The value of using Gross Domestic Happiness (GDH) in a country (Tanzania)

James Mathew Mgaya – Art in Tanzania internship

To many Gross Domestic Happiness (GDH)/ Gross National Happiness (GNH) is new terminology but it bears most important value to the countries. Gross Happiness (GNH) is a measurement of the collective happiness in a nation.  The king of the Himalayan country of Bhutan introduced Gross National Happiness (GNH) in the 1970s as a measure of economic and moral progress as an alternative to Gross Domestic Product. The kingdom of Bhutan’s first legal code, written at the time of unification in 1729, stated that “if the government cannot create happiness for its people, there is no purpose for the government.”. GNH has nine domain pillars of measurement which currently work internationally. These pillars provide the foundation for the happiness, which is manifested into the nine domains of GNH: psychological well-being, standard of living, good governance, health, community vitality, cultural diversity, time use, and ecological resilience. In short, the country prefers people than self-governed interests by living with peace and harmony towards its citizens.

The value of GNH?

Encourage investment; a country with good Gross Domestic Happiness mean will attract more foreign direct investment (FDI) which will contribute to GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the certain country. More FDI means more foreign investors will start their business in Tanzania and increase our national revenue. In addition, it also encourages entrepreneurship and establishment of new companies and enterprises owned by local resident (Tanzanians).

Valuation of currency; increase of value of the currency like Tanzanian shillings depend on interest rate, exports and imports , the purchasing power of currency in internationally, and foreign exchange reserves (the amount of currency held by foreign governments). Simply, the value of currency increases according to its circulation money within international borders by good diplomatic relations via international trade/financing/business. GDH can give a good standard of living. This means there will more available markets, purchasing power of consumer, and good money circulation.

Good diplomatic relation internationally; GNH gives good governance and psychological well-being. This leads to governments that can have good relationships to neighbouring countries and international collaborations economically, politically, and socially. Psychological wellbeing means, through its resource’s government can ensure life satisfactory in some degree of its services, creating peace and harmony among the citizens. Mentally stable countries bring relief to nearby countries and allow friendship due to available labour forces, no political unrest which attracts more investments to multinational companies and international relationship.

Increase of production nationally; GDH gives the government opportunity to build into its public policy decisions like good governance and sustainable development This is when government focus is on public good, boosting their citizen economy and infrastructures like in Tanzania’s strategic cities projects which gives formal and informal employment to the citizens. Building transportations means for the citizen to increase production from the producers towards the consumers, availability of water and electricity to the rural areas stimulating production and leading to urbanisation of rural areas which increases the connectivity between factories and available raw material.

Increase of national income; for citizens to enjoy, their government the needs sustainable income. For example, in Tanzania they use strategic projects to build infrastructure of public goods like roads, railways, bridges, aviation, and marine transports. This is life satisfactory to the citizens by means of transportation, bringing good income good to government and individuals. It creates formal and informal employment to the citizens while simultaneously creating income through toll bridges,  like Kigamboni, Dar es Salaam. Air Tanzania can create national income, and marine transport in lake zones create employment and national income. If citizens are happy with their government, it means no political unrest and its national income will thrive.

The verdict

There so much to talk about the Gross Domestic Happiness and the things can offer if considered. It is an alternative to Gross Domestic Product, which rather focuses strictly on quantitative economic measures. Gross National Happiness considers an evolving mix of quality-of-life factors. The centre provides an overview of national performance across these pillars, providing the foundation for the happiness, which is shown in the nine domains of GNH: psychological well-being, standard of living, good governance, health, education, community vitality, cultural diversity, time use, and ecological resilience.

Tropical Diseases in Africa – Sleeping Sickness

by Shravya Murali – Art in Tanzania internship

Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as ‘Sleeping Sickness’ is a neglected tropical disease, and a recurrent public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The deadly sleeping sickness has robbed tens of thousands of lives of individuals in Africa annually, and about 65 million people continue to be at risk of falling prey to it. Fortunately, internationally coordinated efforts have led to a drastic drop in death rates after 2000, with the reported cases of infection being 992 in 2019. It is vital to sustain these global efforts to eradicate the disease for the safety of millions residing in Sub-Saharan Africa.

How does sleeping sickness spread?

This life-threatening disease is spread to humans via bites from tsetse flies that carry the parasite (Trypanosoma brucei) causing the disease. Tsetse flies are exclusively found in Africa, specifically in the south of the Sahara. While there are about 30 species or sub-species of the tsetse fly, only six are known to be able to transmit the sleeping sickness parasite to humans.

However, this disease can also spread from an infected individual to another individual via:

  1. Contaminated needles (i.e., sharing of needles with an infected individual)
  2. Sexual contact – reported to have resulted in the spread of the disease between humans in some cases.
  3. Pregnancy – The parasite is able to cross the placenta, thereby spreading from mother to fetus.
  4. Mechanical transmission – The parasite may spread from human-to-human through other insects that feed on blood.

What are the effects of the disease?

The disease can manifest in two forms caused by different subspecies of the Trypanosoma brucei sleeping sickness parasite – T.b.rhodesiense and T.b.gambiense. The former is commonly associated with the presentation of a painful inflammation, known as ‘chancre’, at the site of the bite. The latter rarely results in a chancre although this has been occasionally observed in infected travellers from non-endemic regions. The “Winterbottom’s sign”, or swollen lymph nodes, is more commonly observed in infections caused by T.b.gambiense.

