How to Encourage Saving Habits

Marina Joseph – Art in Tanzania Internship

Setting money aside for savings, like so many other things in life, is a habit that must be created. You should do all you can to foster a savings habit if you want to see your savings rise. Instead of being a burden, putting money away can become a way of life. If you’re having trouble getting into the habit of saving, try the following methods or approaches to stay motivated:

saving money

Begin small: To inspire non-savers to begin saving, it is critical to question any misconceptions that might be holding them back, such as the notion that saving is too difficult or that they must make significant sacrifices to make it worthwhile. Starting small (by establishing short-term objectives and defining practical lifestyle changes) makes saving feel possible, builds trust, and feels ‘easy.’

Show progress toward a target: Having a specific and concrete goal, as well as a strategy for achieving it, gives people something to concentrate on, and research shows that as these goals are reached, savings patterns will form.

Reward yourself for completing small milestones: Depending on the duration of your target, you will reward yourself at various milestones. This allows you to monitor your progress and keeps you motivated to keep saving. These incentives should be enjoyable activities that you would not usually do but are still small and reasonable. It might be a day off (if you can take one), a picnic in the park, dinner at a nicer restaurant than normal, or some other fun activity. Only don’t spend all of your money while you’re enjoying your tiny reward.

Make it social: research from other industries shows that sharing commitment devices with friends and family will help people stick to their goals (typically via social media.) Commitment contracts go a step further, imposing a penalty if you don’t keep your word – but these strategies have yet to be proven in terms of saving behavior. Similarly, studies have shown that saving with friends and family is more motivational.

Form a habit: research shows that once savings habits are formed, they are more likely to be sustained, and that among ‘rainy-day savers,’ the savings habits they acquired as children are carried over into adulthood and become self-reinforcing.

Automate your savings: Setting up an automated system of moving your money around is one of the simplest ways to get into the habit of saving. Whether you have money from your paycheck automatically deposited into a savings account (including a retirement account) or you do an automatic transfer each month, getting your savings transferred around automatically will help you change your lifestyle to what you end up as take home pay

View saving as a game, not a chore: framing saving as a challenge makes it more appealing and counters the belief that it is too difficult or tiresome to think about. This is partly due to a lack of financial expertise in identifying practical ways to cut costs and save money.

Provide information and personalize it: information must be pitched at the appropriate level to avoid being patronizing.

People want to see simple and relevant advice: anything that ‘people like me’ can do

Composting to Improve Crops and Human Health

By Miakoda Ford – Art in Tanzania Intern

With the observable changes to weather patterns, such as shifts in rain patterns, and intensified storms, rural communities in Tanzania are struggling to maintain their agricultural way of life. Continuing to produce the crops and quantities needed is becoming gradually more challenging. It is understood and observed that rain patterns have been abnormal in recent years but the other environmental factors negatively affecting crops are far less noticeable. As most know, crops need water, sunlight, and soil to grow, and healthy crops make healthy people. Yet in reality the equation is far more complex than that. Some crops can easily be over watered or receive too much direct sunlight, and air quality affects their growth as well. However, the most important element in crop production is actually the soil. Soil is not only what holds and supports the plants, it is also what provides nutrients to the crops. Healthy soil can retain far more water than thin dusty soil, combating the issue of inconsistent watering. Healthy soil also helps to protect the plants from illness, bacteria, and underground pests. The most important aspect of healthy soil is that it gives nutrients and vitamins to the plants we eat. Continuing to grow crops in the same plot of land season after season removes all the nutrients from the soil causing the crop yield to decrease and human health to suffer. With the changes in the environment, variability of rainfall, increase in annual temperature, and prevalence of harmful plastic derived chemicals, the best way to ensure crop health does not drastically decrease is to: improve the health of the soil. Soil health can be
drastically improved with the use of natural fertilizer, and natural fertilizer can easily be made with little to no cost by composting food waste.
The widespread lack of a thorough waste management system — especially in agricultural regions, causes food waste to pile up near common living spaces or even spaces where food is prepared. This negatively affects human health in several ways. This form of waste management emits a greenhouse gas called Methane that amplifies changes in weather patterns by changing the chemistry of the atmosphere at an unnatural speed. But more importantly for the community, food waste attracts a large number of insects. Cholera is a very common and severe illness in these areas, and it is largely spread by flies. Flies feed on both human waste and rotting food, so when these materials are close to fresh food, illness occurs more frequently. With better managed food waste illness would be less frequent and far less severe.

