Locusts Causing Food Emergency In East Africa

Art In Tanzania Intern Soohyun Won

Environmental Advocacy Internship

At the height of COVID-19 in 2020, swarms of desert locusts appeared in the “Horn of Africa” in Kenya, Somalia, and Ethiopia, causing a food crisis for the first time in decades. The number of locusts has increased too much, moving in droves, quickly eating crops, and destroying the land for farming, posing a significant threat to residents’ food supply and demand.

Experts point to climate change as the cause of the sudden increase in locusts. Due to the abnormal climate, the weather in this African area has become humid as the rain has become more frequent. As a result, the temperature level has also risen, which created an environment suitable for locusts to breed. 

Furthermore, the unexpected flood incident in East Africa in 2019 caused another environmental damage despite recovering from the recent effects of climate change. Indeed, the damage made the region’s humanitarian crisis more severe than before.

When ungrown desert locust larvae form a group, they are about 60km long and 40km wide. In Kenya, locusts have raced from Mandera in the north to Marsabit, Wajir and Garissa in the southwest, devastating the Ethiopian area and severely damaging its border in the eastern part of the country. When locusts grow into adults and lay eggs, the cycle of larvae born from the eggs increases quickly and coming adults. This damage inevitably doubles as time goes by. Since most people in East Africa still make their living through agriculture or driftwood, most of the people in East Africa who make use of crops and land have suffered from the food crisis.

In this situation, unfortunately, as COVID-19 restricted the movement of human resources and materials between countries, controlling the population of desert locusts was difficult. Power spray and pesticides, essential for maintaining desert locusts, are mainly imported from Europe and Asia, as regular supply and demand of it have become difficult due to COVID-19. Nevertheless, evaluate is that the assistance of developed countries and the international community to eradicate desert locusts is needed. The FAO formed a task force to eliminate desert locusts, established aviation control and ground control measures in 10 countries directly affected by desert locusts, and allowed more than 740 people to receive education to cope with desert locusts. It also strengthened cooperation with local organizations and on-site rural leaders to immediately update information on the occurrence of desert locusts so that temporary measures take place quickly. Meanwhile, the World Bank has also provided emergency funds. 

The problem that has arisen in one area is no longer a challenge in that area alone anymore. The locusts that swept through East Africa moved at about 13 kilometres per hour, damaging 23 countries through the Middle East and South Asia. This swarm of locusts also appeared in China and Russia, and China launched an all-out war to prevent locusts by releasing 100,000 duck troops. The 2020 plague of locusts is a problem caused by climate change and persistent food shortages, which could lead to a food and hunger crisis in a short time. Furthermore, because climate change has become worse than in 2020, a locust invasion is a crisis that can happen again at any time, and that is why an appropriate response is needed. I hope the international community can cooperate to establish a system to prevent possible risks. There is a precedent in which the international community can take a united approach towards reasonable measures and create a response manual amid COVID-19.

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The Power of Art, Design, and Culture in Entrepreneurship: How Creativity Drives Success

By Meriem Kerma – Art in Tanzania internship program

Business internships

Entrepreneurship is a multifaceted field that requires a broad range of skills, including creativity, innovation, problem-solving, and strategic thinking. Art, design, and culture are all essential components that play a crucial role in entrepreneurship. This blog post will explore the importance of art, design, and culture in entrepreneurship.

First and foremost, art, design, and culture are integral to branding and marketing. A business incorporating art and design into its branding strategy can create a unique identity and stand out from competitors. The right design can effectively convey a business’s mission and values, making it easier to connect with potential customers. Art and culture also play a significant role in advertising campaigns, as they can help create a connection with a target audience and memorably convey the message.

Secondly, art, design, and culture can inspire innovation and creativity. Artistic expressions and cultural traditions can help entrepreneurs develop new ideas and concepts to apply to their businesses. These inspirations can come in different forms, such as visual art, music, literature, and even culinary arts. By incorporating these influences into their work, entrepreneurs can develop new and innovative products and services that stand out in the market.

