, the benefits will be ours and our children’s children. Karma says that we get what we give. Its my hope this information will inspire you to be part of this great expedition to create a new Africa that we want and we will be proud of and also clear our name from all the stigmatization and misconception we are facing from the outside world.

Clean drinking water condition in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). General Overview

By Ekaterina Kilima – Art in Tanzania internship

According to the World Bank (2019), Ethiopia is one of the priority African countries for the Global Water Security & Sanitation Partnership (GWSP) programs. In other words, a lot of money is being invested in Ethiopia to improve its water and sanitation systems. Currently, Addis Ababa is considered a region with very safe drinking water (85 % of water is low risk) compared to other regions of Ethiopia (only 7% of water is low risk in particular places) (CSAE 2017). Access to clean drinking water is a big inequality issue as the region’s poorest people barely have access to high quality water unlike the richest group.

A recent epidemiological study conducted by Wolde et al. (2020) suggested that the clean water in Addis Ababa might be exposed to bacteria and parasites more during the wet season (January-October) due to high rainfall. The results of the study have shown that, although mostly insignificant, slight contamination was found in the water samples from public taps and reservoirs (around 6% each). Traces of fecal coliforms and total coliforms were found in those samples. The highest contamination results were observed in the water samples from springs and wells (76% and 79% contamination respectively). The number of fecal coliforms was decreasing with every week of the season while the number of total coliforms was increasing. Moreover, some samples were collected from Akaki, Gefersa, and Lege Dadi water plants but the parasitological results for them were negative. Wolde et al (2020) also note that the quality of the water might depend on the condition of the water supply reservoirs. For example, most reservoirs in Addis Ababa are well maintained. However, most springs are often exposed to heavy rain, flood, and microorganism contamination. It is important to check the serviceability of the public and private taps in a timely manner and to prevent them from being tied with cloths, ropes, and plastic tubes as it can enhance the contamination. This statement can also be proved by another study conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia in 2017. It was found that nearly 95% of households that receive low-risk water, get it from improved high-quality sources. The most common source of clean drinking water was the piped water on premises while the most dangerous was unprotected springs and surface water (CSAE 2017).

Some key lessons to remember are that the highest quality water is usually consumed in urban areas rather than rural and this water comes from secured and improved sources such as public pipes or kiosks. Bottled water is also a good source of high-quality water but is not consumed by many people. It is important to maintain the quality of the water reservoirs and make necessary repairments to ensure that people get good quality water. One of the biggest social issues regarding water supply is inequality because Addis Ababa poorest areas still do not have access to clean water.

Sources:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339804186_Quality_and_safety_of_municipal_drinking_water_in_Addis_Ababa_City_Ethiopia

https://washdata.org/report/drinking-water-quality-ethiopia-ess-2016

THE SCOPE OF AGRIBUSINESS AND AGRICULTURAL EXPORT IN TANZANIA.

By Rajabu Juma Rajabu – Art in Tanzania internship

THE SCOPE OF AGRIBUSINESS:

Agribusiness is a business sector encompassing farming and farming related commercial activities. It can be sometimes referred to as Commercial Agriculture.

Definition: Agribusiness is a combination of two broader things or words “Agriculture “and “Business” and refers to any business related to farming and farming related commercial activities. This involves all the steps required to send agricultural products or goods to the required Market, as we know agribusiness issues start primary from Production and then followed by Processing, Transportation and Distribution up to the finally step of Consumption.

Agribusiness include all activities within the agricultural food and natural resources industry involved in the production of food and fibre. Individual agribusinesses may sell items to farmers for production: provide services to other agricultural businesses: or be engaged in the Marketing, transportation, processing, and distribution of agricultural products or commodities.

DEFINIATIONS OF THE TERMS:

Agri Services – is the activities of value to the user or buyer. The activities are an intangible product.

Marketing – providing the products and services that people want, when and where they want them.

Agribusiness process inputs into outputs – An input is a resource used in production and an output is a result of the production process after processing the inputs.

Production – Is an act of making products such as goods and services.

