Pre-school education involves education and care Early childhood period is the crucial and sensitive time for children development holistically including social, physical, emotional and cognitive development. The child need positive with the environment as they are very active to learn everything they interact with by imitation and experience. Child’s learning and development occurs in multiple contexts from home to school context that should be well prepared, stimulating and supportive for learning and development holistically (Sestini, 1985). Play is the best method of learning for children in this age group. All activities must be arranged on the basis of play and all activities should be planed and organized based on the interest of the child where the process of learning should start from what the child know that is bottom-up approach.
Preschool education considers the needs of children and individual differences, should support the psychomotor, social-emotional, linguistic and cognitive development of the child, build in self-care skills and prepare the child for school continuity as it should impart in children self-respect, self-confidence and self-control.
To respond to the needs of children, preschool education institutions should provide education environments in compliance with an understanding of democratic education.
The process of education should start from what children already know and provide a room for learning by trying and experimenting. Education given in preschool phase should be contributory to the development of children in terms of affection, respect, cooperation, responsibility, tolerance, solidarity and sharing.
Tanzania is the country found in East Africa in Sub-saharan Africa with 59.7 Million number of population where 77% of population lives in rural area and only 23% lives in urban with the area of about 945,087 km2. According to UNESCO (2015), Tanzania has an adult literacy rate of 77.8% where the male literacy rate is 83.2% and for females is 73.09%.
According to Education for All (EFA) of 1990 as an international initiative for making education to benefits every citizen in every society the first goal out of six is to “Expand and improve comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for most vulnerable and disadvantaged children”. Tanzania adopted Pre-primary Education Policy in 1995 as the part of Education and Training Policy where all primary schools where established pre-primary education program as the part of formal education program for two years that included children with age from five to six are enrolled before join to primary school but not mandatory to that age where it depends the parents. According to Mtahabwa and Rao (2009), currently young children in Tanzania attend programmes in child care centre nursery schools, Montessori or other preschools and pre-primary classes which are affiliated to primary schools. Children attend different programs that are nursery, Day care, Kindergarten, Montessori and pre-primary school. Pre-school educational program is considered as the preparation for primary education and it is the period of transition from home to school environment where parents and teachers a have to prepare the transition environments for child school readiness.
Total Enrolment in Pre-Primary Education has increased by 46.1% from 1,069,823 in 2015 to 1,562,770 in 2016. The increase is a result of community sensitization as well as a prevailing strong partnership of the government and parents, faith-based organizations (FBOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) in providing Pre-Primary Education. (URT 2016) Pre-primary, Primary and Secondary Education Statistics in brief. In 2019 Prep-primary school enrolment was reported at 41.59%, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators and this indicated the drop of number of enrolment from 46.1% in 2016 to 41.59% in 2019. Different private sectors provide education and care for children below five years as the part of preschool program.
Problems facing the accessibility of preschool education in Tanzania
The success of the Early Childhood program has been the effort of both public and private sectors linking together although not all Tanzanians have been able to access it.
Low social-economic status of parents. This is the challenge poor families faces in access to education, the charging fees in private schools is not affordable to many parents in that case they fail to send their children to preschool centers where they opt to remain them at home helping different domestic works as the number of household are involving in agricultural activities and they become street children.
Education quality and resources constraints in public schools. (UNICEF Tanzania, 2018). Compared to private schools in Tanzania the government has not invested much to make sure there is quality early childhood education where mostly children who attend to public preschools they do not achieve satisfactorily basic learning skills for school continuity. The challenge of resources for teaching and learning to public preschools like stimulating learning materials and supportive environment but also we found that preschool and primary schools they share the same classes learning by shifts.
Low parents’ awareness towards early childhood education. In Tanzania there is existing of large number of parents who are not aware of the need and the importance of early childhood education to their children specifically in villages and remote areas. The value of education still low in Tanzania villages where other they don’t send them to school totally neither preschool nor primary school and they believe in workforce (Pambas, 2010).. So children from this group of parents get affected and if they get enrolled at primary school they have limited fundamental learning skills.
Public preschools are located far away from home environment. In some regions children have to walk for a miles to school no passenger vehicles and if they are available some parents may fail to afford daily fare with other expenses. Parents fear the security of their children hence they do not enroll them to preschools.
Inadequate of preschool teachers has become a challenge to public primary and secondary schools but also preschools. Primary school teachers they take the role of teaching due to lack of professional preschool teachers at the same time they teach primary schools as a result they had a heavy workload that reduce efficiency of work and sometimes volunteers nonprofessional teacher they teacher those preschool children in private centers. They don’t have professional knowledge and skill about teaching and learning to those preschool children and leads to poor quality education and those are qualified they don’t get in-service training as the apart of professional development (Kitta, 2004).
Traditional norms, cultural values and gender discrimination. Gender inequalities due to discriminatory norm has the negative effect to children access to education from early childhood education and above as the families cannot afford to fully educate all children girls they are not given much importance and treated inferior to boys children especially in rural areas within Tanzania (Mligo 2018). In some societies with norms around marriageability norms related to gender division of labour all these affect girls’ education. Children with disabilities also the face challenges in access to education due to negative perception on their ability to learn.
Involving Parents and community as active participants in early childhood education and care intervention program. The involvement of these two actors to children educational experience as the parents they participate to children’s education by actively supporting, encouraging, and providing supportive home learning environment, when parents are involved in they become an expert to their child and reinforce the development of preschool program The child and his/her family should actively take part in the process of education as it is urged that when parents are involved in child education the possibility of that child to school achievements is higher
Provision of fund from government to preschools. Due to preschool settings being not conducive and supportive for children the government should provide funds from different sources can be internal or external sources thereafter preschool education should have its own budget for better investment and improvement in the provision and aces of quality education and for all. Enough preschool classes with supportive infrastructures for both children including disadvantaged children
The government has to increase the number of preschool center. In some area of Tanzania the number of children is over the school facilities as the results the indoor activities are all done outside. But also the limited number of preschools results to long distance from home to school and few are able to attend hence dropouts and truancy increase
Tanzania as the among of developing countries investing in early childhood education is the crucial step towards development that will ensure public provision of high quality early childhood education by establishing clear policy, and work to ensure the increase in enrolment, registration and curriculum development as well as producing large number of quality early childhood teachers. The government should work more on sensitizing community and parents the value of preschool education and set the suitable environment to raise their social-economic status.
Kitta S. (2004). Enhancing mathematics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge and skillsinTanzania. Enschede: University of Twente.
Mligo I. (2018). Enhancing Young Childrens Acces to Early Childhood Education and Care in Tanzania. Contemprary perspective on Child Psychology and Education,
Pambas, T. (2010). Stakeholders’ conception of young children’s readiness for primaryschooling in Tanzania.Unpublished M.A Thesis, University of Dodoma.
Sestini, E. (1985). Preschool Education: Recent Developments in Preschool Policies and Provision in Developing Countries and in the UK. In Lillis, K. M. (Ed.). School, and Community in Less Developed Countries. Biddles Limited, Guiford King’s Lynn, Greatain
Simba sport club is one of the biggest club in Tanzania which commence and established in 1936 Dar es salaam, Tanzania. Simba when was founded in 1936 they were named Queens, then later on named Eagles but that name does not last much longer it changed to Sunderland until 1971 when official they named and recognized as SIMBA (“Lion” in English).
Simba reside at Kariakoo Dar es salaam and their cross-city rival is Young Africans (YANGA). Simba nicknamed as “The King” or “Wekundu wa Msimbazi” (The Reds of Msimbazi).
Simba has won 21 league titles and five domestic cups, also simba participated in the CAF champions league multiple times. Their home playground is Mkapa stadium also known as “National stadium “.
Simba is owned by wanachama (citizens) by 51% and Mo Dewji by 49% where by Mo Dewji invest to simba sports club the total amount of USD 8,700,000 (Tsh 20 Billion)
Yanga Sports club is one of the biggest club in Tanzania which was founded in 1935 but the history of Yanga is traced back to 1910 when they were known as Jangwani boys then later on in 1930 they change the name to “new youngs”
In 1935 misunderstanding and conflicts appear between the members of new youngs which led to the disintegration of the club, some members remain with new youngs and start afresh and official they call their club as “Yanga” in the same year 1935, while other member left and form their new club called “Queens ” which currently known as “Simba”
Yanga nicknamed as “Wananchi” (Citizens) or (Young Boys). Young Africans reside at Jangwani Dar es salaam and their cross-city rivals Simba, the club play their home games at Mkapa stadium and Uhuru stadium.