Furthermore, art, design, and culture can help entrepreneurs think critically and solve problems creatively. The creative process often requires thinking outside the box, and art, design, and culture can help entrepreneurs develop their critical thinking skills. In addition, by analyzing and interpreting different forms of art and culture, entrepreneurs can learn to see things from different perspectives and develop unique solutions to complex problems.

Moreover, art, design, and culture can also foster collaboration and teamwork. Entrepreneurs can work with artists, designers, and cultural experts to create new products and services that reflect the values and aesthetics of different cultures. This collaboration can lead to new ideas and innovations that benefit the business and the community.

In conclusion, art, design, and culture are essential to entrepreneurship. By incorporating these elements into their businesses, entrepreneurs can create unique branding and marketing strategies, inspire innovation and creativity, develop critical thinking skills, and foster collaboration and teamwork. These skills are crucial for any entrepreneur seeking to succeed in today’s competitive market. As an aspiring entrepreneur, it is essential to recognize the value of art, design, and culture in achieving your goals and positively impacting the world.


Jones, S. K. (2021, March 25). The importance of art, design, and culture in entrepreneurship. [Blog post]. Retrieved from

American Psychological Association. (2019). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

Comparison Of Refugee Policies Between Ethiopia And Tanzania

Art In Tanzania Intern Soohyun Won

Human Rights Advocacy internship with Art in Tanzania

Due to its unstable situation, Africa, where a condition of the influx of refugees occurs frequently, continues to have problems with migration. The recurrence of refugees coming into the nations of this continent causes social confusion that spreads to transnational issues, thereby resulting in conflicts with other countries.

However, some countries do not view refugee issues negatively. Ethiopia, for one, has refined its policy towards embracing refugees and developing its society through refugee acceptance instead of opposing it.

In 2019, the Ethiopian government in East Africa decided to provide educational opportunities to all refugees staying in refugee camps and allowed them to perform economic and financial activities. It drew attention worldwide as it was a contrasting approach to the solid anti-refugee policies of developed Western countries due to socio-economic burdens.

On January 20, 2019, local African media, African Daily Voice, reported that “the Ethiopian government has opened its doors to the opportunity to serve as a full member of society for up to 1 million refugees in its country. Ethiopia’s parliament passed a new refugee law on January 17 2019, allowing refugees to get a job, open a bank account, attend elementary education, obtain a driver’s license, and register documents for birth, marriage, and death reports.

As of August 2018, 905,831 refugees are staying in Ethiopia. It is the second largest in Africa after Uganda (having a population of about 1.19 million). Most refugees came from South Sudan, Sudan, Somalia and Eritrea, bordering Ethiopia, and flocked to relatively stable Ethiopia to avoid decades of ethnic conflict, civil war, climate change and drought. 

Currently, there are 26 refugee camps in Ethiopia alone. In addition, Ethiopia opened a large refugee camp near the border, accommodating 85,000 refugees even when massive bloodshed broke out in South Sudan in 2016.

The Ethiopian government expects refugees to speed industrialization and economic development by partially solving the sluggish domestic economy and workforce shortage. It must also be noted that about 40% of refugees staying in Ethiopia are aged 18 to 60 years old, meaning people who can perform economic activities. In other words, they have changed the idea of allowing their economic activities to grow into “future human resources” rather than “existence that eats away at taxes.”

On the day the refugee law was passed, Abebe Abebayehu, chairman of the Ethiopian Investment Committee, said, “The new refugee law will create various jobs and have a positive impact on the national economy,” adding, “It will be a great opportunity for the Ethiopian people.” The government announced its plan to invest 500 million dollars to create 100,000 jobs and provide 30 per cent to refugees.