Agribusiness provides people with food, clothing, and shelter. It also provides jobs for millions of people in science, research, engineering, education, advertisement, government agencies, trade organizations, and community organisations.

Agribusiness can be performed by both small farmers and large farmers. This is important component of the economy in the country because it contribute the huge amount to the national GDP. The agricultural sector is fundamental to the economy of developing countries especially in Tanzania.

According to the economics data included in the National Data of Tanzania Mainland of 2013-2019 by the National Bureau of Statistics at the current market price, the agriculture sector contributes 29.1 percent of the national GDP.

In November 2020, President Magufuli announced that in the next five years its government will put great emphasis on key economic sectors especially agriculture.

Agribusiness sectors

Agribusiness can be divided into major sectors like:

  1. The agribusiness INPUT SECTOR. Includes all resources involved in production or producing farm commodities. I.e., includes seeds, fertilizer, machinery, fuel, and credit. Production efficiency can also be linked to improvement in these agricultural inputs.
  2. The agribusiness OUTPUT SECTOR. Include any agribusiness that effects an agricultural commodities or goods between production and the consumer. I.e., include transportation, selling, storing, and inspection. Millions of people are employed in this sector of agribusiness.
  3. The AGRI-SERVICE SECTOR includes people who research new ways of producing and marketing of Agri-products. They protect food producers and provide specialised services to all areas of agriculture. Both public and private agencies are responsible for the actions of the Agri-services sector.

Economic Impact of the Agribusiness Industry in Tanzania

  • Creation of employment opportunities both direct and indirect to agricultural activities
  • Expansion of trade and Market
  • Source of government earnings like taxes
  • Improvement of productivity performance
  • Improvement of living standards of the citizens
  • Development of Industrial sectors from raw materials obtained from agriculture
  • Poverty reduction.
  • Construction of infrastructure like roads, industries, and schools

AGRICULTURAL EXPORT IN TANZANIA.

Agribusiness is a very wide scope that also looks into the agricultural exportation.

Agricultural export means the way a country produces agricultural products for exportation or to sell them outside the country. Tanzania is the one among many countries that engage in exportation of Agri-products to other countries. Examples of other countries are; Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Mozambique, Congo, Zambia, Burundi, India, United of Arab Emirates, and China.

Tanzania’s major export are of agricultural communities such as Coffee, Cotton, Tobacco, Cashewnuts, Tea, Cloves, Sisal, and Maize. Additionally, some farmers raise livestock exports including cattles, goats, sheep, pigs, and chickens as well as small numbers of turkeys, ducks, rabbits, donkeys, and horses.

Most common foods and cash crops in Tanzania are maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, bananas, sorghum, and sugar canes.

Agriculture is a source of food, industrial raw materials, and even foreign exchange earnings from the countries that Tanzania exports the agricultural products or commodities. Agriculture is a critical economic sector representing 29.1 percent of the National GDP and almost three quarters of the productive workforce and more than 30 percent of export earnings. Agricultural export have been growing at about 6 percent per year while food crops have been growing about 4 percent per year.

Importance’s of Agricultural exports in Tanzania Economy:

  • Employment opportunities both direct and indirect
  • Provide taxes to support government services
  • Create International relationships
  • Market expansions and Trade growth like forex markets
  • Improve productivity for the farmers

The economic consequences of climate change in Tanzania

by Romaisa Hussain & (Junna) – Art in Tanzania internship

Climate change has emerged as a potentially existential threat all across the globe that poses a serious risk to the survival of mankind and sustainable development. Over the last few decades, the world has witnessed changes in weather patterns as a result of global warming and human-caused greenhouse gas emissions. Based on a numerous lines of evidence, it is now more certain than ever that climate change is a threat multiplier that can amplify the effects of existing dangers. These threats include human security, scarcity of natural resources, environmental degradation, and poor economic growth.