The club has won 22 league titles and four domestic cups, and have participated in multiple CAF Champions league. They also have won the CECAFA Club Championship five times.
All over the world, the capital market has played significant roles in national economic growth and development. One intermediary in the market that operates as a rallying point for the overall activities in the stock exchange market. It is a common postulation that without a functional stock exchange market, the capital market may be very illiquid and unable to attract investment.
In the effort of the Tanzania government’s Policy to transform its economy from a public government-dominant economy to a private sector-driven economy, it establishes the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange Market.
All trading system at the DSE Trading floor is conducted under an Automated Trading Electronic System (DATES), which matches bids and offers using an electronic matching engine.
This is so because the stock exchange market is the one that provides liquidity promotes efficiency in capital formation and allocation.
STOCK EXCHANGE MARKET
The stock exchange market mainly provides liquidity by enabling the firm to raise funds through the sale of securities with relative ease and speed. As a result, the stock exchange market is able to influence investment and economic growth. The large stock exchange market lowers the cost of mobilizing savings, facilitating investment in the most productive technologies.
Thus, for sustainable growth and Development, funds must be effectively mobilized and allocated to enable businesses and the economy harnessed their human, material, and managerial resources for efficient productivity. The stock exchange market enables, government to raise long–term funds (capital), which will enable it to expand, modernize projects, and finance new investments.
STOCK MARKET SYSTEM
Is a financial market in which new issue of securities are sold to initial buyers for the first time commonly referred to as initial Public Affairs (IPOs). A good example is when a company floats its shares or sells its corporate bonds to the investing public for the first time. The securities issued in the primary market are later sold in the secondary market.
Primary Market provides the channel for the sale of new securities. It also provides an opportunity to issuers of securities; Government as well as corporate to raise resources to meet their requirements of investment and/or discharge some obligation.
2. Secondary market
A later market deals with buying and selling securities previously issued and subscribed to (in the Hand of investors) in the primary market. An example of secondary market institutions is a Stock Exchange like DSE, which is a market where investors through their brokers, sell and purchase listed securities. The DSE is therefore one of the key institutions of a financial system with unique functions.
To a market where securities are traded after being initially offered to the public in the primary market and/or listed on the Stock Exchange. The majority of the trading is done in the secondary market. The secondary market comprises equity markets and debt markets.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MARKETS
In Primary Market securities are offered to public for subscription for the purpose of raising capital or fund.
A secondary market is an equity trading venue in which already existing/pre-issued securities are traded among investors.
ROLE OF STOCK EXCHANGE MARKET
Contributes to cultural transformation in Tanzania.
A the time the DSE was established, only a handful of Tanzanians could claim to be knowledgeable with stock market operations. The operationalization of the DSE has contributed substantially toward public enlightenment which has caused few Tanzanian to invest in listed companies as a result of this transformation.
2. Encourage and Mobilise domestic Saving
The stock market provides an additional channel to encouraging and mobilizing domestic savings for productive investment and as an alternative to bench deposit real estate investment and financing of consumption loan.
3. Provide Markets for Listed Securities.
Meaning it enables those wishing to join or leave the listed companies to do so and those wishing to leave to do so as well.
4. Facilitate Equity Financing.
The stock exchange market provides an equity financing cushion for companies against the variability of cash-flows and even possible losses: it is permanent financing that does not demand regular fixed returns like debt.•Stock exchange market improves the gearing of the domestic corporate sector by facilitating equity financing and this helps to reduce corporate dependence on borrowing thus making the financial system more strong.
5. A Barometer of Business Direction.
The stock market is in the focus of the economist and policymakers because of the perceived benefit it provides for the economy. According to Obadon (1995), the stock market provides the fulcrum for capital market activities and it is often cited as a barometer of business direction: An active stock market may be relied upon to measure changes in general economic activities using the stock market index.
6. Raise of Capital for Enterprise.
stock exchange market, facilitating the raising of capital for enterprises:- The stock exchange, facilitates companies to sell new share/bond at better prices which lower the cost of capital to such companies and increase the operating profit.
WHY TO TRADE IN STOCK MARKET?
1.You do not need a lot of money to start making money, unlike buying property and paying a monthly mortgage.
2. It requires very minimal time to trade – unlike building a conventional business
3. It’s ‘fast’ cash and allows for quick liquidation (You can convert it to cash easily, unlike selling a property or a business).
4. It’s easy to learn how to profit from the stock market.
But You need to have your basics clear. Unless you do….you will be wasting your time and losing money. You need to be crystal clear of each and every aspect of Investments, stock options, Stock Trading, Company, Shares, Dividend & Types of Shares, Debentures, Securities, Mutual Funds, IPO, Futures & Options, What does the Share Market consist of? Exchanges, Indices, SEBI, Analysis of Stocks – How to check on what to buy?, Trading Terms (Limit Order, Stop Loss, Put, Call, Booking Profit & Loss, Short & Long), Trading Options – Brokerage Houses, etc.
ADVANTAGES OF LISTING SECURITIES
a) The company can raise capital relatively cheaply from the public. While the normal practice for financial increases of the firms are raising capital through loan acquisitions from banks and other financial institutions, which culminates in the interest of about 16% to 23% in favor of the banks and other financial institutions.
b) On the contrary the Stock Exchange does the same role of raising the capital of the firm without subjecting the entire firm to interest charges against it. Thus the firm listing the securities with the DSE does so with minimum risk of losing its capital.
c) The listed companies also experience improved marketing of the products.
d) Listed companies are generally considered to be good performers and therefore are perceived to have the potentials of providing a good return to the investors. Thus listed companies experience other benefits.
e) Listing enables both firms and individuals to realize the value of the company through the interplay of the demand and supply of the company shares at the DSE. Normally, assessing oneself can be a difficult thing, and sometimes challenging. The difficulties arise due to the fact that self-assessment means giving the value of yourself using the criterion set the same. Nevertheless, listed companies can easily know their value through the interplay of the markets. This can be termed as facilitates open assessment as opposed to self-assessment. Since it is the market that gives the value of the company, therefore the assessment attained is open and done by the mixtures of professionals, businessmen, firms representatives, and the public in general.
f) The listing of shares facilitates economic growth and improved livelihood of the people. The wealth that would be enjoyed by few people who established the business or firm would benefit all subscribers of shares of the particular firm. This is a key to improved growth of income of the people. Most people who used to deposit their finance with banks have confessed that shares listed at the DSE have made them gain between 100 to 2500 percent in three years. The benefits which supersede gain resulting from the bank’s interest by far. Generally, on average in Tanzania banks provide an interest rate of 2 to 3 percent on deposits. The trend is similar the world over.
g)Listing shares lower the financing cost of the enterprises. This could be associated with raising capital without incurring any substantial amount as a fee to the capital such as interest. Thus, the burden for the company would be reduced.
• Investment, The money you earn is partly spent and the rest saved for meeting future expenses. Instead of keeping the savings idle, you may like to use savings in order to get a return on them in the future.
• One needs to invest to
1. earn return on your idle resources
2. generate a specified sum of money for a specific goal in life
3. make a provision for an uncertain future
TYPES OF INVESTORS
WHEN TO START INVESTING
•The sooner one starts investing the better. By investing early, you allow your investments more time to grow, increases your income, by accumulating the principal and the interest or dividend earned on it, year after year.
• The three golden rules for all investors are:
1. Invest early
2. Invest regularly
3. Invest for long term and not short term
WHERE TO INVEST
• One may invest in:
1. Physical assets, like real estate, gold/jewelry, commodities etc.
2. Financial assets, such as fixed deposits with banks, small saving instruments with post offices, insurance/provident/pension fund, etc., or securities market-related instruments like shares, bonds, debentures, etc.
There are many benefits for listing securities as discussed and narrated in this article. The sustenance of these benefits depends on many other factors which can be summarized as the fidelity of the firms regarding all transactions of the business.
Rules and regulations that are set in benefiting investors are one thing, and fidelity in observing the rules and regulations set by the firms is another. Both the CMSA and the DSE monitor the market trading activities to detect possible market malpractices such as false trading, market manipulation, insider dealing, short selling, and so forth.