The U.N. refugee agency and others praised that “Africa’s most progressive refugee policy has been born.” “Providing education and the right to work is not just for refugees, but for the entire community,” said Dana Hughes, a spokesman for the U.N. refugee agency East Africa. Norwegian refugee relief activist Stine Paws also told Reuters, “It is completely different from some Western countries turning a blind eye to refugees and implementing xenophobic policies.”

On the other hand, there are countries where protection laws for refugees are not adequately established, and unfortunately, these countries form the vast majority. Tanzania can be one example of these countries. Tanzania and Ethiopia signed the 1951 Convention on Refugee Status and the 1967 Protocol. Both countries have laws and policies stipulating refugees’ acceptance, protection, and support. Tanzania and Ethiopia’s refugee policies are based on non-supplementation, meaning no one will be repatriated to a country that can suffer persecution or severe damage. The two countries also focus on providing refugees with basic needs such as shelter, food, medical care, and educational and training opportunities.

However, Tanzania has faced difficulties in implementing refugee policies. Tanzania forcibly deported about 25,000 Burundi refugees from its country in 2013, according to the UNHCR. In 1993, a civil war in Burundi caused more than one million refugees, with the majority flowing into Tanzania. 

Since the end of the Burundi Civil War in 2006, most Burundi refugees have returned home, but some have stayed in Tanzania. However, it is confirmed that the policy of deporting Burundi refugees without any measures such as drinking water and accommodation and forcibly deporting Burundi refugees continued until 2018. In addition, Tanzania has also accelerated its move to forcibly evict refugees from Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which long-standing conflicts with the Victorian lake countries have caused. In other words, Tanzania’s decision to stop accepting refugees is contrary to the legal framework established by the nation itself and thus has faced criticism from the international community.

It is difficult to request or impose greater responsibility because accepting refugees is difficult for the country. However, as Tanzania shares its commitment to protecting and supporting refugees by international law and standards, the nation hopes to guarantee minimum refugee human rights, even if it does not become a model country for refugee law like Ethiopia.

The Importance Of Mental Health And Well-Being In Africa

By Maryanne – Art in Tanzania intern

Participant in Corporate Social Responsibility program with Art in Tanzania

The importance of mental health and well-being cannot be overemphasized, especially in social and environmental issues. The environment’s state and our society can significantly affect our mental health and well-being. This blog will explore the link between mental health, social and environmental issues, and the role of NGOs in promoting mental health and well-being.

The Link between Mental Health, Social, and Environmental Issues

There is a clear link between social and environmental issues and mental health. People living in poverty, for instance, may experience stress, anxiety, and depression due to their living conditions. In addition, climate change, environmental degradation, and natural disasters can cause psychological distress and trauma. These issues threaten the basic human needs of safety, security, and social connectedness.

The Role of NGOs in Promoting Mental Health and Wellbeing

NGOs are vital in promoting mental health and well-being in communities affected by social and environmental issues. They can provide support and services to those in need, such as counselling, mental health education, and access to healthcare. In addition, NGOs can provide programs that empower individuals to take control of their mental health and well-being. For instance, programs that promote mindfulness, self-care, and positive coping mechanisms.

The Importance of Self-Care for Activists and Volunteers

NGOs rely heavily on activists and volunteers to bring about social and environmental change. However, activists and volunteers can experience burnout, anxiety, and other mental health issues due to the emotional toll of their work. It is, therefore, essential for NGOs to prioritize self-care and provide support to their volunteers and staff to prevent burnout and promote mental health and well-being.

The Benefits of Nature and Outdoor Activities

Spending time in nature and engaging in outdoor activities can positively impact mental health and well-being. Being in nature has been shown to reduce stress, improve mood, and boost overall well-being.

NGOs can promote the benefits of nature and encourage people to spend time outside to improve their mental health.

Addressing Stigma and Promoting Awareness

Mental health issues are often stigmatized, preventing people from seeking help. NGOs can promote awareness of mental health issues, address stigma, and encourage people to seek help when needed. In conclusion, mental health and well-being are essential to a healthy and sustainable society. Therefore, NGOs are crucial in promoting mental health and well-being in communities affected by social and environmental issues. By prioritizing mental health and well-being, we can create a resilient society capable of overcoming the challenges posed by social and ecological problems.