The United Nations General Assembly set up the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 which serve as a blueprint for a sustainable future to be achieved by 2030. The 13th Sustainable Development Goal of the United Nations talks about Climate Action. The goal discusses the critical impact of climate change and encourages developing countries to move towards low-carbon emission in the environment. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is a separate organ working within the UN that deals with climate change and other environmental issues. The UN aims to adapt to low carbon development especially in the vulnerable regions that contribute towards climate action and sustainable natural resource management through collective action. Most of the states in the world are affected by climate change with East Africa being one of the most affected regions.

Tanzania is suffering the brunt of the consequences of climate change in East Africa. The agricultural-based economy of Tanzania has become vulnerable to the extreme climatic conditions. The majority of the population is located in the rural areas which heavily relies on agriculture and farming that is threatened by rising temperatures, droughts and extreme rainfalls. The country is home to the world’s largest river system, the River Tanzanian. Despite immense water resources, Tanzania struggles with a shortage of water both spatially and temporally which is worsened by the climate on its nine main river basins. In the recent years, there has been a severe decline in the water level in Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria and Lake Jipe as well as a decrease in the water level of about 7km in Lake Rukwa during the last fifty years. These are connected with climate change and are endangering towards socio-economic activities. The effect also puts the country’s hydropower system at risk. Furthermore, diseases such as diarrhea and malaria remain one of the prime causes of casualties in the country especially in the urban settlements consisting of poor infrastructure prone to flooding and increased temperatures. 

Tanzania’s economy relies on its natural and environmental resources where a good number of people depend on fisheries for their income which are at risk from rising sea waters and freshwater temperatures. Tourism is another aspect that has the potential to boost the economy of Tanzania as the country has a tropical climate and is home to wildlife, forests, beaches, mountains, rivers, lakes and minerals. The attractions are found in abundance in national and marine parks, historical and cultural sites and recreational sites. Currently, tourism generates 17.5 per cent of GDP and 25 per cent of export revenues, making it an important economic sector but climate unpredictability endangers the ecosystem services on which tourism relies. For example, the Serengeti National Park has been famous for tourism wildlife migration for decades which contributes significantly to Tanzania’s economy and serves as a key source of employment. There is a growing fear that the climate has shifted dramatically, potentially affecting wildlife tourism. 

Threats to the sustainability of the natural resources and environmental degradation remain an issue in Tanzania such as the untimely harvesting and usage of natural resources, unsupervised cultivation process, and trespassing on water sources. Collectively, these can seriously affect the sustainable development goals of a country. Due to the unsustainable consumption of resources, there can be problems in the production of sources that may affect livelihoods. In addition to that, they can lead to the deficiency of food which could eventually lead to poverty. An increase in the population and high reliance on agriculture becomes rather burdensome on the environment and its natural resources which contribute negatively to climate change and water-deficient regions. 

One of the leading factors that contributes to the environmental degradation is the unsustainable management of land and watershed. Many challenges are still needed to be tackled to reduce this issue including unexpected growth of human settlements, wildlife hunting, illegal farming and livestock, uncontrollable bushfires, weak inter-sectoral association and stakeholder linkages. This may lead towards the social and economic development of the country as well as reduce poverty. The Tanzanian Government has marked the water-oriented issues as a major factor that has affected the environment which is why it has been implemented in national policies and necessary plans and strategies needed to tackle it. The visibility of climatic changes in Tanzania is increased by 60% which are seen in the form of a decrease in water sources, land degradation and the reduction in agricultural land. The Government also tends to focus on carbon emission with the protection of ecosystems and biodiversity, the saving of wildlife to abolish the hunting system as a means of income, reducing vehicle usage and improving urban planning in the country to promote urbanization. It also placed environmental sections under the sector ministries to ensure and monitor the environmental issues as well as raising awareness amongst the community. The Government also needs to guarantee that efforts are being made in terms of the development of the environment and climate change in national as well as subnational plans. 