Regardless of the subspecies of the parasite, the disease comprises of two stages at which it can be clinically diagnosed – the early stage, and the late stage. Furthermore, the symptoms are usually common, causing difficulties in identifying the subspecies that resulted in the disease.

In the early stage, the parasite is found in the blood and the lymphatic system. Its symptoms commonly include:

  • Restlessness
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Itchiness
  • Joint pain

Signs such as weight loss, intermittent fevers that occur could for a day up to a week, and swelling of the liver and spleen, are usually indicative of an early-stage infection.

In T.b.gambiense infections, the disease progresses slowly as it proceeds from the early stage to the late stage after about 300 to 500 days. On the other hand, T.b.rhodesiense infections advance quicky from the early to the late stage in only around 21 to 60 days.

The late stage is known to be riskier as the parasite enters the central nervous system and results in inflammation of the brain – a condition known as meningoencephalitis – which causes neuropsychiatric problems and tends to be fatal. Some of the neuropsychiatric issues include reversal of the sleep-wake cycle (hence the name “Sleeping Sickness”), hallucinations, anxiety, aggression, and mania. The patient may also enter coma, and if left untreated, this stage leads to death.

How is sleeping sickness treated?

The sleeping sickness, after infection, is normally treated by administered specific drugs depending on the stage of infection. For early-stage infection, pentamidine or suramin is used. Both drugs produce unwanted side-effects and can only be used for early-stage infections. While suramin can result in allergic reactions, pentamidine, is commonly well-tolerated by patients. In the late stage, melarsoprol, eflornithine, and nifurtimox are usually used. While melarsoprol can be used to treat both gambiense and rhodesiense infections, it is obtained from arsenic, hence resulting in serious side effects such as reactive encephalopathy – altering brain function. Eflornithine and nifurtimox are less toxic, but the former is only effective against gambiense infection, while the latter has not been studied for its effectiveness against rhodesiense infections. Hence, the current treatments against late stage rhodesiense infections are still inadequate, drawing an urgent need for sufficient treatment considering the quick progression of infection caused by this subspecies.

What could be done to prevent the disease?

Due to the lack of drugs or vaccines to allow for immunity against sleeping sickness, the only way to prevent the disease currently is to avoid contact with tsetse flies. In countries where tsetse flies are found, the following precautions can be taken:

  • Checking vehicles before travelling in them, as tsetse flies are drawn to motion and dust from vehicles in motion.
  • Wearing fully covered clothing, such as pants and shirts with long sleeves.
  • Ensure that clothes worn are of neutral colours or blend with the environment, as tsetse flies are attracted to colours that stand out in the environment.
  • Avoiding bushes, where the tsetse flies often reside.
  • Using insect repellent to prevent bites from other blood-sucking insects other than tsetse flies that can spread the disease – as tsetse flies are not significantly affected by insect repellents.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) aims to completely eradicate the African Trypanosomiasis by 2030, with international research organisations coordinating to study potential treatments that are more effective, and drugs that may help prevent the disease. At the same time, it is also important that individuals play their part in avoiding transmission of the disease by taking the necessary precautions for the safety of all.

The common issues for clean drinking water availability in the Eastern Africa

By Ekaterina Kilima – Art in Tanzania internship

The shortage of freshwater resources is considered a global problem which affects many parts of the world, including the Eastern African countries. It is often wrongly believed that, because the majority of the Earth’s surface is covered with water, the availability of clean drinking water for humans is abundant. In reality, only 3% of the global water is considered freshwater suitable for drinking (WWF). Therefore, there is a high need for a well-balanced management of the available water resources.

One of the main issues for high water demand in the Eastern Africa is the ongoing population growth and urbanization, which in fact increases the standards of living and requires more water per capita. For example, urban population in Tanzania has increased by 7.2 million people between 2005 and 2015 but the water sector bodies fail to respond adequately to these changes (GIZ 2018). It may sound like a paradox that, while the Eastern African states hold the largest amount of on ground water reservoirs on the continent, with Lake Victoria being the second largest freshwater lake in the world, at least half of the population is vulnerable to the water scarcity problem. Nonetheless, there are several socio-economic and socio-political causes which enhance the problem of drinking water availability.

Lake Victoria

One of these causes is an increasing water demand in agriculture which receives water for irrigation from the nearby freshwater resources such as rivers and lakes. Some amount of freshwater from the wetlands is being lost in the process because of inefficient irrigation methods. Due to the increasing population, the conflict between the water needs of citizens and the water needs of farming is going to become more explicit. Moreover, surface water reserves often get polluted because of the closely located industrial activities, for example oil extraction or transportation. Water contamination can also happen due to nutrient and wastewater transportation from urban and rural areas which is closely connected to poor sanitation practices. After getting polluted, this water cannot be used in households unless using multi-stage water filters.

Perhaps, one of the most complex causes for freshwater scarcity for the Eastern Africa is the trans-boundary ownership of the water sources as well as their weak management. Most countries in the Eastern Africa must share water resources with each other which often leads to uneven distribution of the fresh water (IJWRD 2016). Therefore, the problem is not in the lack of water reservoirs but in the unfair distribution and poor management. The inaccuracy of the water management involves inadequate implementation of the environmental law, corruption of interests among authorities but also lack of problem-specific knowledge and funds.