DSE is responsible for on-the-line/on-site surveillance while the CMSA for online/off-site surveillance. The DSE can suspend any time offers and bids that are deemed to be suspicious (DSE, Ibid).
Efforts to monitor and/or supervise could be reduced through the observance of the rules and regulations as disclosed by CMSA and the DSE. The emphasis on fidelity assumes the fact that market performance implies both an intuitive sense of crowd psychology and a fundamental understanding of the context in which the game is played.
Trading is more than arithmetic concerns in economics, accountancy, and market models. There is an art to it as well.
•DSE (2007). DSE Annual Report. Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange, Dar es Salaam
• DSE (2008). DSE Handbook. Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange, Dar es Salaam
•Norman, A (2010).The Role of the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange in safeguarding Securities investors in Tanzania International Business Management. 4.222 – 228.
By Greenford R Chinjeru – Art in Tanzania internship
COVID-19 is an infection disease that spread by virus and it dangerous and deadly. It has killed many people and affected the global economy. The disease has affected movement of people and goods from one county to another. Many countries people and their movement has been restricted. This has affected the world economy including the banking business.
The following are the effects of the COVID-19 in banking business in Tanzania
Reduction of deposits, in banking business bank use their customers deposits to provide loans and credit to other so as when their return their return with interest and the get profit through it. But due to the COVID-19 the number of people who deposit their money has decreased. This is because people has been advised to stay at their homes so in order for them to survive they have to use their saving and that include stopping deposits and just to use their cash in hand savings.
Increase of expenses, due to the spread of the disease, the banks as the places where many people came and go, has been taking measures to prevent the spread of the disease between the customers and their employees. These measures costs weren’t in the budget in the first place but for the safety of the people it had to be implemented.
Interference of banker and customer contract. There are contractual agreements between customer and banker but and due to the COVID-19 some of those agreed clauses have been hard to implement to the safeguard the health of all parties. There have been times that a customer has had an obligation to return the loan to the bank when the time required but the customer has failed because of getting sick and being forced to quarantine and the bank can’t sue him for it that because that is global problem.
All in all, COVID-9 has affected our county in so many ways especial in economy as during times of quarantine the government had to use their revenue to help people who were infected and purchase medical machine to ensure the safety of the people and the country.
The Covid-19 pandemic has carried the world into unchartered territory that has been straining to every sector of the economy. The financial industry not being the exception has been facing several challenges in managing effective ways to serve their customers in such times. In this post we look closely at how Kenya’s financial sector as a country responded to the Covid-19 pandemic. A report by Bowmans (2020) kept track of how the government responded to the gradual outbreak of Covid-19.
The following were the responses taken by the different branches of government, regulators, and governmental agencies
1. Loan Availability.
On 18 March 2020, the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) announced emergency measures arrived through consensus with commercial banks, applicable to borrowers whose loan repayments were up to date as at 2 March 2020.
· Banks to provide relief to borrowers on their personal loans based on their individual circumstances arising from the pandemic.
· To provide relief on personal loans, banks will review requests from borrowers for extension of their loan for a period of up to one year and borrowers should contact their respective banks.
· Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and corporate borrowers to contact their banks for assessment and restructuring of their loans based on their respective circumstances arising from the pandemic.
· Banks to meet all the costs related to the extension and restructuring of loans.
· To facilitate increased use of mobile digital platforms, banks to waive all charges for balance inquiry. In addition, the CBK had earlier announced that all charges for transfers between mobile money wallets and bank accounts would be eliminated. (Bowmans, 2020)
2. Credit Availability
On 24 March 2020, the Central Bank of Kenya announced additional measures to facilitate lending by banks to borrowers adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.
· The lowering of the Central Bank Rate (CBR) to 7.25 percent.
· The lowering of the Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) to 4.25 percent to provide additional liquidity of KES 35.2 billion to commercial banks. CBK to avail this liquidity to banks based on their demonstrated requirement to directly support borrowers that are distressed as a result of COVID19.
· To provide flexibility on liquidity management facilities provided to banks by CBK, the maximum tenor of Repurchase Agreements (REPOs) was extended from 28 to 91 days.
· CBK to provide flexibility to banks with regard to requirements for loan classification and provisioning for loans that were performing on 2 March 2020 and whose repayment period was extended or were restructured due to the pandemic. (Bowmans, 2020)
3. Individual and Business Relief Package
On 25 March 2020, the President announced individual and business relief measures to be undertaken by the government:
· Reduction of Personal Income Tax top rate (PAYE) from 30% to 25% of the gross amount.
· 100 % Tax Relief for persons earning up to KES 24,000 per month.
· Reduction of the Resident Corporate Income Tax rate from 30% to 25% of profits.
· Reduction of the Turnover Tax rate for SMEs from 3% to 1% of the gross revenue.
· Immediate reduction of VAT rate from 16% to 14%.
· Temporary Suspension of all listing for all persons including companies, whose loan account fall overdue or is in arrears, by the Credit Reference Bureau (CRB) – effective 1 April 2020.
· Ministries and Departments to cause the payment of at least KES 13 billion of the verified pending Bills, within three weeks from the announcement.
· Appropriation of KES 1 billion from the Universal Health Coverage towards the recruitment of additional health workers to support the management of the spread of the COVID-19.
· KRA to expedite payment of VAT Refunds by allocating an additional KES 10 billion within 3 weeks or in the alternative, to allow for offsetting of withholding VAT.
· Appropriation of KES 10 billion to the elderly, orphans, and other vulnerable members of our society through cash-transfers by the Ministry of Labour and Social protection, to cushion them from the adverse economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
· Government to set up a fund to which players in the Public and Private Sector will contribute in support of Government efforts. (Bowmans 2020)
Bowmans the value of Knowing (November 2020). COVID-19: TRACKING GOVERNMENT RESPONSE IN KENYA
Written by Daniel Christopher Mkilanya – Art in Tanzania internship
One year into the COVID-19 pandemic there isn’t one industry unaffected, and tourism is no exception. From canceled weddings and festivals to less dining out, the world has taken a hit from the large decline in tourism. The U.S. alone has seen more than $297 billion in losses from the decrease in travel since the beginning of March 2020.
However, as the summer months push on and people look for any excuse to leave their houses, tourism is making a comeback – for better or worse. The tourism industry is undoubtedly changing, but people still want to travel. And tourism research is seeing that wanderlust desire. We need to remain mindful of the millions of people who work in the tourism industry and understand that changes in the industry directly affect individuals who depend on tourism.” For us to understand the impact of COVID-19 on the tourism industry first we have to know what the coronavirus is and how is it spreads from one person to another
1. What is a corona virus?
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered type of coronavirus.
Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illnesses. The best way to prevent andslow down transmission is to be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes,and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol-based rub frequently and not touching your face.
The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow).
2. How coronavirus has affected the tourism industry
Failure of tourism business
It is often that tourism companies suffer in times of hardship, The independent travel agent in Arusha, the street seller in Zanzibar, the taxi driver in our airports. If there are no tourists, there is no business.
I have met many local workers on my travels during the Coronavirus outbreak. The effect of Coronavirus on tourism is most certainly evident in Tanzania. Many tourists have paid half the usual price for hotels and also many tourist attractions are without the crowds.
Whilst this has been good for tourists, it has been desperation for the local business people; the man who wants to sell ice cream, the lady who offers a ride home and the family-run restaurant business. Coronavirus has gone far by affecting large tourism business as a well. We have recently seen collapse of airline companies as a result of the reduction in tourism.
Restriction in traveling
Due to the increase in the number of victims, different countries have decided to impose traveling restriction as one of the ways of preventing further spread off coronavirus but also the general public is scared that they may transmit the virus to their elderly or immune- compromised friends and relatives.
As a result, many people are choosing not to travel. It’s a effective way to prevent further spread of coronavirus but for the traveling business it’s a great loss.
2. How the Domestic tourism will recover?
UN World Tourism Organization UNWTO Secretary-General Zurab Pololikashvili said: “UNWTO expects domestic tourism to return faster and stronger than international travel. Given the size of domestic tourism, this will help many destinations recover from the economic impacts of the pandemic, while at the same time safeguarding jobs, protecting livelihoods and allowing the social benefits tourism offers to also return.”