A National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) was developed by Tanzania’s government in 2007, as required by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. According to NAPA, the most affected areas in Tanzania that suffer from the impacts of climate change are agriculture, water, health, and energy. In 2012, Tanzania’s government devised a strategy to address the growing concern about the detrimental effects of climate change on the country’s economy and environment. Furthermore, the Government of Tanzania initiated the first phase of the Global Climate Services Framework (GFCS), held in 2014-2016, to strengthen the resilience of individuals who are most exposed to the effects of weather and climate-related disasters. On September 18, a ceremony in Dar es Salaam marked the start of the second phase from 2016-2019. It was conducted in partnership with the International Red Cross Federation and Tanzania Red Cross Society, Ministry of Health, Gender, Elderly Affairs, World Health Organization (WHO), Ministry of Agriculture, Tanzania World Food Program, and Tanzania Meteorological Agency.

The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) is one of the partners of the Government of Tanzania that has aided the development of the environment and contributed to measures regarding natural resources and climate change issues. The UNDP encourages the Government and respective communities in terms of sustaining the environment and contributing to the reversal of environmental degradation. As long as the correct policies are implemented, the chances for preserving the ecosystems in terms of food, energy, wood i.e. timber, clean water, consistent climate etc. are possible. Over the past few years, Tanzania has recently experienced high growth rates of about 7.4%.

The impact of climate change has had a huge effect on the incomes of the people in Tanzania. It has had a severe impact on the economy, agriculture, natural resources and livelihoods of people which exposes the vulnerable part of the country. It is, to say the least, the Government of Tanzania is to be respected for the progress it has made regarding the development and exercising of policies and strategies to prevent degradation and the protection of the environment. The Government tends to cater to the environmental needs of the country and maintain its natural resources as a means of saving economic and social development. This would mean effectively establishing immediate measures to improve the damages caused. The Government also needs to guarantee that efforts are being made in terms of the development of the environment and climate change in national as well as subnational plans.

Relations between Tanzania and China could be central for future African ecological transition.

By Alessandro Deligios – Art in Tanzania internship

Bagamoyo, Tanzania

In these last years China is exploiting her economic power to take more influence in geopolitical arena. According with the future model of geo-economic competition, China firstly seems try to become the leader State in Asia, secondly is taking more power in many areas of the word. One of the strategies to extend her influence is the Belt & Road Initiative (BRI), with which, through financing project in different word areas, China is able to deeply link the economy of various countries to her one and so create a global economic network that have Chinese economic and financial system as reference – the so-called Beijing consensus.

Jakaya Kikwete and Xi Jinping

In particular China is focusing on East Africa and in this region Tanzania-China relationship is a key for Beijing to get a strategic economic position: in 2013 the Tanzanian ex President Jakaya Kikwete signed an agreement for allow China to invest in the financing of Bagamoyo port project, around which it should have place a special economic zone, that expected China to have especial condition for example for water and energy provisions and the security that Tanzania wouldn’t have financing another competitor port. But in January 2016 the project has been annulled by the President John Magufuli because the agreement for him was like sell Tanzania to Chinese investors.

In climate discussion we know that African countries are the most affected by the problem brought by climate changes, especially by the global warming: the continent probably will be exposed to longer periods of drought and water provision will be always more difficult. About this we also know that China is one of the countries which release the highest levels of greenhouse gases. Despite the attempts of Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997 and started in 2005, and of Paris Agreement in 2016, emissions have not yet been limited in satisfactorily way. Developed countries have the responsibility to help the developing ones in ecological transition and the GEF (Global Environment Facility) is a program managed by the UN and the Word Bank that give financing to the developing countries for they can get positive results related to four areas: climate changes, desertification, international water pollution and biodiversity. Good results are got in third and fourth areas, but not in the first two. At the start of April 2021 the First Minister Geoffrey Mwambe said that Tanzania would be ready for a new agreement about Bagamoyo port project if terms will be changed: in this Tanzania-China relations can be central for the ecological transition of all the Africa. Tanzania could advance conditions for the project according with UN 2030 Agenda sustainability goals, cooperating with others African countries for doing the same with others Chinese investments in Africa, when possible. With high chance China is so interested in extend her economic influence in Africa to get more global diplomatic weight to be disposed to accept conditions of sustainability for her projects. It could be one of the few ways to do that China – but not only, also other countries that would like investing in Africa – massively reduce her emissions. And this will be more powerful based on how many countries will collaborate: it should be a priority because fast growing economies have to develop in sustainable way and must do pressure on developed countries, especially on China in that global big player that is trying to extend own power.