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Education in Tanzania

By Meryem Karma – Art in Tanzania intern

Art in Tanzania Village Education Program

Tanzania is a country in East Africa with over 60 million people. Like many countries in the region, it faces significant challenges in providing quality education to all.

Education in Tanzania is an important issue that has received increased attention over the past few years. However, while the country has made significant progress in expanding access to education in recent decades, there are still significant challenges to ensuring that all children have access to quality education.

One of the critical challenges facing Tanzania’s education system is the shortage of qualified teachers, particularly in rural areas. The lack of teachers has led to a situation where many children are taught by untrained or underqualified teachers, which can significantly impact the quality of education they receive. The government has been working to address this issue by increasing the number of trained teachers and providing incentives for teachers to work in rural areas.

Another challenge facing the education system in Tanzania is the lack of resources, particularly in rural areas. Many schools do not have adequate facilities, such as classrooms, textbooks, and other learning materials, making it difficult for children to learn effectively. The government has been working to address this issue by investing in infrastructure and providing resources to schools in rural areas.

Despite these challenges, Tanzania has made significant progress in expanding access to education in recent years. The country has achieved near-universal primary school enrollment, and the number of children enrolled in secondary school has also increased significantly. The government has also been working to improve the quality of education by introducing new curricula and assessments designed to better prepare students for the workforce.

Several non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are also working to improve education in Tanzania. These organizations are focused on a range of issues, from improving access to education to providing resources and training to teachers. In addition, some NGOs are also working to address broader issues, such as poverty and gender inequality, which can significantly impact children’s ability to access and benefit from education.

In conclusion, education in Tanzania is a complex issue that requires a multifaceted approach. While the country has made significant progress in expanding access to education, there are still significant challenges to ensuring that all children have access to quality education. Therefore, the government, NGOs, and other stakeholders must continue to work together to address these challenges and ensure that all children have the opportunity to reach their full potential.


Coulson, A. (2013). Tanzania: A Political Economy (Second edition, Vol.). Oxford University Press.

Ito, K., Madeni, F. E., & Shimpuku, Y. (2022). Secondary school students and peer educators’ perceptions of adolescent education in rural Tanzania: A qualitative study. Reproductive Health, 19(1), 1-14.

Lugalla, L. P., & Ngwaru, M. (2019). Education in Tanzania in the Era of Globalization: Challenges and Opportunities. Mkuki Na Nyota Publishers.

The Economic Future of Eastern Africa: Opportunities and Challenges Ahead

By Maryanne – Art in Tanzania intern

Part of the Corporate Social Responsibility program with Art in Tanzania.

Eastern Africa is a region of the African continent experiencing significant economic growth and development. Comprising of countries such as Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Uganda, this region is home to over 300 million people. In this blog post, we will explore the economic future of Eastern Africa, including the factors contributing to its growth and the challenges that lie ahead.

One of the key factors contributing to the economic growth of Eastern Africa is the region’s rich natural resources. These resources include minerals such as gold, diamonds, and copper and agricultural products such as coffee, tea, and flowers. In addition, the region is also home to significant oil and gas reserves, with important discoveries made in recent years.

Another critical driver of economic growth in Eastern Africa is the region’s strategic location. Eastern Africa is at the intersection of crucial trade routes, including those linking the Middle East, Asia, and Europe. This location provides opportunities for the region to serve as a hub for trade and investment, contributing to its economic development.

The region has also experienced significant investment in infrastructure, including the construction of ports, airports, and highways. These investments aim to improve connectivity within the region and the rest of the world, promoting economic growth and development.

Despite these positive developments, Eastern Africa still faces several challenges that could affect its economic future. One of the primary challenges is the need for more significant investment in human capital. The region has a young and growing population, and it is essential to invest in education, health, and other social services to ensure that this population can contribute to economic growth in the long term.