Common waste consists of fresh fruit and vegetable peels, cooked starchy food waste, and scraps of cow, chicken, goat, and fish. All these things attract vermin and insects, but they also are all organic materials that are high in nutrients. If these materials were to be property composted human health would improve from both the improved crop yield and the reduction of illness.

Composting is the process of using food scraps and other natural materials such as grass clippings and coconut husks to create a natural nutrient rich fertilizer. Composting takes attention and effort, but it is an extremely effective way to increase water retention in soil, crop production, and crop health. If the plastics were removed from these images, all the materials could be the start of a healthy nutrient rich fertilizer. Properly combining compostable materials
initiates a thermal reaction between the materials that causes them to break down while producing nutrients. The main things needed are airflow, warmth, moisture and a three to one ratio of ‘brown’ and ‘green’ ingredients. Direct sunlight can also increase the speed of the process. Brown ingredients refer to carbon rich materials such as dry leaves, sticks, and ash.

While green ingredients are nitrogen rich materials like food waste, manure, and fresh grass clippings. The reaction that causes composting to be successful is dependent on the interaction between carbon and nitrogen rich materials, so it is very important to pay attention to what you are putting into your compost. Composting can be done on a small scale in trash cans or buckets, but it is important to put small holes in whatever container you use so heat and air can flow through. It is also important to use a lid. Thin layers are best because the ‘brown’ and ‘green’ materials need to be touching. Whenever you have food waste put it in your compost container and cover with a ‘brown’ layer, then put on the lid. The smaller the food scraps are the faster the fertilizer will form, so tear and grind materials when able. It is important to keep the compost moist — but not wet– so you should only add water as needed. If the compost appears slimy or smelly add extra ‘brown’ materials or even some dirt. Mixing or stirring the layers every three or four days speeds up the process. If you are using a bucket you can simply roll it gently with the lid on. It is very important to make sure no plastic contaminates the process. Only the materials listed below should be incorporated.

If you would like to compost on a larger scale to suit your level of crop production and food waste, outdoor compost piles are easy to start and maintain. The simplest way to start an outdoor compost pile is to place a pole or branch in the ground and create layers of materials around it. The first layer should be of larger ‘brown’ materials like tree clippings and hay, then you can add a thin layer of food waste, and more ‘brown’ materials on top. You can collect the
food waste in any closed container, just be sure that no other unnatural trash contaminates it.

Several households can contribute their waste to the same pile. So, when you need to empty your jar of rotting food scraps, take it to the outdoor pile and create another layer. Whenever you add the ‘green’ ingredients add a ‘brown’ layer on top to ensure the reaction will occur. Covering the food waste with dry leaves and other materials also helps to prevent pests from disturbing the pile. When your pile has formed you can remove the pole in the center which the layers were formed around, this will allow heat and air to flow efficiently throughout the pile and it will increase the speed of the process. When the pile is first formed you should cover it with a tarp or rice sacks weighed down by a few rocks, this insures that it does not become too moist and it traps all the materials, forcing the reaction to occur. A few days after food waste has been added you can stir the pile to help the layers mix and breakdown. When your compost appears to be dark thick dirt the process is complete, and you can utilize the fertilizer wherever your crops are growing.
Continuing the process will gradually yet significantly improve your garden or field of crops. The more fertilizer added, the better your crops will be. Improving your soil improves your health, making plentiful and vitamin rich foods.