There is no universal list of solutions that would help all the countries in the Eastern Africa. The perfect mix of solutions for each country would depend on the criteria such as population, climate, level of corruption, economic and political stability, and others. However, there are some suggestions that are critical for each country. One, it is important to support local farmers in their transition to more efficient irrigation practices which would allow more water to be available for drinking and household needs. Second, governments should increase the global awareness on the positive changes in the region to attract more foreign investments. Governments should work closely with international organizations and NGOs to develop more sustainable projects to provide equitable access to clean drinking water. Third, it is critical to legally protect African wetlands from human-led contamination and avoid any disturbance of the ecosystem.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Tanzania vs Canada

Jeet Patel Art in Tanzania

What is Corporate Social Responsibility? Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the act of regulating company business models that assist a company or organisation to be socially accountable to the public and itself. Organizations can be conscious on the kind of the impacts they have in all aspect of society in areas like the environment or the economy.

The International Organization of Standardization (ISO) has provided guidance on how to achieve CSR. Organizations usually start investing in CSR once they a have reached a secure place to invest in it. The ISO came up with “ISO 26000” to help clarify what social responsibility is, and aids organizations in effective practices. ISO 26000 revolves under seven core principles and core subjects. These are the guidance points the ISO has come up with to help organization maximize their corporate social responsibility.

Core Principals

  1. Accountability
  2. Transparency
  3. Ethical Behaviour
  4. Respect for stakeholder interest
  5. Respect for the rule of law
  6. Respect for international norms of behaviour
  7. Respect for the human rights

Core Subject

  1. Organization Governance
  2. Human Rights
  3. Labour Practices
  4. The Environment
  5. Fair operating Practices
  6. Consumer Issues
  7. Community Involvement and Development

CSR around the world

CSR in Canada

CSR is becoming a major driving force for organisations in Canada. One of the main driving forces is due to the Canadian public looking to support organisations that are socially involved in making the community better. The tactics have changed over the years, organisations now plan strategic, social purpose-driven, and transformational models, that can be seen in local communities. It has become an essential part of business practices.

CSR in Tanzania

Tanzania has made huge strides in corporate social responsibility. Tanzania had enacted the Companies act in 2002 (an amendment of the Companies act of 1932) to try and keep up with global and local pressures of improving CSR. Even though this act requires audited financial reports to disclose details of the remuneration of directors and offices, there is no obligation to provide information on employee discrimination, health and safety, tax planning schemes, and pollution and environmental disruption cause by corporate activities. This  led to the enactment of Employment and Labour relations act and labour institutions act in 2004. The government has also come out with the health and safety act in 2003 and the worker’s compensation act in 2008. Tanzania’s main factors and initiatives that influence CSR in the country is due to many reasons.

Politically, the government has come with many different ways to promote CSR in the country, for example, the Presidential Award on CSR and Empowerment launched in 2012, to promote sustainable development of products, specifically in the extractive industry. The country also had the Tanzania Development Vision 2025, in an effort to reduce the country’s poverty levels. The country is also tracking towards primary education, gender equality, HIV/ AIDS, and access to sanitation.

The country is also down well in other factors and influences for CSR. Examples of this would include educating the population in different aspects through social programs in partnership with international organisations. Educating people on the importance of their natural resources and use it to their advantage through the different industries like agriculture and tourism, making sure to work with government organizations to help preserve the Tanzanian way, while sustainably providing goods and services.

President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete speaking at the launching ceremony of the presidential award on the Extractive Industry Corporate Social Responsibility and Empowerment

Local businesses and NGOs are also aided by international businesses through joint ventures and partnership in promoting good and services and finding ways to give back to the community. Even though there has been an increase in CSR in the country, there is still a long way to go. Without policies and regulations there is no way to monitor if organisations are trying to benefit their local communities. There are many barriers that could harm the further implementation of CSR. Some of these include:

  • Unreliable data on community needs
  • Misunderstand in communication between companies, organisations, and government
  • CSR used and a competition tool for business instead of being used to benefit the community
  • Lack of conscious consumers
  • Lack of recognition of good effort made

These are just some of the few barriers that can come in Tanzania’s path to have CSR businesses. However, this can be addressed by educating the public and creating policies to show data as well as meet the ISO’s standard guide on being having CSR.

Fernando, J. (2021, July 6). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/corp-social-responsibility.asp.

ISO 26000 – Social responsibility. ISO. (2020, November 30). https://www.iso.org/iso-26000-social-responsibility.html.

Johnnyspade. (2019, February 21). Corporate Social Responsibility in Canada: Trends, Barriers and Opportunities. Coro Strandberg. https://corostrandberg.com/publication/corporate-social-responsibility-in-canada-trends-barriers-and-opportunities/.

Kenton, W. (2021, May 19). International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/international-organization-for-standardization-iso.asp.

Vertigans, S., Idowu, S. O., & Schmidpeter René. (2018). Corporate Social Responsibility in Sub-Saharan Africa Sustainable Development in its Embryonic Form. Springer International Publishing.

PROBLEMS THE AFRICAN YOUTH FACE

By Justina Ochieng – Art in Tanzania internship

According to the world economic forum’s report, the African youth population is rapidly growing and by 2050 it will form almost 60% of all the world’s youth population. This rapid growth has also bringing with it a lot of challenges facing the youths. Unemployment has been ranked top of a list of challenges faced by Africa’s youth today. The biggest challenge the youth face is that they’re often incapable of finding a productive place within society – either within the mainstream education system or satisfactory employment.

The list below also highlights some other challenges faced by youth: unemployment, poor education system, drugs and substance abuse, pressures of materialism, lack of affordable housing, negative stereotyping, pressures of 24-hour social networking, crime.