Another significant challenge facing the region is political instability. Some countries in the region, such as Somalia and South Sudan, continue to experience conflict and instability, which can negatively impact economic development. Therefore, it is vital for the region’s leaders to address these challenges and work towards building stable and peaceful societies.

Climate change is another significant challenge that could affect the economic future of Eastern Africa. The region is already experiencing the effects of climate change, including droughts, floods, and other extreme weather events. These events can significantly impact agricultural productivity, a crucial driver of economic growth in the region.

In conclusion, the economic future of Eastern Africa is bright, with rich natural resources, a strategic location, and investments in infrastructure driving economic growth and development. However, challenges like the need for more significant investment in human capital, political instability, and climate change could impact the region’s economic future. Therefore, the region’s leaders must address these challenges and work towards building a more prosperous and sustainable future for the people of Eastern Africa.

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Is Green Hydrogen Africa’s Answer to the Climate Crisis?

Part 2

By Soohyun Won – Intern at Art in Tanzania

“Africa could play a vital role in the future of climate change if aid is promised.” – William Ruto, President of Kenya

In response to the climate crisis, people worldwide have been paying attention to Africa as a continent that can provide clean energy and leverage as a driving force for growth. Among them, one notable resource is solar energy.

North African countries intend to use their best solar energy capabilities.

The Government of Tanzania has committed to increasing the use of renewable energy sources, including solar power, as part of its national energy mix. The country has significant potential for solar energy due to its abundant sunlight, and the government has established several initiatives and programs to promote the development and use of solar energy. For example, the government has established the Rural Energy Agency to promote renewable energy in rural areas, including solar power for lighting, cooking, and other applications.

Additionally, several private sector initiatives aimed at increasing the use of solar energy in Tanzania, such as developing solar power plants and distribution networks for households and businesses. The government is also working to improve access to financing for renewable energy projects, including solar projects, to encourage further investment and growth in the sector.

At COP27 in November 2022 (the 27th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt), United Arab Emirates global energy company Masdar said in a report that Africa could account for up to 10% of the world’s green hydrogen market by 2050. In particular, Morocco’s credit highlighted, noting that it expects to produce green hydrogen at less than $2 per kilogram in 2030 and less than $1 per kilogram in 2050. The report also said Morocco’s green hydrogen industry is expected to create nearly four million additional jobs and add $60-120 billion (about 76 trillion-152 trillion won) to the continent’s GDP by 2050.

This will be a significant achievement if it materializes, considering that Morocco’s GDP in 2021 exceeded USD 132 billion (about KRW 167.44 trillion). In September 2022, while Morocco was building its first green hydrogen production system, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) reported that Morocco is expected to produce the third cheapest green hydrogen by 2050.

Meanwhile, Tunur (TuNur: a renewable energy, storage, and transmission developer focused on Tunisia and the Mediterranean region) has committed to investing $1.5 billion (W1.9 trillion) in power plants in Tunisia. Considering that Tunisia’s gross domestic product (GDP) currently exceeds about $40 billion (about 50.74 trillion won), it is indeed a huge investment.

Like Morocco, Tunisia announced its green hydrogen strategy in 2022 and aims to pursue it by 2024. In partnership with multinational company Chariot Energy, Mauritania focused on Project Nour, which aims to make Mauritania one of Africa’s cheapest global green hydrogen exporters by leveraging its world-class wind and solar access.

Traps to Consider

Currently, many exciting projects are taking place across Africa. However, concerns about other factors, such as the bureaucracy of certain governments that could delay such projects and the risk of the investment not aiming to benefit residents, have been lingering. As a result, electricity utilization is often very low in some African countries, while electricity utilization is less than 50% in 24 countries. Therefore, governments and investors must improve their domestic infrastructure so that people across the continent can fully benefit from this energy transition.