The briefing note also shows that, in most destinations, domestic tourism generates higher revenues than international tourism. In OECD nations, domestic tourism accounts for 75%of total tourism expenditure, while in the European Union, domestic tourism expenditure is 1.8 times higher than inbound tourism expenditure. Globally, the largest domestic tourism markets in terms of expenditure is the United States with nearly US$ 1 trillion, Germany with US$ 249 billion, Japan US$ 201 billion, the United Kingdom with US$ 154 billion, and Mexico with US$ 139 billion (UNWTO, 2020).
Initiatives to boost domestic tourism
Given the value of domestic tourism and current trends, increasing numbers of countries are taking steps to grow their markets, UNWTO reports. This new Briefing Note provides case studies of initiatives designed to stimulate domestic demand. These include initiativesfocused on marketing and promotion as well as financial incentives (UNWTO, 2020).Examples of countries taking targeted steps to boost domestic tourist numbers include:
In Italy, the Bonus Vacanze initiative offers families with incomes of up to EUR 40,000 contributions of up to EUR 500 to spend on domestic tourism accommodation.
Malaysia allocated US$113 million worth of travel discount vouchers as well as personal tax relief of up to US$227 for expenditure related to domestic tourism.
Costa Rica moved all holidays of 2020 and 2021 to Mondays for Costa Ricans to enjoy longweekends to travel domestically and to extend their stays.
France launched the campaign #CetÉtéJeVisiteLaFrance (‘This Summer, I visit France’) highlighting the diversity of destinations across the country.
Argentina announced the creation of an Observatory for Domestic Tourism to provide a betterprofile of Argentine tourists.
Thailand will subsidise 5 million nights of hotel accommodation at 40% of normal room rates for up to five nights.
By Felicity Checksfield – Art in Tanzania internship
Climate change is having an instrumental impact on water stocks in Eastern Africa. This is consequently impacting many citizens’ enjoyment of their human rights. The United Nations suggests that ‘water is the primary medium through which we will feel the effects of climate change’ (United Nations, 2018). This is because higher temperatures and more extreme, less predictable, weather conditions are projected to affect the availability and distribution of rainfall and further deteriorate water quality. As of 2019, 12% of the world population drinks water from unimproved and unsafe sources and more than 30% of the world population, or 2.4 billion people, live without any form of sanitation (United Nations, 2020).
Specifically, in Eastern Africa, 75% of Africa’s population could be at risk of hunger. This is because 75 million hectares of land currently suitable for agriculture is being lost in sub-Saharan Africa due to drought. This is a matter pertaining to human rights for a number of reasons. Contaminated water and poor sanitation are linked to the transmission of diseases such as cholera, diarrhea and polio. Inadequately managed water and sanitation facilities expose individuals to health risks that would be otherwise preventable. It is predicted that approximately 842, 000 people are to die each year from diarrhea as a result of unsafe drinking-water, sanitation and hand hygiene.
This post with consider potential climate policies from a variety of time scales and their effectiveness at combating the issue of water scarcity in Eastern Africa. Some of the policies to be assessed will include the re-use of wastewater, to recover water and improved sanitation.
The current population of Eastern Africa is approximately 451, 600, 500. However, 37% of people in the world that do not have access to safe and clean water live in this region. Access to sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa is in fact declining with only 31% of people able to access a toilet (6% less than that reported in 2006).
In Tanzania, the population is approximately 60,712,700, with 80% of people living in rural areas. These rural areas are especially sparsely population, with as low as 1 person per square kilometers. This increased to approximately 53 people per square kilometer in the water-rich mainland highlands. It is estimated that up to 80 percent of Tanzania’s rural population relies on use of natural resources to sustain a livelihood, which makes stewardship of these resources a fundamental priority for Tanzania’s continued stability and growth. However, 4 million people in Tanzania lack access to an improved source of safe water, and 30 million don’t have access to improved sanitation.
Agricultural Production Data
These statistics have instrumental implications for the production of agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania. This is because approximately 93% of water withdrawn from the Tanzanian environment is used for agriculture. It is therefore of great importance that Tanzanian communities have access to safe and clean water. Agriculture accounts for 27% of Tanzania’s gross-domestic product (GDP) and provides employment for the majority of the nation’s population. Moreover, the livestock sector contributes 7% to the country’s GDP. The sector is severely constrained by low livestock reproductive rates, high mortality and high disease prevalence.
By the 2080s, land unsuitable for agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa due to severe climate, soil or terrain constraints may increase by 30 to 60 million hectares (United Nations, 2019). It has been projected that, as a result, there will be a 4.9% decrease by 2080 in agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2020). This will have a detrimental impact on the economy of rural Tanzania that relies considerably on agriculture production and livestock to supports livelihoods.
Human rights and vulnerable groups in rural Tanzania
Climate change, and its effects on water stocks, has a variety of impacts on individuals. Some of the factors include whether they live in rural or urban areas, whether they live in an area that receives high rainfall or whether they belong to a group that is particularly vulnerable or marginalized.
Children and young adults are particularly vulnerable to climate change and water scarcity. Children make up approximately 44% of the Tanzanian population and all are vulnerable to poor health, malnutrition and to the general lack of basic needs, at different levels depending on the structure and assets commanded by their families. Children under-five are mostly vulnerable to diseases, malnutrition, and inadequate care.
By 2002, 4.1 million out of 10.2 million children in Tanzania aged 5-14 years were not attending school. The often-long distances to primary school is a problem to about 30% of households. That may discourage children from attending school and receiving an education which commonly includes information about the importance of access to water and sanitation. As we shall see later on, schools are also increasingly becoming an important place for children to access clean water and sanitation facilities.
Women are especially vulnerable to the implications of water scarcity due to their existing lack of social mobility. When this is paired with food insecurity, limited access to health, sanitation and education, the result is a low income. This perpetuates social isolation and as a result it puts powerful constraints on their capacity to make a living. Moreover, poor access to water and other household services, often results in women spending long hours and walking long distances to collect these amenities. Finally, many women experience stressful childbearing and rearing due to inadequate or poor-quality maternal health care, sanitation and a clean environment.
c) Disabled individuals
One of the core characteristics of persons with disabilities is their limited mobility, which reduces their opportunities for participating in income generating activities to increase their wealth. This consequently limits their access to basic needs such as food, health services and education. When this preexisting vulnerability is paired with intense water scarcity, disabled individuals can become some of the most marginalized in rural communities.
d) Individuals with a long-term illness
Finally, individuals with a long-term illness are at an acute health risk which water scarcity can perpetuate. In 2001, approximately 28% of the rural people fall into this category. In Dar es Salaam and other urban areas, the figures decreased to approximately 19%. By any means this is an enormous figure as more than a quarter of the population falls into this category. Poor nutrition and health services that weaken the health status of the members of poor households exposes them to the risks of contracting diseases and living with ill health. These individuals could be vulnerable to poverty, as they cannot work. Access to clean water is therefore instrumental in preventing the decline of their condition.
Tanzanian Government Policies for Climate Change
There is an abundance of legal provisions that support the securing of access to clean water. Africa is particularly advanced in comparison to the rest of the world in this respect. The African Charter of Human Rights was the first broadly ratified international document which stipulated the right ‘to a general satisfactory environment’ and referred to the right as one of ‘peoples’ in a community, as opposed to individuals. This has the effect of emphasizing both the rights and duties of individuals consistent with African conceptions of human beings as integral members of a larger community.
The Tanzanian government have provided the Environmental Management Act 2004 which aims to provide the goals of this charter. Section 4(1) provides that every person living in Tanzania shall have a right to clean, safe and healthy environment and section 4(2) states that this shall include the right of access by any citizen to the various public elements or segments of the environment for recreational, educational, health, spiritual, cultural and economic purposes.
The 2004 Act established the existence of the Tanzanian National Environment Management Council. As per section 17(1) the object and purpose for which the Council is established is to undertake enforcement, compliance, review and monitoring of environmental impact assessment. As per section 17(2) the Council shall prepare and submit to the Minister a bi-annual report concerting how it has implemented the provisions of this Act and fulfilled the objects and the purpose for which it was established.
However, these provisions provide of no more than a broad and general right. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has suggested five policy responses to implement such a goal.
Include adaptation and mitigation measures for agricultural water management in national development plans.
Promote technical and management measures to improve the flexibility of rainfed and irrigated agriculture and reduce water losses in irrigated production systems.
Improve knowledge on climate change and water and share good practice among countries and regions.
Promote risk management in national policies through better monitoring networks and innovative insurance products.