Unemployment

The biggest problem facing Africa’s youth is unemployment. The youth constitutes the highest population in Africa, and they are the most vulnerable, less privileged, and unattended to in society. Many young people have become victims of negativity and unproductiveness because they are neither schooling nor engaging in economic activities. There is a common saying: “an idle mind is the devil’s workshop.” This is the reality behind many young people getting into the streets, and involving themselves in robbery, drug/substance abuse, violence etc. The lack of adequate youth employment has made them dangerous to society, leaving them with no alternative but to engage in terrible acts that will give them money to support their bad habits. In order to eradicate and/or reduce the high unemployment rate among the youth, the government, CSOs, NGOs, youth organizations etc. must help get the youth engaged in profitable activities such as educational programs, vocational and entrepreneurial skill training to make them self-reliant. The opportunity WAYLead is providing, to positively impact and educate the youth in leadership, would advance growth as participants would give back to their respective communities. There is a need to invest in youth empowerment programs and accelerate awareness to create the enabling environment for employment.

Lack of proper information

The youth constitute a greater part of the population in most African countries. These young people live in a rapidly changing world, faced with many pressures. One of biggest problem among Africa’s youth, in my opinion, is the lack of the development of one’s mind. Young people, on the whole, experience disquieting irritations, perplexities and adjustment problems as a result of rapid social change. There is an increase in social vices among the youth leading to appalling incidences. I believe in order for such social vices and corrupt acts to be curbed, one’s mind must be developed. Bob Marley once said “None but ourselves can free our minds” The current socio-economic conditions in Africa block the progress of the African youth. Early marriages complicate matters for the youth. Ignorance, illiteracy, and insufficient knowledge about planned parenthood have resulted in an increase early childbearing. Once our minds are well developed, our way of life would change for the better.

Poor education system

One of the biggest problem facing Africa’s youth is our educational system, coupled with the lack of good employment opportunities that the educational curriculum prepares the graduates for. Africa’s youth find themselves stuck in a cycle of completing school and sitting at home without jobs mainly because our educational systems mainly  prepare us for non-existent white collar jobs. The very few enterprising youth who venture into entrepreneurship also find themselves lacking support in training and funding.

Time management

Stress & Time Management. Managing the pressure to succeed in every area of life and finding time to do it all seems to be one of the biggest challenges facing the youth today. Young people are expected to be successful, yet few of them are aware of effective time management.

Drugs and substance abuse

Drugs has become one the core problems facing youths. Out of every ten young people between the age of 16-35 years, seven have once in their lifetime use drugs or still using drugs. Many critics claim that the reason for this may be the stress and depression facing most of them due to unemployment, low self-esteem and worries about their futures. Drugs and substance abuse is mostly rampant along the coastal cities and towns of East Africa (Mombasa and Dar es Salaam).

Crime

Due to the hard economic times we are facing right now and the fact that most the African population live under a dollar a day, most of the youth have turned to crime to meet their economic needs. Robbery, stealing, burglary prostitution are among the top order of the day. Due to involvement these outlawed activities in most African countries, most the victims have found themselves lynched, gun down or in prison. Everywhere across Africa, especially in the drug infested regions, very young people lose their lives to crime and crime-related activities. Prostitution is also a problem. Many young women have turned to prostitution to make ends meet. Most cities at night are flocked by young girls selling off their bodies for a dime. Side effects being most of them end up contracting very deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS. Also there is the issue of early marriage. Very young girls who are supposed to be in school are sold of to marriages because their guardians are interested in the dowry they get in return. Because of that, most girls end up not continuing their education or making their dreams come true.

Female genital mutilation

Female genital mutilation is still one of the great challenges facing young Africans especially in the underdeveloped places. Some tribes in East Africa still insist in this act as a right of passage into womanhood. Very innocent girls are subjected to this brutal act against their own will. In worst scenarios some girls end up contracting diseases like HIV/AIDS since you may find that a single scalpel is used to mutilate a bunch of girls without any proper sterilisation of any kind. Also some girls end up with wounds that affect their sexual life forever.

Social media peer pressure

Peer pressure has also pose as a challenge. Most youth are struggling to fit in and because of that they go extra mile to prove that they are worthy of recognition and praises from their peers. Most have taken the social media thing so far; faking lifestyles even ending up in great debts in the name of appeasing their fellows on Instagram, Facebook and WhatsApp. People have refused to face their on realities and where they stand economically, instead they end up imitating celebrities and other prominent people by the lifestyles they lead. Side effects; some have turned to crime to make ends meet. But we are advised as youth to choose wisely because the streets offer everything, from what’s best for us to what ruins us. So before impressing anyone we should think if there is anything positive we’ve gained from the whole experience.

What is been done to tackle these problems

Thanks to the governments and other concerned parties from the private sectors, a lot is being put in place to handle these situations. For example there are a lot of NGOs advocating the eradication of FGM, creation of awareness of drugs and substance abuse, HIV/AIDS and other chronic problems in the African continent. Due to the rapidly growing unemployment, most youth have turned to entrepreneurship and other creativities to earn a living. New business formation are being seen popping up each  day. This has drastically reduced the unemployment and the idleness that comes with it.

Conclusions

A lot has been done to tackle the problems facing the African youth and still much is yet to be done. It is everyone’s responsibility to play part in bringing the change we want. As the Swahili saying that goes ‘umoja ni nguvu utangamano ni udhaifu’, we need to unite in all the levels of our societies to make a positive impact. With the little every has whether is information, and ides or something tangible will make a difference if used for the right course. We should remember that if we do this kind-heartly without expecting anything in return, the benefits will be ours and our children’s children. Karma says that we get what we give. Its my hope this information will inspire you to be part of this great expedition to create a new Africa that we want and we will be proud of and also clear our name from all the stigmatization and misconception we are facing from the outside world.