Moreover, as the International Energy Agency IEA pointed out, Africa has 60% of the world’s best solar resources. Still, it is in the early stages of development, accounting for only 1% of the solar power capacity. The pipeline now aims to export natural gas from West and North Africa to Europe. In particular, Algeria is a natural gas supplier, particularly of fossil fuels. However, pipelines require repurposing and can be used to transport hydrogen. Critically, some observers have raised concerns about essential ‘extractionist’ projects.

Africa’s regional resources can aim to benefit global markets outside the continent at the expense of its local population. In addition, some investment projects could cause significant debt to African governments. There are undoubtedly positive aspects, and investment is essential, but whoever the initiator will be must ensure that extensive infrastructure development takes place so that ordinary civilians can also benefit, especially given the continent’s more comprehensive climate vulnerability.

If these projects are carried out ethically, the global and African economies will become more intertwined and positively contribute to the continent’s economic growth.

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Climate Change Management in Africa

How is the international community prepared to assist Africa concerning climate change?

By Zarina Abdussamedova, Intern at Art in Tanzania

Climate Change Management in Africa is a part of the Art in Tanzania volunteering and internship programs.

Climate change is significantly impacting Africa, leading to rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, increasing frequency of extreme weather events, and rising sea levels. These changes are affecting the agriculture and water resources in the region, making it harder to grow crops and access water, leading to food and water insecurity. Climate change is also affecting health, particularly in rural areas, where people are more vulnerable to diseases caused by rising temperatures and changes in the distribution of disease vectors. Climate change also exacerbates poverty and social tensions, leading to migration and conflict.

The continent will continue to face significant challenges in adapting to the impacts of a changing climate, particularly in its most vulnerable communities, unless urgent action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and support adaptation efforts.

The international community is taking several measures to assist Africa in addressing the impacts of climate change. Some of the ways the international community is providing support are:

Financial Assistance: Developed countries have committed to providing funds through mechanisms to help developing countries, including African nations, transition to a low-carbon economy and adapt to the impacts of climate change. For example, the Green

Climate Fund provides funding for projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and strengthen resilience to the impacts of climate change.

Technology Transfer: The transfer of clean and sustainable technologies is essential to help African countries mitigate the effects of climate change. International organizations and developed countries are working on transferring these technologies to African nations. This includes access to clean, renewable energy technologies and more efficient agricultural and industrial practices.

Capacity Building: African nations often lack the technical expertise and capacity to tackle the complex issues posed by climate change. The international community provides training, education, and capacity-building support to help African nations understand and address these challenges better.

Policy Support: The international community is providing policy support to African nations to help them develop and implement policies and regulations to mitigate the effects of climate change and promote sustainable development. The international community also works together through international climate negotiations, such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), to agree on a global response to climate change and provide support to vulnerable countries, such as those in Africa. In addition, several initiatives have been launched specifically to support Africa in addressing climate change, such as the African Adaptation Initiative, the African Development Bank’s Climate Change and Green Growth Department, and the Climate Investment Funds.

These efforts aim to address the unique challenges posed by climate change in Africa and help African nations transition to a more sustainable and resilient future, focusing on supporting the region’s most vulnerable and least developed countries.

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Is Green Hydrogen Africa’s Answer to the Climate Crisis?

Part 1

By Soohyun Won – Intern at Art in Tanzania

Art in Tanzania Climate Change volunteering and internship program.

The growth prospects for the continent are strong. However, the national governments and businesses must ensure that indigenous people have access to alternative energy sources.”

Discussions about the climate crisis have often described the continent as a victim and innocent bystander, primarily because it contributes less than 4% to total global greenhouse gas emissions. But as the world strives to find new clean energy sources, it is increasingly difficult to ignore Africa’s phenomenal potential to help the climate crisis and provide clean energy.