Mobilize adaptation funds to meet the challenges of water and food security under climate change.
5.1. School Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (SWASH) guidelines
The School Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (SWASH) guidelines provide one example of the Tanzanian government adopting some of these policy responses. The guidelines aim to increase education and awareness of the importance of access to water and sanitation. It is a toolkit with both hardware and software aspects to bring about changes in the hygiene behavior of students and, through these students, in the community at large.
They suggest a number of systems and methods to improve sanitation, water preservation and water collection.
Protected springs offer a source of water that is often free from pathogens. If the dissolved minerals are within permitted parameters, they can provide good quality drinking water. SWASH advices that at the collection point of the spring, appropriate civil construction can prevent this water from being contaminated. Moreover, the surrounding environment of the spring should not be degraded, and advices against deforestation or contamination in this area especially.
Shallow wells or hand dug wells are a simple method of making use of groundwater. They are only suitable for regions that have an especially high-water table and good water quality. However, SWASH provide two systems – one automatic and one manual – for the collection of water. Rainwater harvesting is another simple and yet effective way of collecting water.
However, as SWASH highlights, the weakness in these methods often comes in the form of sanitizing the water before drinking it. It is necessary to follow the methods provided and removing any solid material and boiling the water to remove any bacteria. This reduces the chances of contracting waterborne diseases.
With regard to sanitation, ventilation improved pit (VIP) latrines serve to provide a clean and cheap way to store human waste. A draft is passed through the collection area of the pit which means that the smell and insects cannot linger. This improves sanitation and the appeal of using the facilities.
Finally, the guidelines significantly stress the importance of using hand washing stations. This is a simple but highly effective way in which students can reduce the likelihood of carrying diseases on their body and spreading infection.
The SWASH guidelines provide an incredibly important educational tool for schools to implement these systems. However, a lot of the structures require advanced infrastructure in order for their long-term effectiveness. There consequently needs to be much more investment in these rural communities in order for these systems to be of the best quality they can be. For example, the VIP latrines require a high level of construction to prevent the human waste from contaminating the surrounding groundwater and soil.
Moreover, in order for the program to work as intended, its information and guidance needs to be spread beyond the school environment and implemented in rural communities. This distribution of information is arguably the most effective way of mitigating the impacts of water scarcity in these regions. The important work of Non-Governmental Organizations such as Art in Tanzania in distributing and educating local communities is an example of this.
SMALL SCALE BUSINESS is the one marked by a limited number of employees and a limited flow of finances and materials.
ENTREPRENEERSHIP is a process of undertakes the risk of starting a new business venture, a person is called an entrepreneur·, an entrepreneur creates a firm.
Entrepreneur is defined as someone who has the ability and desire to establish, administer and succeed in a startup venture along.
Small-scale business revenue
is generally lower than companies that operate on a larger scale. The Small Business Administration classifies small businesses as companies that bring in less than a specific amount of revenue, depending on the business type. The maximum revenue allowance for the small business designation is set at $21.5 million per year for service businesses.
Smaller Teams of Employees
Small-scale businesses employ smaller teams of employees than companies that operate on larger scales. The smallest businesses are run entirely by single individuals or small teams. A larger small-scale business can often get away with employing fewer than one hundred employees, depending on the business type.
Small Market Area
Small-scale businesses serve a much smaller area than corporations or larger private businesses. The smallest-scale businesses serve single communities, such as a convenience store in a rural township. The very definition of small-scale prevents these companies from serving areas much larger than a local area, since growing beyond that would increase the scale of a small business’s operations and push it into a new classification.
BECOMING AN ENTREPRENEUR
To be called an entrepreneur, the general career trajectory usually looks something like this:
Willingness and believe to start and be confident.
Ability to start with the small thing you poses and expands it.
Innovation skills for better competition.
Develop an idea for a unique or in-demand business.
Learn about and gain experience in a range of business roles, including finance and accounting, management, and marketing.
Make a business plan and establish a source (or sources) of funding.
Recruit talented workers and managers with the skills needed to develop, test, implement, support, and maintain the company’s products.
Devise strategies for launching the product or service, and for attracting and retaining customers.
Once the company is established, seek out ways to grow revenue by expanding into new areas and product lines.
Awareness of what you are doing without cares what others see.
As the business matures, the founder’s role is likely to include both long-term strategic planning and short-term tactical management and financial decisions. The past few years have seen an increase in entrepreneurial opportunities available to women who are looking to lead and succeed in their own businesses.
After generation more and maximize the business then you have to apply Diversification
Diversification is a risk management strategy that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio. A diversified portfolio contains a mix of products.
Most investment professionals agree that, although it does not guarantee against loss, diversification is the most important component of reaching long-range financial goals while minimizing risk. Here, we look at why this is true and how to accomplish diversification in your portfolio.
What Happens When You Diversify Your Investments?
When you diversify your investments, you reduce the amount of risk you’re exposed to in order to maximize your returns. Although there are certain risks you can’t avoid, such as systemic risks, you can hedge against unsystematic risks like business OR financial risks.
The most common reason for diversification is the need to survive. Businesses fight for their survival in the market and are willing to expand their production lines to incorporate new products to earn bigger profits.
In cases where a business produces seasonal products that only earn revenue for a selected time of the year, diversification of products can ensure that revenue flow remains constant throughout the year.
For instance, the market demand for ice creams, juices, and soft drinks is more during summer but less in the winter season. If the companies producing these items diversify their production line to include winter apparel, they would be able to earn revenue for their business during the winter season.
Not every business needs diversification. Some use it purely to expand the grasps of their business further into every field of production. Depending on the strategies implemented and the demand for the goods produced, diversification can be a good investment or a waste of precious resources.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a Lentivirus, family Retroviridae, that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). There are two types, HIV-1 and HIV-2, of which HIV-1 is the more widely distributed and more pathogenic. AIDS is not a single disease but a syndrome, that is, a group of signs, symptoms, and diseases associated with a common pathology. Currently, epidemiologists define AIDS as the presence of several opportunistic or rare infections along with infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or as a severe decrease in the number of CD4+ cells (6200/ml of blood) and a positive test showing the presence of antibodies against HIV. The infections include diseases of the skin, such as shingles and disseminated (widespread) herpes; diseases of the nervous system, including meningitis, toxoplasmosis, and Cytomegalovirus disease; diseases of the respiratory system, such as tuberculosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, histoplasmosis, and coccidioidomycosis; and diseases of the digestive system, including chronic diarrhea, thrush, and oral hairy leukoplakia. A rare cancer of blood vessels called Kaposi’s sarcoma is also commonly seen in AIDS patients. AIDS often results in dementia during the final stages.
HIV stays a public health concern in many sub-Saharan African countries including Tanzania. The national prevalence among adolescents and adults aged 15-49 years is estimated to be 4.8%. Prevalence among women is higher compared to men (6.2% versus 3.7%). The number of people living with HIV increased from 1.3 million in 2010 to 1.7 million in 2019, while deaths associated with AIDS decreased from 52,000 in 2010 to 27,000 in 2019 In Tanzania HIV is a generalized epidemic affecting both urban and rural populations, but there are also concentrated epidemics among certain population groups such as people who inject drugs, gay people, mobile populations and sex workers. Heterosexual sex accounts for the vast majority (80%) of HIV infections in the country and women are particularly affected.
Over the last two decades, despite wide geographical diversity in absolute levels of incidence, adolescent girls and young women have been disproportionately affected by new HIV infections compared to male counterparts. To end new infections among the growing population of adolescents in the country, HIV prevention programmes must address the gender inequalities driving excessive risk among adolescent girls more effectively. The country also suffers from a severe shortage health workers—there are only three trained health professionals for every 10,000 people. This means that many who are HIV-positive go undiagnosed and untreated.
The severity of the epidemic varies geographically. In mainland Tanzania, HIV prevalence varies across regions, with the southern highland regions of Njombe (11.4), Iringa and Mbeya as well as Mwanza region having much higher HIV prevalence compared to other regions. Meanwhile, HIV prevalence in Zanzibar is low with about 6,990 people living with HIV while Kusini Unguja and Kaskazini Pemba report no HIV prevalence. The number of new HIV infections decreased from 82,000 in 2018 to 77,000 in 2019.