AGING GLOBALLY

Art in Tanzania

INTRODUCTION

The subject of old age and aging has been of great concern to the international community particularly in view of economic, political and social dimensions.

The United Nations Organization reports (1999) show that there has been an increase in the number of older people in the World. This increase has been demonstrated more in developing nations where the rates do not match with the available resources to cater for older people’s health, nutrition and other basic services essential for human life.  According to these reports, in 1950 the United Nations estimated an existence of 200 million people aged 60 years and above. In 1975 that number increased to 350 million people and is expected to reach 625 million people by 2005.  It is also expected that by the year 2050, the number of older people for the first time in human history, will have increased and surpassed the number of children under 14 years of age. In the African continent alone, that number is expected to increase from the present 38 million to 212 million.

The increase in the number and percentage of this population is a success in that it demonstrates an improved standard of living those results from better services such as health and education. This increase, however, is a challenge because the government is called upon to put in place the vital infrastructure for providing services to older people.

The majority of older people live in poverty and uncertainty. Furthermore, the fact that a large number of older people (about 75 percent) live in rural areas and that the number of older women is bigger than that of older men presents yet an additional challenge. In view of this there is a need for the government, its institutions and voluntary agencies to create an environment that recognizes older people and gives them an opportunity to participate fully in the daily life of the society.

The government realizes that older people are a resource in the development of our nation. The existence of Tanzania as a nation is an evidence of older peoples’ contribution in political, economic, cultural, and social arena.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 CONCEPT AND MEANING OF OLD AGE

Old age and aging is a concept that defines the final stage of human growth from childhood, youth to old age. In Tanzania an individual is recognized as an older person based on age, responsibilities and his or her status, for example, a leader at his or her workplace or in a clan. The older people we have were either salaried or self-employed or those living in rural areas whose advanced age limits them from active work.

In developed countries such as Britain and United States of America (USA) old age is associated with retirement at 60 years. In other countries retiring age differs according to gender. In Latvia for example men retire at the age of 55 whereas women retire at the age of 60.

Despite the fact that government employees retire at the age of 60 and that older people in rural areas and those who are self-employed stop working only due to limited energy, it remains that at the age of 60 years.  There are clear indications of decrease in their working ability. Both the National Health Policy and the Public Service Act recognize 60 years as retirement age. For the purpose of this policy, an older person is an individual who is 60 years and above.

1.2 THE SITUATION OF OLDER PEOPLE IN THE COUNTRY

The twentieth century has witnessed an increase in the number of older people. According to available statistics, Tanzania with an estimated total population of 33,500,000, has about 1.4 million older people (4 per cent of the total population) aged 60 years and above. This figure will increase to 8.3 million (10 per cent of the total population) by the year 2050.

In everyday social life, older people are an acknowledged source of information, knowledge and experience. In traditional life both older and young people shared responsibilities. Whereas older people were custodians of customs and traditions, advisers/mediators and childcare, the young people had the responsibility of providing basic needs including food, shelter, clothing and protection. Older people in Tanzania are of various groups that include retirees, peasants, herdsmen and fishermen.

Generally, the situation of older people in Tanzania is characterized by the following:

1.2.1 Weakening of traditional life:

Globalization, growth of towns and the movement of people from rural to urban areas in search of jobs have changed the formal relationship in the family and society in general. As a result of weakened traditional life, older people are no longer playing a vital role in the life of the community. Consequently, the young people do not show respect to older people and often times despise them.

1.2.2 Inadequate care:

The movement of young people from rural to urban centers have left the majority of older people lonely and unprotected. Moreover HIV/AIDS pandemic has taken away lives of the majority of young people. On the other hand, older people are increasingly called upon to care for themselves and their orphaned grandchildren.

1.2.3 Poverty:

Economically, older people are among the poorest in the society. Various groups of older people such as peasants, herdsmen and fishermen do not belong to any formal social security system. Retired older people who are members of the Social Security Schemes face problems resulting from inadequate benefits and bureaucratic bottlenecks.

Furthermore, the existing poverty reduction strategies do not include older people.

1.2.4 Diseases:

The majority of people become old with poor health due to poor lifestyles and poor nutrition during their childhood, women with heavy workload and frequent pregnancies. Prolonged diseases are a common feature among many older people. Additionally, health services are not easily accessible to the majority of older people besides they are expensive. Health care professionals on the other hand lack motivation and are not adequately trained to handle older peoples’ illness.

1.2.5 Older Women and incompatible traditions.

Older women are more affected by old age problems. Women live longer than men, that is why there are more older women than men. Older women struggle against problems related to their gender, furthermore they are denied the right to inherit and own property including land. In some areas women have been raped and killed due to superstitious beliefs.

1.2.6 Older women with disabilities:

Due to our culture and environment, women, people with disabilities, and older people have had an unequal opportunity to participate in decision making on issues related to their development and welfare.

Where women have been discriminated due to their sex, people with disabilities do not have access to equal opportunities to participate in securing their own development. Additionally, older people have not received the recognition they deserve, a situation which denies their right to own and inherit property.

1.2.7 Laws that do not protect older people:

The current social and legal systems do not provide adequate protection and security to older people as a special group. Consequently, they do not receive deserving care and older women are denied their right to own and inherit property.