From Sahara’s solar energy to vast land wind levels, Africa has much potential to convert its energy resources into green hydrogen, which climate researchers believe is the key to producing cleaner energy. However, there is scepticism about whether African countries can fully exploit this energy potential to benefit their citizens and whether development projects can be essential ‘extractions’.

Green Hydrogen Case

Green hydrogen is attracting attention as a new and renewable energy that can solve the climate crisis due to its low price, ease of storage, and low pollution gas. In addition, it can double car production other than diesel, replacing coal, oil and gas in all applications and releasing only water vapour. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and is used for various purposes, such as automobile fuel, metal treatment, fertilizer production, and food processing. However, because it is not an absolute natural resource from Earth, it takes energy to separate it, wherein an electrolysis process is essential to extract the purest form of hydrogen completely. This electrolysis process sends a strong current through the water tank (H2O) and separates the molecules into two elements (hydrogen and oxygen).

When electricity comes from renewable sources such as solar heat and wind power, hydrogen production through electrolysis does not generate greenhouse gases, making green hydrogen renewable. Given Africa’s abundant solar and wind energy, the continent has the perfect natural potential to create green hydrogen. Indeed, the International Energy Agency (IEA) announced in its ‘Africa Energy Outlook 2022’ report that Africa’s abundant renewable resources are crucial to achieving this potential.

The report said that this potential allows the continent to produce 5,000 megatons of hydrogen per year at less than $2 per kilogram, equivalent to the world’s total energy supply. The IEA’s report also said Africa could produce 80 per cent of the energy needed from solar, wind, hydro and other renewable energies by 2030.

African Continental Development

Over the past decade, various projects have been underway to produce and ultimately export green hydrogen. As an evident example, Tanzania is expected to become one of the continental leaders of green hydrogen energy due to its excellent solar, wind and precious metal resources. Furthermore, in 2012, Tanzania announced its climate change strategy, aiming to enable Tanzania to adapt effectively to climate change and participate in global efforts to mitigate climate change while achieving sustainable development. After several revisions, Tanzania will implement various climate change response policies worth $750 million annually by 2030. 

Tanzania’s climate change adaptation strategy is widely applied to water resources, coastal and marine environments, forestry, wildlife, agriculture and food security, human health, tourism, energy (water dams), industry, livestock and fisheries, infrastructure, human settlement and land use, and mitigation includes low-emission energy technology, livestock management and food improvement, efficiency in transport, mining, agriculture and waste management.

In February 2022, South Africa announced a pipeline of various green hydrogen initiatives worth approximately $17.8 billion (KRW 22.6 trillion) by 2030. On November 27, Cyril Ramaphosa, President of the African National Congress, hosted the Green Hydrogen Summit in Cape Town, inviting several world leaders, ambassadors and high commissioners. At the meeting, Ramaphosa said, “South Africa is determined to become a global leader in the field of green hydrogen.” At the same time, he estimated, “South Africa has the potential to produce 6 million to 13 million tons of green hydrogen and derivatives every year by 2050.

His announcement came after South African petrochemical giant Sasol and Luxembourg’s world’s largest steelmaker ArcelorMittal announced a project to explore green hydrogen in October, along with extraction from a hydrogen-producing hub and North Cape area in Saldanha Bay. In September of that same year, Sasol worked with the Japanese company Itochu to explore Japan’s green hydrogen export projects and supply chains. The latter promised to subsidize such projects.

The project aims to supply the European market as well. In January 2022, Rotterdam Port signed a memorandum of agreement acting as “the aggregator of demand for green hydrogen in Europe.” Other European countries, such as Germany, therefore noted cooperation with South Africa in this area. The investment will undoubtedly be significant because South Africa has said it will need approximately $250 billion (about 317.125 trillion won) by 2050 to meet its long-term hydrogen production target. Other countries, including Egypt, Nigeria, and Kenya, are also in several stages of building initiatives that will be implemented over the next decade. In 2021, Namibia and Botswana also signed a memorandum of intent with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to build a super-large solar power plant to produce green hydrogen.