The percentage of pregnant women enrolled in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services reached 92% in 2019. However, poor retention rates among pregnant and lactating mothers (67% and 83% respectively) remain a challenge, contributing towards the mother-to-child HIV infection rate of 11% in 2019 against the global target of 5%. Early infant diagnosis uptake is also low, and the paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage of 66% in 2019 lags the national target of achieving 90% coverage by 2022.
Key Affected Populations in Tanzania
Women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania. In 2019, 980,000 women aged 15 and over were living with HIV, compared to 630,000 adult men. In the same year, 40,000 women acquired HIV, compared to around 29,000 men. The nationally representative 2016-2017 Tanzania Impact Survey (THIS) found that women aged 15-39 are more than twice as likely to be living with HIV as their male counterparts. Gender inequality is widespread among women of all ages in Tanzania. In 2016, around 30% of women aged 15-49 who had ever been married or in a long-term relationship were estimated to have experienced physical or sexual violence from a male intimate partner in the past 12 months. This increases many women’s vulnerability to HIV, either directly, through sexual violence, or indirectly, through an inability to negotiate condoms or prevent their partner from having other sexual relationships. In addition, women tend to become infected earlier because they have older partners and get married earlier.
2. Young People
It is estimated that more than half the population in Tanzania are aged 19 and under. THIS reported HIV prevalence among young people (ages 15-24) at 1%, with young women around four times more likely than young men to be living with HIV (2% prevalence among young women, compared to 0.6% prevalence among young men). Prevalence among children (ages 0-14) is 0.3%. In 2019, 24,000 young people in Tanzania became HIV-positive; roughly two-thirds of whom were young women (16,000 new infections among young women, compared to 7,600 among young men. The disparity between the sexes is linked to age-related vulnerabilities experienced by young women that intersect with widespread gender inequality. For instance, Tanzania’s ‘sugar daddy’ culture, in which young women embark on sexual relationships with older men in exchange for material goods or social advancement, is a key driver of HIV among young women. Even though their partners come from age groups with higher HIV prevalence than younger men, and may also engage in other sexual relationships, young women are often unable to negotiate condom use due to the unequal power balance in these relationships. This is proven by a study involving 18- to 24-year-old women in Dar es Salaam, which found that in couples of the same age decisions about condom use were made together (48%) or by the young women alone (34%). Decision-making during sex with older men was predominantly made by the male partner (79%).
Many young people are also unaware about how to prevent transmission. In 2016/17, just 37% of young people showed adequate knowledge on how to prevent HIV and could correctly reject common misconceptions about how the virus is transmitted. Young people, particularly young men, are also less likely than older age groups to test for HIV. As a result, in 2016/17 it was estimated that only half of young people living with HIV were aware of their status.
3. People Who Inject Drugs (PWID)
Tanzania is home to a significant population of people who inject drugs (sometimes referred to as PWID). In 2014, Tanzania National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) estimated there were 30,000 people who inject drugs in the country, 35% of whom were living with HIV. HIV prevalence among women who inject drugs is thought to be twice that of their male peers. The reasons for this are not fully known although possible factors include women who inject drugs being involved in sex work or being last in line when syringes are shared. Data on people who inject drugs varies widely between studies, due to the hidden nature of this population. Existing evidence suggests heroin use is on the rise and this population group is growing.
Most studies involving people who inject drugs in Tanzania have been conducted in Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar. Zanzibar is a gateway to the African continent and is also situated along a major corridor for drug trafficking. Around one in six people who live in Zanzibar and inject drugs is living with HIV, according to 2010 estimates, although some believe this figure may be higher. A 2015 study of 480 people who use drugs in the north-western city of Mwanza found that 13.5% of respondents injected drugs, 67% of whom shared needles. This study suggests that injecting drug use, particularly heroin, is now a significant issue in a major city outside Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar.
4. Mobile Populations
Migration is common in Tanzania. In particular, the expansion of the mining sector has led to greater urbanisation and mobility between rural and urban areas. This means that young and sexually active men come into close contact with ‘considerable risk sexual networks’ made up of sex workers, women at truck stops and miners: all of whom have prominent levels of HIV prevalence. Long-distance truck drivers, agricultural plantation workers and fisher men working along coastal trading towns are also at an increased risk of HIV. For example, a 2015 study by the International Organisation for Migration on truck drivers in Dar es Salaam found all those surveyed had proven sexual relationships with partners at truck stops whom they considered permanent or second wives (described as ‘Mapoza’). A 2018 study involving around 400 people from fishing communities in Tanzania found an overall HIV prevalence of 14%, although this varied widely depending on location, from 7.2% to 23.8%. Around 38% of study participants living with HIV who had been diagnosed had not started treatment.28 It is not only mobile men who are at increased risk of HIV infection. Women who travel away from home five or more times in a year have been found to be twice as likely to be infected with HIV than women who do not travel.
5. Sex Workers
Sex work is considered criminal, and it is punishable by law in Tanzania. Despite this, it is estimated that around 150,000 people, mainly women, sell sex, especially in Dar-es-Salaam. In 2018, HIV prevalence among female sex workers was estimated at 15.4%. However, as with many other key population groups, data is limited and earlier estimates suggest HIV prevalence among this group is much higher, at around 31%. Around 70% of sex workers are estimated to use condoms. This is despite sex workers having poor access to HIV prevention programmes, which are thought to reach around one in five. The gender inequalities that result in women being disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania are acutely felt by female sex workers. The fact that sex work is also illegal means sex workers are subject to abuse and human rights violations from clients and from those in authority, including police officers and healthcare workers. This means many sex workers are reluctant to access HIV prevention, testing and treatment services while also being exposed to prominent levels of sexual violence, multiple partners and condom less sex.
6. Men Who Have Sex With Men
Same-sex sexual relations are illegal in Tanzania. As a result, data on this population group is extremely limited, a situation made worse by a government-sanctioned crackdown on LGBT people that began in 2015. In 2018, 8.4% of men who have sex with men (sometimes referred to as MSM) in Tanzania were estimated to be living with HIV. However earlier estimates released in 2014 put prevalence much higher, at 25%. This data suggested there were 49,700 men who have sex with men in the country. In 2014, only around 14% of men who have sex with men reported using condoms consistently. However, data from 2013 put condom use levels at 63%, highlighting how patchy the evidence currently is.
Tanzanian Government Attitude Towards Tackling HIV/AIDS
The Government considers the HIV/AIDS epidemic is a national public health threat affecting Tanzanian society economically, politically, socially, and culturally. The Government states it is committed to the national vision of freeing the country from the epidemic and having a generation live without fear of HIV and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A vision will be reached in line with the UNAIDS vision of three zeros: zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination, and zero AIDS-related deaths.
The government of Tanzania adopted the National HIV/AIDS policy in 2001 and acknowledged that stigma was a key issue fueling HIV infection. In 2008, the government passed the HIV and AIDS Prevention and Control Act aimed at protecting the human rights of those living with HIV, including the prohibition of discrimination.
The Government of Tanzania has made substantial progress in HIV/AIDS prevention, care, treatment, and impact mitigation. Progress has been made in resource mobilization, communication, advocacy, and community participation. The government continues to increase the level of funding for the national response to HIV/AIDS in its annual budget and through collaboration with national and international communities.
The government has faced social, economic, and development challenges resulting from the HIV/AIDS epidemic and has made various efforts to address these challenges. This work requires a concerted, multidisciplinary effort from all HIV/AIDS stakeholders at all levels, including government and nongovernment, civil society organizations (CSOs), communities, and individuals. Under the Prime Minister’s Office, TACAIDS is mandated to provide strategic leadership and coordination of the HIV/AIDS national response through development of a strategic framework and national guidelines for HIV. The development of the National Guidelines on HIV Prevention Strategy and the National Stigma and Discrimination Reduction Strategy are the government’s road maps to curbing the epidemic. The revised National HIV Policy 2011, the National Multisectoral Strategic Framework (2013-2017), and the fourth National Multisectoral Strategic Framework (2018-2023) are the guiding tools for the implementation of HIV activities. These documents are developed in line with international guidelines on HIV and human rights to ensure the accountability of the government and other stakeholders (the private sector, development partners, CSOs, and the community) in their actions within the national HIV/AIDS response
The Tanzania HIV Impact Survey (THIS), a household-based national survey, was conducted between October 2016 and August 2017 to measure the status of Tanzania’s national HIV response. It surveyed over 14,000 households and interviewed more than 33,000 adults (15 and older) and 10,000 children (14 and younger). THIS offered HIV counselling and testing with return of results, and collected information about household and individual characteristics, and uptake of HIV care and treatment services. The THIS is the first national HIV survey that covered populations of all ages and other indicators that were not part of the three surveys conducted previously in the country. These added indicators included: HIV incidence, CD4 T-cell count, viral load (VL) suppression (VLS), antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance and presence of ARV drugs in the blood; HIV prevalence among children aged 0-9 years, early adolescent children aged 10-14 years, and elders aged 50 years and older; and the prevalence of syphilis, acute or chronic hepatitis B, and past or current hepatitis C.