GEF logo
UN 2030 Agenda sustainable development goals

Sources

– (About climate issue and international relations)

J. Grieco, G. J. Ikenberry, M. Mastanduno, Introduzione alle relazioni internazionali, UTET, 2017

– (About Bagamoyo port project)

D, Ayemba, Bagamoyo port project timeline and all you need to know, 15 April 2021, on Construction Review Online, https://constructionreviewonline.com/project-timelines/bagamoyo-port-project-timeline-and-all-you-need-to-know/.

P. Mittal, Tanzanian Bagamoyo Port Project Story, 16 September 2020, on Belt and Road News, https://www.beltandroad.news/2020/09/16/tanzanian-bagamoyo-port-project-story/.

A. D’Amaro, Un ponte tra Cina e Africa: il porto di Bagamoyo, Tanzania, 8 September 2020, on Lo Spiegone, https://lospiegone.com/2020/09/08/un-ponte-tra-cina-e-africa-il-porto-di-bagamoyo-tanzania/ .

EFFECTS OF POLITICAL CHANGE TOWARDS FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT

JAMES MGAYA – Art in Tanzania internship

Political changes may change in regime of ruling, due to new philosophies in leadership, ruling parties, country policies, laws and rules, diplomacy, and democratic changes. While financial development is all about improving and expanding financial services and resources to boost economic growth. 

Democracy is one of the significant forces that lead governments to undertake reforms to enhance financial development, as in the period of SAP’s (structural adjustment programs) attempt to correct economic imbalances, to improve efficiency of developing in transitional economies, thereby setting the state for further development. This institutional improvement (i.e., democratisation) stimulates financial development. We all agree in the era of the Late President Benjamin Mkapa, his improvement in the institutional quality is associated with increases in financial development at least in the short run. During this era many investors were attracted leading to a rapid establishment of new companies, NGO’s, financial institution, and governmental institutions like the TRA.

Democratic transitions are typically preceded by low financial development, much work has been done to explore the relationship between institutional improvement, especially in political liberalisation and economic growth. Which is followed by a short-run boost in financial development and greater volatility of financial development.

How do democratic processes improve institutional quality and influence financial development?

By facilitating property rights protection, contract enforcement, and encouraging investment. President Samia Suluhu who insists in institutional improvement could serve as one channel in which trade openness could boost financial development and growth. Although there are positive feedback effects and interaction effects between economic and political liberalisation, institutional reform under an open economic environment could exert an additional boost to investment and economic growth.

The financial sector development plays an important part in economic growth as it can reduce the cost of acquiring information, conducting transactions, and facilitating savings mobilisation. By providing these services, the financial sector can enhance resource allocation and increase aggregate savings. Credit provided to the private sector seems to follow a path with increased influence associated with a decreased income level and seems to be important for convergence and a country’s economic growth.

How Political Climates Affect the Financial Development?

  1. A change in government often means a change in ideology for the country’s citizens, which usually means a different approach to monetary or fiscal policy, both of which especially the former, are big drivers of a currency’s value. The hope is that a new leader might make changes that boost a country’s economic growth potential or improve its financial outlook. Bureaucracy and interference in the financial service industry by the government and pricing regulations are mechanisms for financial and taxation for tax rates and incentives

Conclusion

The financial development generates a good portion of its revenue for an economy to remain stable, it needs to have a healthy financial sector and an open economic condition for more capital projects and investments. When this occurs, the financial sector benefits due to economic growth. Political factors play a significant role in determining the factors that can impact financial development and long-term profitability in a certain country or market. This allows for success in a dynamic financial industry by diversifying the systematic risks of political environments in Tanzania, but financial developments expose itself to different types of political environment and political system risks.