Africa’s continental development, coupled with its environmental change response strategy, is expected to create the power to respond sensitively to environmental changes and serve as a springboard for new national growth that can lead to economic growth.

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Climate Change and Human Rights in Africa

By: Macy Janine Pamaranglas – Art in Tanzania Intern


Climate change has always been a topic of concern mainly because lack of climate action can not only lead to environmental damages, but it can also to human rights violations. According to the 2022 Ibrahim Forum Report, food insecurity has affected 800 million people in the African continent, and 281.6 million individuals are undernourished. Hence, it is of great importance to prioritize climate mitigation and adaptation to be able to protect basic human rights. (source)

Although Africa is not part of the biggest contributors of greenhouse gas emissions (with emissions of roughly 4%), it is the most affected by climate change; “the rate of Africa’s warming is 1.5 times faster than the global warming average”. This makes the continent vulnerable to erratic rainfall, extreme drought, desertification, and frequent flooding. As a result of unfortunate occurrences, problems such as human displacement, food insecurity, and spread of illnesses become inevitable.

Case Studies

Geographically speaking, Zimbabwe is a country that has “limited water resources”. With the aggravating climate issue, the country becomes severely impacted by water scarcity. Thus, locals have the tendency to resort to untreated or unsafe water resources. Drinking unpotable water is a health risk since it can result to various diseases such as hepatitis E, cholera, diarrhea and parasitic diseases. In fact, between 2008 and 2009, there was a mass cholera outbreak, and the latter exacerbated with the simultaneous drought and inconsistent weather patterns.

UN (source)

Consequently, people migrate to escape the worsening situation in the country. Migration brings about several other predicaments to the locals. For instance, there is no assurance in terms of food, water, and shelter. Education is interrupted with the constant fleeing, and socio-economic problems such as sexual abuse, violence, and discrimination become pertinent. Indeed, climate change has devastating effects on human rights as one violation leads to another; it works as a domino-effect.  

In the Sahel region, fishing and agriculture are the main sources of living. With climate change, people’s sources of living are significantly impacted. As a matter of fact, studies have predicted that Mali’s agriculture capacity may decline by 30 to 40 percent. Whereas, in Senegal, fishing stocks may decrease by 80 percent.

Additionally, it is fundamental to note that, the level of vulnerability increases with existing political-economic tensions. For instance, Niger and South Sudan are suffering from ongoing problems with regards to the Boko Haram and civil war respectively. Therefore, these people carry so much burden that enjoying their basic human rights becomes far-fetched.


Several efforts have been executed to limit the devastating impact of climate change and one of them is the #GreenJusticeAfrica initiative. The latter is a campaign that “focuses on the impact of climate change in Africa, through the lens of the existing degeneration of the fulfilment of the human rights of the most vulnerable.” In addition, the infamous Paris Agreement, tackled climate change “as an urgent and serious threat to humankind”. It sets up a universal rule that all countries that signed this agreement by limiting global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius. (source)


In conclusion, climate action should be prioritized both on the public and private sphere, and it is important to do so because not only does it negatively impact the environment as a whole, but rather it affects our human rights. It is not merely about the protection of the present generation, but also about the preservation of the future generations. Let us save our Mother Earth before it’s too late!


Addaney, M., Boshoff, E., & Olutola, B. (2017). THE CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN RIGHTS NEXUS IN AFRICA. Amsterdam Law Forum. Retrieved December 8, 2022, from

Khumalo, S. (n.d.). #greenjusticeafrica: The impact of climate change on the protection and fulfilment of human rights in Africa. Home – Centre for Human Rights. Retrieved December 8, 2022, from

Nonjinge, G. (2022, November 2). Climate change adaptation in Africa: A human rights perspective. PreventionWeb. Retrieved December 8, 2022, from

Report: How climate change affects the human rights of sahel region migrants. OHCHR. (2021, November 11). Retrieved December 8, 2022, from