The survey, which is part of the multi-country Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA), was conducted by ICAP at Columbia University in partnership with the Government of Tanzania through the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and Zanzibar AIDS Commission (ZAC), funding from the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and technical help from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). THIS provides an important new reference point in Tanzania’s march toward epidemic control within its borders and the global response to HIV at large.
The primary aims of THIS were to estimate the national-level annual HIV incidence among adults aged 15 years and older, and the subnational prevalence of viral load (VL) suppression (VLS), defined as HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) less than 1,000 copies/millilitre (mL), among HIV-positive adults. Secondary aims of THIS were to measure national and regional adult HIV prevalence; national and regional distribution of CD4 counts; detection of ARVs in blood; national prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance; national paediatric HIV prevalence; progress toward the 90-90-90 targets defined by UNAIDS; and national prevalence of syphilis, hepatitis B (HBV) infection and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The survey also collected information on behaviours associated with HIV acquisition and transmission, common HIV comorbidities, and other health conditions. The “90-90-90” refer to targets set by UNAIDS to achieve control of the HIV epidemic by 2020 and are defined as 90% of all people living with HIV (PLHIV) will know their HIV status; 90% of all people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained ART; and 90% of all people receiving ART will have VLS.
Key findings from the report revealed that 5.0% of adults (15-64 years) in Tanzania were currently living with HIV. A substantial percentage of these adults – nearly 40% – are unaware of their positive status, well-below the UNAIDS target of 90% of all people living with HIV knowing their status in 2020. Conversely, there has been progress in adults living with HIV who are aware of their status, with 93.6% receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and 87.0% of those on ART having viral load suppression. After the report’s release, the National Council of People living with HIV and AIDS (NACOPHA) announced that the results will be used to design awareness campaigns on prevention, medication and stigma for people living with HIV in Tanzania.
HIV/AIDS Testing and Counselling
Results from THIS suggests around 65% of adults in Tanzania have taken an HIV test at least once (59% of men and 71% of women) but only a third regularly test for HIV (every 12 months). Around 16% of adults who tested positive during THIS had never been tested for HIV before (20% of men and 14% of women). Adolescents (ages 15-19) have particularly low testing levels, despite prominent levels of sexual activity. THIS found that around 79% of adolescent men and 61% of adolescent women had never tested for HIV before.
In 2013, Tanzania introduced new HIV testing approaches such as home-based testing, community testing and provider-initiated testing. Since then, other testing approaches, such as index testing, have also been introduced. As a result of these accelerated efforts, in 2018 the number of people living with HIV who were aware of their status was 78%, compared with 64% in 2015.
In 2018 the Tanzanian government began to fully scale-up self-testing for HIV and is focusing on supplying self-testing kits for hard-to-reach groups. For example, using antennal clinics to provide pregnant women with self-testing kits to pass onto their husbands or boyfriends. Pilot programmes are also being carried out to learn how best to provide self-testing kits to the partners of sex workers and other key and vulnerable populations.
The Tanzanian government has also begun a campaign called Furaha Yangu! (My Happiness!) to increase the number of young men and adolescent boys testing for HIV.
HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs
Tanzania is currently implementing its fourth Health Sector HIV and AIDS Strategic Plan (HSHSP IV), which runs between 2017 and 2022. The strategy aims to increase access to combination prevention services for the general population to reduce new HIV infections. The guidelines also commit to implementing comprehensive prevention services for several key populations, including adolescent girls and young women, female sex workers, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, prisoners and migrant populations.
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT)
Noteworthy progress that has been made in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in the past few years in Tanzania. In 2018, 93% of pregnant women living with HIV were receiving effective ART, compared to 75% in 2010. It is estimated that ART coverage among pregnant women living with HIV has averted around 14,000 new infections among new-borns. However, 8,600 children still acquired HIV in 2018. One of the reasons for HIV transmission still occurring vertically (from parent to child) is that not all pregnant women are tested for HIV. In 2018, 91% of pregnant women attending antenatal services received HIV testing. In addition, only half (47%) of infants exposed to HIV during pregnancy were tested for HIV within eight weeks of birth (known as ‘early infant diagnosis’). To reach as many women as possible, the vast majority of PMTCT services are now integrated with reproductive and child health services. Inefficient antiretroviral drug regimens for pregnant women and new mothers, drug stock-outs and poor adherence to treatment also contribute to the continuing transmission of HIV via this route.
2. Condom promotion
The Tanzanian government recognises condom promotion as an integral part of its fight against the epidemic. The goal of its 2017-2022 HIV prevention strategy is to ensure 85% of people engaged in multiple sexual partnerships use condoms correctly and consistently. To achieve this, around 260 million free condoms must be made available annually. However, weak supply lines and a lack of funding means this may not be achievable. In 2018, it was reported that the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria would finance 120 million public sector condoms, PSI would contribute around 18 million and an added 20 million would be provided by other sources. This leaves an impending shortfall of around 100 million condoms. In addition, more effective promotion is needed to encourage people to use condoms. In 2017, it was reported that just 30% of women and 46% of men used a condom the last time they had a sex with a non-marital, non-cohabiting partner. These levels are lower than previously reported, suggesting more people are engaging in risky sexual behaviour that leaves them vulnerable to HIV infection. Low condom use is also occurring among high-risk groups. For instance, a study involving 18- to 24-year-old women in Dar-es-salaam found that only 32% used a condom during sex with regular boyfriends. Condom use declined even further if the women were involved in transactional sexual relationships with older men, with only 2% saying they always used a condom during these types of sexual encounters.
3. HIV awareness and sex education
While Tanzania has a broad sex education curriculum, only a third of schoolteachers have been trained on how to deliver these lessons, meaning access is patchy. In addition, certain subjects, such as the examination of minority sexualities, are not covered. Condom demonstration and condom distribution is also not allowed during sex education lessons. On top of this, the number of people attending school beyond primary level is low, with only around 19% of people having some form of secondary education. This limits the opportunities to reach older adolescents with sexual health education. To fill these gaps, several civil society organisations provide added sexual and reproductive health and HIV education, in and out of school settings.
4. Cash transfer programmes
Cash transfer programmes form part of a new arm of HIV prevention that focuses on integrated programmes for social protection schemes and sexual health. Across sub-Saharan Africa these types of programmes have been shown to have a positive effect on preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In one Tanzanian pilot, cash incentives of US$10 or US$20 were given to young adults aged between 18 and 30, if they were free from STIs. One year into the study, there was a 25% risk reduction in STIs. These programmes show that economic benefit can positively influence people to use condoms more often.63 In 2017 the Tanzanian government, in collaboration with UNICEF, began a cash transfer scheme called Cash Plus as part of a programme to empower and strengthen the resilience and wellbeing of adolescents from the country’s poorest households. Cash Plus participants receive tailored, life skills training on various subjects, including sexual and reproductive health, as well as being linked to sexual and reproductive health and HIV services. They also receive financial support to either stay in school or start a small business and are supported by mentors and peer educators throughout.
5. Harm reduction
In 2011, with aid from PEPFAR, Tanzania became the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to implement a harm reduction programme for people who inject drugs. A methadone treatment clinic opened in Tanzania’s largest health facility, based in Dar es Salaam, then extended to a second hospital in the city. Although there has since been an increase in opioid substitution therapy (OST) interventions outside Dar es Salaam, access still is limited, with just 20% of people who inject drugs able to access OST in 2018. It is estimated that around 14% of Tanzanian-based people who inject drugs are sharing needles when injecting.
6. Pre exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)
In 2018 Tanzania began to scale up pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily course of antiretroviral drugs taken by HIV-negative people to protect themselves from infection, for key populations. The following year, the government announced plans to extend this nationwide, including expanding eligibility criteria to include adolescent girls and young women. As of 2019, it was estimated that between 3,200 and 3,700 people were using PrEP in Tanzania. Most of these people are adolescent girls and young women, although female sex workers and their partners and the HIV-negative partners of people living with HIV are also being targeted by implementation or demonstration projects.