By : Moureen Thangavelu

Obesity or overweight is defined as having abnormal or excessive fats that may impair health. 63% of Australian adults are overweight and 18.04% of Australian children have reported overweight in 2012 obesity is also steadily rising since the 90’s. Behavioral risk facts include excessive alcohol and inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables. Women are usually more likely to become more obese as adults but as children males have higher risks. This is due to the number of exercises a person does and their diet.
Adolescents who are overweight or obese are more vulnerable to risk behavior and are more likely to engage in maladaptive coping.

Overweight/obese teens are more likely than their normal weight counterparts to have disrupted social interactions, stigma, and weight prejudice. These stressful life experiences, combined with the normative challenges of adolescence and the burden of maintaining an unhealthy weight, can predispose adolescents to participate in health-risk behaviors.
Overweight and obese children are often taller for their age and gender, and they grow faster than slim children. Increased leptin and sex hormone levels in obese children with excess adiposity can be linked to rapid pubertal development and epiphyseal growth plate maturation.

According to study, blaming parents for their children’s weight gain can be irrational.
It has been proposed that the eating habits of parents play a significant role in whether an infant is underweight or overweight.

Changes in diet. Obesity can be overcome by reducing calories and adopting healthy dietary habits. While you can lose weight easily at first, long-term weight loss is considered the easiest way to lose weight and the best way to hold it off forever.

Environmental Disaster Management in Tanzania

By Baraka Mwampalile – Art in Tanzania internship


Definition of key terms

Disaster- we can define as the serious disruptions occurring over a short period of time that cause widespread human, material, economic and environmental loss which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.

It can be as natural or man-made disasters such as drought, floods, earthquakes, cyclones, eruption of diseases, bomb explosions and accidents both on land, air and water.

Disaster management

As the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspect of emergencies in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters. It includes all procedure, processes, agencies and institutional framework which are inter-linkage each other to manage hazards.

General overview of Disaster Management in Tanzania

Tanzania mainland is exposed of many hazard including floods, drought, cyclones, volcanic eruptions, tsunami and earthquakes, all of which have potential of disrupting the community in term of social economic services, ecological, environmental and health. Similar, Tanzania under the prime minister identifying that, major disasters in our country are floods, drought and earthquakes which causing casualties and damaging or destroying the public or private property.

Similar, Tanzania government since independence introducing The disaster Management Department (DMD) under the prime minister office which has the main work on identifying and anticipating hazards and preparations of plans, programs against disasters impacts so as to save lives and protect property.

Status of Disaster Management in Tanzania

Through different scholars and disaster personnel making researchers on the trend of disaster since independence up to current. The united republic of Tanzania government trying take an efforts on to lessen up the impacts of disasters like earthquakes, drought and floods by making policies (Disaster Management Policy of 2004), Disaster Act, of 2015, programs like N’gorongoro community base disaster management, introduction of institutions providing expertise dealing with disaster and environmental for example The university of Dar es salaam and The university of Dodoma and supervising coordination among the institutions on time of hazard occurrence like fire department, health sector, policy force and other ministries agencies on reducing the directed impacts to the community. Although those efforts but still now our country suffer from disrupting of natural disaster.

The possible challenges are poor implementation of policies and acts whereby on paperwork comprises of all measures and actions on preparedness, response and recovery but still on reality based on response stages where government allocates their resources effectively compared to other stages. Also, we challenged with shortage of disaster expertise which are more potential in all sectors through on making and implementation of policies, acts, preparations of programs and plans, provision of awareness to the community. Furthermore, educational institutions are very few which provide each year’s personnel such as Ardhi University and The University of Dodoma.

Table: Disasters current trend

Types of DisasterPlaceYearsImpacts
FloodsDar es Salaam27-05-2019total number  of people affected with flood (2-death)
DroughtAgro-ecological zones2011-2016Reductions crops-yields 7.
EarhquakesKagera20161170-total number of people affected with earthquakes(UNCEF)
  • Why developing countries, it is commonly lack of funds, equipment and educated people to manage the Disaster situations.