1.3 Rationale for the Policy:

The life situation and circumstances of older people demand for a National Policy to guide the provision of services and their participation in the life of the community. The National Ageing Policy addresses the following:

  • To recognize older people as an important resource in national development.
  • To allocate enough resources with a goal of improving service delivery to older people.
  • To involve older people in decision making in matters that concern them and the nation at large.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 POLICY DIRECTION.

2.1 Direction:

This policy concerns older people living in rural and urban areas as well as other special groups of older people such as retirees, peasants, herdsmen, and fishermen. It also concerns young people who need to prepare themselves for responsible old age.

2.2 General Objective:

The general objective of the policy is to ensure that older people are recognized, provided with basic services, and are accorded with the opportunity to fully participate in the daily life of the community.

2.3 Specific Objectives:

  • To recognize older people as a resource.
  • To create a conducive environment for the provision of basic services to older people.
  • To allocate resources for older people’s income generation activities and their welfare.
  • To empower families for sustained support to older people.
  • To initiate and sustain programs that provide older people with the opportunity to participate in economic development initiatives.
  • To prepare strategies and programs geared towards elimination of negative attitudes and age discrimination.
  • To enact laws that promote and protect the welfare of older people.

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 POLICY STATEMENTS.

The government realizes that older people are a resource in the development of our nation. The existence of Tanzania as a nation is an evidence of older people’s contribution in political, economic, cultural and social arena. Besides protection and care, services emphasis will be put on involving older people in national development and incorporating them in the national development plans.

The National Ageing Policy recognizes human rights as stipulated in the Tanzanian constitution of 1977 as amended in 1984 and 1995 respectively. Moreover, the policy has taken into consideration the United Nations Organization declaration No. 46 of 1991 on the following older people’s rights.

  • Independence
  • Participation
  • Care
  • Self – fulfillment
  • Dignity

The following Policy statements aim at providing an implementation framework which will facilitate improvement of older people’s life and set the aging agenda within the national development paradigm.

3.1 Health Services:

Frequent and prolonged diseases is a common feature among many older people. This condition calls for a professional care. Despite this, health services are not easily accessible for the majority of older people and in most cases are expensive. The existing procedure of providing free health services to older people has some shortcomings.

The majority of older people particularly in the rural areas are left out as a result of their inability to prove that they are 60 years and above and that they cannot afford to share the cost. In order to improve the health status of older people, the government, in collaboration with various stakeholders, will ensure that:

(i) The cost sharing policy shall be revised to adjust the criteria for determining 60 years as a standard age.

(ii) Health personnel receive special training to handle older people.

(iii) There is an established mechanism for making follow up on older people’s health.

(iv) There is an established mechanism for awareness creation for older people in HIV/AIDS pandemic and care of its victims.

(v) Older people and the public in general are sensitized/mobilized on old age health related problems.

3.2 Care of older people:

The ability of the oldest to manage themselves is either minimal or not existing. Due to this fact the society has the responsibility of providing them with care and support. However, the family will remain the basic institution of care and support for older people. Institutional care of older people will be the last resort.  Furthermore, the government does not expect to establish older people’s long term care institutions. In order to provide care for older people.

(i) Families and the society in general will be mobilized/sensitized to care and support older people.

(ii) Older people will be cared for in their respective community.

(iii) The government through Local Government and Voluntary Agencies, will continue to provide institutional care to older people and others who have no one to care for.

3.3. Participation of Older People:

Every citizen has an equal right to participate fully in issues that concern him/her and the society as a whole. The government realizes that older people are an important resource that needs to be taped for the development of the nation. In order to do so:

(i) A Mechanism will be put in place to ensure that older people participate in the planning and implementation of development programs at various levels.

(ii) Organizations and groups responsible for older people’s welfare will be dully recognized. The government shall also encourage the formation of such new organizations and groups.

3.4 Older People’s Fund:

The government recognizes older people’s potentiality in poverty reduction initiatives. However, the same has not been translated into reality. In order to develop its utilization, the government in collaboration with various stakeholders will establish a Revolving Loan Fund.

3.5 Income Generation:

Older people are among the poorest in the society. Besides being skilled, knowledgeable and experienced as farmers, fishermen and retired public servants, the majority of older people go into retirement ill-prepared. In order to rectify this situation:

(i) Older people, individually or in groups, will be sensitized and mobilized in establishing income generating activities.

(ii) Local Government Authorities and Voluntary Agencies will incorporate older people’s groups in income generating activities.

3.6 Social Security:

Older people face a number of problems that include lack of savings. The existing Social Security Scheme is designed to accommodate older people who were employed in the formal sector. However, the benefits they receive do not correspond to increasing living costs. Older people in the informal sector such as peasants, fishermen and herdsmen particularly in rural areas face a high degree of vulnerability. In order to rectify this situation:

(i). A mechanism will be established to ensure that social security institutions direct their services to the informal sector.

(ii). Local Government Authorities and Voluntary Agencies will sensitize older people in the informal sector to save through Ward Banks, Primary Cooperative Societies and Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies.

(iii). Families will be mobilized in order to participate in income raising activities.

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR IN TANZANIA

“By Rosemary David – Art in Tanzania internship”

Child labour or child labor refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful.Such exploitation is prohibited by legislation worldwide ,although these laws do not consider all work by children as child labour; exceptions include work by child artists, family duties, supervised training, and some forms of child work.