Antiretroviral Treatment In Tanzania
Tanzania has scaled up its antiretroviral (ART) programmes in recent years, and the number of people on ART has been on the rise since 2010. In 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended ‘test and treat’ guidelines was introduced, which makes anyone testing positive for HIV eligible for immediate treatment regardless of the level of HIV in their body.
In 2018, 71% of people living with HIV in Tanzania were receiving ART, equivalent to 1.1 million people. This is around a 20% increase from 2015, when 52% of HIV-positive people were on ART. As of 2018, around 90% of people diagnosed with HIV began ART in less than seven days.
More than 95% of people on treatment are still in care after 12 months, according to 2018 data. This is intricately linked to good levels of viral suppression. In 2019, 83% of people diagnosed and on treatment were virally suppressed, with men and women enjoying similar levels of viral suppression (86% and 89% respectively). However, due to gaps in testing and linkage to care, only 69% of people living with HIV are virally suppressed.
Studies conducted in various regions of Tanzania have reported low linkage to care for people who test HIV-positive. For example, a study following around 1,000 people newly diagnosed with HIV in Mbeya, a rural area, found just 28% were successfully linked to care. Under-resourced, poorly coordinated health services, as well as prominent levels of HIV-related stigma were the main reasons these people did not begin treatment.
The Tanzanian government has begun to simplify drug regimens and move to fixed-dose combinations while phasing out toxic drugs such as Stavudine. Evidence is currently mixed as to whether levels of pre-treatment and acquired drug-resistant HIV are high enough to be considered a public health issue in Tanzania.
Major Challenges To HIV/AIDS Response
Stigma is a major challenge for HIV prevention and thus a priority area for intervention. HIV stigma manifests at both individual and community levels and affects negatively on mental health-invoking feelings of shame, guilt, fear, and depression. Many people prefer to attribute a relative’s sickness to witchcraft than to admit it is AIDS. People who are HIV positive in Tanzania are referred to as ”maiti inayotembea”. Stigma negatively affects delivery of key services, through discriminatory attitudes among service providers and through lack of uptake among those needing the service. Stigma can be a barrier to important HIV prevention actions, such as condom use, HIV testing, disclosure of HIV status and access to antiretroviral treatment.
According to the WHO, Tanzania has one of the worst physician-to-patient ratios in the world, with just 0.031 physicians per 1,000 people in 2012. The lack of doctors is a particular problem in rural areas, where there are often only nurses available to treat patients. Additionally, a recent study showed that 40% of all doctors in Tanzania work in the private sector. Qualified doctors and nurses are also emigrating abroad because of better pay, conditions and training opportunities. This means health sector shortages are still a critical problem to the scale up of HIV treatment, counselling and prevention in Tanzania.
Gender inequalities and gender-based violence experienced by women continue to hamper the HIV response in Tanzania. Men who have sex with men are also at an increased risk of sexual violence. Although data is limited, a study involving around 350 Tanzanian-based men who have sex with men found 94% had experienced some form of violence, including 73% who had experienced sexual violence.
Though HIV prevalence has fallen in over the past decade, tens of thousands of people still become infected with HIV every year. Stigma against HIV-positive people, the criminalisation of key population groups, and human resource shortages are preventing a sustained reduction in new HIV infections.
Specific HIV programming for people from hard-hit communities in certain areas is necessary to get Tanzania’s HIV epidemic under control. Focusing on national-level indicators means severely affected districts have previously been overlooked.
A 2015 analysis by PEPFAR cites health financing, supply chain, and performance and financial data collection as areas where Tanzania’s national HIV response needs improvement. In response to this, the government presented a comprehensive healthcare financing strategy to the Cabinet, with a focus on scaling up health insurance coverage, strengthening value for money, and engaging the private sector.
These efforts will be necessary if Tanzania is to overcome the debilitating effects the HIV epidemic continues to have on its economy and society. There is also an urgent need to address the lack of domestic funding for the HIV response so that Tanzania is not so reliant on international support to end its HIV epidemic.
Mbaraka Amuri, Steve Mitchell, Anne Cockcroft & Neil Andersson (2011): Socio-economic status and HIV/AIDS stigma in Tanzania, AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, 23:3, 378-382
Travelling can bring a ton of changes to our daily routines and lifestyles. Flying into different time zones, or simply driving through polluted areas can have a huge impact on your skin. Dehydration, puffy eyes, and breakouts can all result from these changes. Consequently, it is critical to take right skin care products with you that will preserve your skin through this lifestyle change.
So, you have a few days before you go on your trip, you are surfing through the web to find the right skin care products but find yourself overwhelmed with thousands – if not millions – of skin care options. The last thing you need is to feel exasperated about which product to take with you.
A few multi-functional and high-quality products are all you need to enjoy a worry-free trip while preserving your healthy skin. We have compiled a few products that will make a big difference in your trip. No longer so you have to worry about skin breakouts, flakiness, or dull skin.
If your skin is prone to dryness and puffiness then a rejuvenating mist is sure to cure this skin problem. The Protective Dust Screen Mist by Accoje is a highly effective option because it is free from harsh chemicals like paraben and alcohol. Its triple protection technology forms a protective barrier on the skin to prevent micro-particles from clogging your pores. It is best suited for travels where your skin will be exposed to dust. All you need to do is spray it directly on your face and enjoy long hours of moisturized, and supple skin. As we have said before, skin care is a solemn ritual. Including a mist in your travel bag and replenishing skin moisture should top the list.
2) Face packs
Face masks are great additions to any skincare regimen to target specific skin care issues. Face Masks are especially beneficial if you are headed to warm or hot destinations. Being in a humid environment means you will perspire more, sweat cannot dry up, leaving the skin feeling warm and sticky. This makes facial skin vulnerable to infections and breakouts. Masks can help restore skin’s PH balance, remove excess oils and tighten the skin pores. Face packs come in containers.
and you may need to travel light- especially in road trips. The Missha Pure Source Pocket Pack is a commendable product that comes in a compact size. Comes with a variety of textures and extracts like pomegranate, green tea, and shea butter. With gel like and thick creamy textures, you can choose from this range the one that best suits your skin type.
3) Light facial oils
Need a moisturizer that will keep the PH of your skin balanced even when you are out on a long walk on a sunny day? Then choose the WONDER Black Rice Facial Oil by Haru Haru Wonder a light weight and fast absorbing formula that does not leave a greasy residue on your face. Prolonged exposure to the sun or extreme winds and cold can cause evaporation of moisture from the skin and may lead to dry skin – this applies to all skin types. So if you are going to a place where you will be out in the sun all day this face oil is for you. Formulated with sweet almond, jojoba oil which promote collagen synthesis, soothes irritated skin and keeps it hydrated. this product immediately revives the skin’s elasticity.
4) Sun blockers
A sun-kissed glowing face looks amazing in Instagram pictures! But skin suffers a lot when constantly exposed to the harmful ultraviolet rays while you are basking at the beach. To prevent skin inflammation, pigmentation, and reddened skin it is absolutely necessary to pack your sunscreen with you. The Rovectin Double tone-up UV Protector SPF50+ PA++++ is an option; a mineral sunscreen infused with Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide. SPF50+ acts as a protective barrier on your skin by blocking 98% of ultraviolet rays. Vitamin E stimulates cell reproduction and fights free radicals, most importantly it traps moisture in your skin. Ideal for teen-age to mature skin, pack this for yourself and your mom.
5) More Sun-protection
They say you can never have too much sunscreen, and that is the truth! After a long day out doors your skin will still need to be replenished. Extra UV protection, moisturization, calmness and softness are just what your skin needs. Choose I’M REPAIR AFTER SUN soothing cream by Suntique because it provides a major boost of hydration. Infused with panthenol, it improves the skin’s elasticity, and smooth appearance. This is beneficial to the skin after spending the day outdoor where your skin is exposed to the hot sun or cold weather. It is an effective treatment for all skin types with special mention of ageing and dehydrated skin.
A compact bag with all these items is all you need to maintain a youthful appearance and a room somewhere. They will cater to your skin problems while you enjoy the road trip and let you be free from worries. With all these products that we tried on, why wont you have all the fun?