All over the world, children are being exploited through child labour. This mentally and physically dangerous work interferes with schooling and long-term development—the worst forms include slavery, trafficking, sexual exploitation and hazardous work that put children at risk of death, injury or disease

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR IN TANZANIA

Personal Variables

Physical and mental attributes of children influence their abuse. Physical disabilities have long been associated with child abuse and neglect, as these children are often victims of discrimination, sexual exploitation and social exclusion. More often than seldom, the abused or the victims of abuse do not report such cases to the authority, for fear of reprisal by the abuser who may be a parent and due to ignorance.

Socio – economic Aspects

Modern socio-economic developments, have diminished the traditional role and power of women. This change in status, has brought about strains in family life and decreased the value of children, resulting into more frequent occurrences of child abuse and neglect.

Social – cultural Aspects

Social-cultural aspects, play a vital role in contributing to the increasing rate of child labour in many developing countries today. Traditionally, children have been viewed as personal property and were generally expected to work. There was a maximum division of labour, where girls were expected to do all the house chores and the boys went hunting. These roles were meant to prepare the children for future adulthood, especially girls who were often subjected to early marriages when they clocked the age of puberty, while their male counterparts went to school .It is however important to note that, some of the household work is too excessive and exploitative and can be categorized under child labour.

Family Characteristics

Family characteristics, have played a crucial role in the employment of children based on the type of family (polygamous and monogamous), family size and the employment of parents. Household poverty, is one of the underlying causes of child labour that affects school enrollment, as many cannot afford school fees and school  materials. Child labour becomes a majority option for most families for survival, which eventually affects the academic performance of some children, who labour for fees which endangers them physically and psychologically. While it might seem obvious that, children had to fend for their families, parental consent to work, comes in the way as a major issue of maximum consideration in child employment.

Single Parenthood

Many studies indicate that, children who reported their parents as no longer staying together, or those who had lost one of their parents and in most cases drained in poverty, engaged in work. The increasing number of orphans and children raised by single parents, undoubtedly necessitated the employment of children.

Community Variables

At community level, societal transformation and challenges therein, act as a stressor on families and diminishes the capability of families to look after their children properly. The rampant slum developments, which are a manifestation of poor socio- economic conditions and overcrowding, represent a bigger challenge to the life of a child than the society itself.

 Political Factors

Political factors, refer to conditions that cause civil and national strife and unrest including wars inter alia as considered. Children migrate to bigger cities in search for help. These children sometimes go accompanied by their parents and some unaccompanied, especially orphans. War zones, serve as catchment areas for vulnerable children who end up on the streets and involve themselves in child labour for survival.

The Social Capital Theory

The social capital theory, offers a beginning point in the theoretical analysis of the street children phenomenon in Tanzania. This theory draws a correlation between family structure and home-leaving. Most of street children end up to be employed at small age.

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR IN TANZANIA

By Rosemary David – Art in Tanzania internship

Child labour or child labor refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful. Such exploitation is prohibited by legislation worldwide, although these laws do not consider all work by children as child labour; exceptions include work by child artists, family duties, supervised training, and some forms of child work.

All over the world, children are being exploited through child labour. This mentally and physically dangerous work interferes with schooling and long-term development -the worst forms include slavery, trafficking, sexual exploitation and hazardous work that put children at risk of death, injury or disease.

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR IN TANZANIA

Personal Variables

Physical and mental attributes of children influence their abuse. Physical disabilities have long been associated with child abuse and neglect, as these children are often victims of discrimination, sexual exploitation and social exclusion. More often than seldom, the abused or the victims of abuse do not report such cases to the authority, for fear of reprisal by the abuser who may be a parent and due to ignorance.

Socio – economic Aspects

Modern socio-economic developments have diminished the traditional role and power of women. This change in status, has brought about strains in family life and decreased the value of children, resulting into more frequent occurrences of child abuse and neglect.

Social – cultural Aspects

Social-cultural aspects, play a vital role in contributing to the increasing rate of child labour in many developing countries today. Traditionally, children have been viewed as personal property and were generally expected to work. There was a maximum division of labour, where girls were expected to do all the house chores and the boys went hunting. These roles were meant to prepare the children for future adulthood, especially girls who were often subjected to early marriages when they clocked the age of puberty, while their male counterparts went to school. It is however important to note that, some of the household work is too excessive and exploitative and can be categorized under child labour.

Family Characteristics

Family characteristics have played a crucial role in the employment of children based on the type of family (polygamous and monogamous), family size and the employment of parents. Household poverty, is one of the underlying causes of child labour that affects school enrollment, as many cannot afford school fees and school materials. Child labour becomes a majority option for most families for survival, which eventually affects the academic performance of some children, who labour for fees which endangers them physically and psychologically. While it might seem obvious that, children had to fend for their families, parental consent to work, comes in the way as a major issue of maximum consideration in child employment.

Single Parenthood

Many studies indicate that, children who reported their parents as no longer staying together, or those who had lost one of their parents and in most cases drained in poverty, engaged in work. The increasing number of orphans and children raised by single parents, undoubtedly necessitated the employment of children.

Community Variables

At community level, societal transformation and challenges therein, act as a stressor on families and diminishes the capability of families to look after their children properly. The rampant slum developments, which are a manifestation of poor socio-economic conditions and overcrowding, represent a bigger challenge to the life of a child than the society itself.

 Political Factors

Political factors, refer to conditions that cause civil and national strife and unrest including wars inter alia as considered. Children migrate to bigger cities in search for help. These children sometimes go accompanied by their parents and some unaccompanied, especially orphans. War zones, serve as catchment areas for vulnerable children who end up on the streets and involve themselves in child labour for survival.

The Social Capital Theory

The social capital theory offers a beginning point in the theoretical analysis of the street children phenomenon in Tanzania. This theory draws a correlation between family structure and home-leaving. Most of street children end up being employed at small age.

Access to Drinking Water in Africa

By Atilla Cermikli – Art in Tanzania internship

According to a report in 2018, nearly half of the population in East Africa could not access drinking water and Tanzania caught the average with 49.2% accessible rate.

The main problem is basically investment. Installing the pipe to transport the water needs large investments and since it does not seem profitable by the investors, governments step into funding to cover expenses through supplying bonds. Nevertheless, most of the countries in Africa could not find enough amount of financing. For instance, one report in 2014 indicates that Tanzania has less than 50% of the funds needed to meet Millennium Development Goals (MDG) requirements but have a high-level capacity for investment and it makes Tanzania one of the most applicable countries in Africa.

The latest Glaas report shows that Tanzania is located in the most aided region and got 316 million USD financial aids in 2017, ranked 3rd in Sub-Saharan Africa. Also, Tanzania prepared its financial plans and these financial plans consistently using in the decision-making process. Furthermore, the country has the data for decision-making such as resource allocation, sector review and/or planning processes, national standard or regulation development, targeting surveillance activities both in water-sanitation and drinking water areas.

To reach the national goal Tanzania needs a budget of 237 million USD dollar annually and government finance 154.2 million USD which means Tanzania needs to increase its funding approximately by 35%. Financing of the investments for drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are met between 50%-75%. Tanzania also pursuing regulations and standards in order to attract investors such as on-site sanitation and drinking water standards, audited by the governmental bodies and also by independent observers. Although a sufficient budget is clearly indicated in the plan the government could only bear the implementation expenses between 50%-75% due to lack of foreign-domestic private investments.

Another problem is in the human resources sector. Because of the lack of education in maintenance, designing and construction Tanzania has only between 50%-75% of needed human resources.

Related to water sector development plan for 2018, the approved budget is 319.5 million USD and 42% of the shares are funded by foreigners while 58% of the shares belong to local funders.

           As explained by the numerical data above, Tanzania has to foster investments in every area of the water supply and sanitation such as maintenance, protection of the water resources, management and development.

           The type of investment might be diversified. For instance between 2018-2020, a project led by Water and Development Alliance (WADA) and its key partners in order to provide safe water access through solar power systems.

To sum up, Tanzania is getting more and more attention by years but still, the country struggles with investments and educated human resources and government seems to be the only investor but it is not enough to bear all the expenses. Although Tanzania published guidelines in WASH investment plans, due to lack of profitability it does not attract private investments. USAID defines the reason, while the legal framework is well-defined implementation is not effective at all. Also, investment should be focused on sanitation as well as a water supply but research shows that it is biased in favour of water supply. So it is important to invest in water sanitation since it has added value potential. Performance-based investment plans would run to expand sanitation services. Another reason could be collaboration intention of public agencies with private sector investments. The government enjoys from private sector contemporary technologies and provide technology transfer. Due to lack of integration of water sanitation with healthcare, nutrition and food security investments were not fully effective. For example, water sanitation ameliorates food security so it helps to reach Tanzania Development Vision 2025.

PROTECTION OF THE EARTH IS A MAN FUNDAMENTAL DUTY

By Godfrido Mallua – Art in Tanzania internship

Genesis 1:26-28

Then, GOD said Let Us make man in our image according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air and over cattle, over all earth and over creeping thing that creeps on the earth. So GOD created man in His own image, in the image of GOD he created him; male and female. Then GOD blessed them, be fruitful and multiply, fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves on the earth.

Background

Recently the world has observed human activities that contribute on environmental destruction and leads to climate change. This situation has much been contributed by a lot of factors, some to be Demographically, Politically, Economically etc. Though different initiatives are continuing embarked by government, society, multiple organizations but still the nature and living organism reported to be at high risk of being exposed to unsafe living environments

What should be a man continuing effort on earth protection?

Man efforts depends on several factors which lies behind the policies made by those in power that enforce every human being take responsibility to protect our nature as per country regulation. But also policies itself are never enough to bring change, it also demand self awareness and self initiatives of every human to support those initiatives up on nature protection wisely and meet the will of GOD.

Some efforts which can be embarked by each member of community on protection are elaborated below…

  • Reduce, reuse and recycle: Cut down on what you throw away. Follow the three Rs to conserve natural resources and landfill space
  • Volunteer: Volunteer for cleanups in your community. You can get involved in protecting your watershed too
  • Educate: When you further your own education, you can help others understand the importance and value of our natural resources.
  • Conserve water: The less water you use, the less runoff and wastewater that eventually end up in ocean
  • Shop wisely: Buy less plastic and bring a reusable shopping bag
  • Use long lasting light bulbs: Energy efficient light bulbs reduce greenhouse gas emissions, also flip the lights switch off when you leave the room
  • Plant trees: Trees provide food and oxygen. They help save energy, clean the air and help combat climate change
  • Limit industrial sewage towards water sources: sewage contain a lot of chemicals of which tend to pollute water and even kills living organisms found in water sources
  • Bike more drive less
  • Discourage fire burning into farms and forest areas, illegal pouching, deforestation etc

                   Photo: climbing man around the mountain forests

Tunza mazingira Yakutunze… DBE Jane Goodall Nobel Prize, Un Peace Ambassador once said.