Lack of funds. Most of political ruling systems in developing countries invaded with political issues which trigger management of disaster. Every ruling system comes with their political ideology which based on other sectors than directions of enough resources on disaster management. For example, in 2015 the late president Dr. Joseph John Pombe Magufuli came up with investment on industrial economy whereby a lot of funds invested on industries compared to disaster department. Also, there is no proper coordination on resources ownership among stakeholders, agencies and ministries. In addition, most developing countries depend on donor countries which create an environment to depend all the time on international donors during disaster strike for example Tanzania on disasters project depend on much world banks which sponsor constructions and repairing infrastructures affected with floods.

  • Equipment

We have low technological advancement in term of innovations which are most important to produce equipment used on weather forecasting, early warning systems and transportation equipment services like cars, airplane. Although current some developing countries taking actions on creation of weather forecasting satellite which are used on provisions of cyclones information  (SADC, 4IR satellite launching on 27-10-2020).

Figure: SADC, 4IR satellite louching 2020


Allocation of enough budget in disaster management. Tanzania government current they should increases more budgets which will help to minimize the impacts of disaster in social-economic and environment. Also they should creating proper economic diversification where sectors are more priorities to acquire enough capital they should contribute to disaster department which will help to access more equipment like weather forecasting equipment, warning systems and rescue equipment which will bring benefits to our country specifically in rural areas community will access easily warning Information and educations on how to conserve environment (land, water and air).

Similar, Tanzania government they should increases number of institutions on provision of disasters education for aiming of increasing number of disaster experts, provision of education on practical rather than theoretical and provisions of disaster experts in all sectors on provision of educations and preparations of plans and programs. Furthermore, government should make sure policies and Acts are well implemented not remaining on paperwork.

In addition, technology should be improved at all levels so as to create better conditions for making sustainably country on technological innovations. Both local technologies and modern technologies should be emphasized so as to reduce the impacts of disasters from national up to local levels, for example using insects, animals on weather forecasting and prediction, food storage facilities (modern and local) which will bring positive impacts on environment and social-economic aspects against disaster impacts.

Indoor Air Pollution

What is indoor air pollution?

            Indoor air pollution is when the condition of air surrounding building settings both inside and out is detrimental to the health of living beings. It is especially dangerous in comparison to outdoor air pollution because of how confined the space is within a building as opposed to the space outside.

            Some of the causes of indoor air pollution are a result of the materials used to construct the building, practices followed in and around the building, and natural contaminants. Asbestos can be found in roofing panels and shingles, insulation materials, water supply lines, and cement pipes. Formaldehyde can be found in wood products, press fabrics, glues, paints, pesticides, cosmetics, and detergents. Radon gas can be found within the ground beneath homes and slip in through any cracks or openings in the home. Tobacco smoke can accumulate if smoking is done around or within the home. Biological pollutants such as bacteria, mold and animal dander can enter the home from outside. Appliances such as stoves and heaters can release carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide.

            Asbestos is a material that is harmful to health and has been made illegal to use as a building material in many countries. Formaldehyde will gather within a home if there is no proper ventilation. Radon gas can leak into homes if the gas in the ground is not removed or reduced. Tobacco smoke will increase if continued smoking is done inside or around the home. Biological pollutants grow if the environment in the home has damp or humid areas. Appliances that are used without proper ventilation can cause more harmful gases to reside within the home.

What are other household pollutants?

            Charcoal is often used for cooking and heating because of its availability and modest price. Without proper ventilation smoke from charcoal that stays trapped in the homes causes harm to the residents in the building. Organic waste and poor sewage treatment are more biological pollutants that are often improperly left within and around the homes releasing many harmful gases into the air. Along with a lack of practical toilets, the buildup of waste makes the increase of indoor air pollution more potent.  

What does it affect?

            The main complications that arise from indoor air pollution is the effect it has on human health as those areas inside and outside the buildings become a very unsafe environment to live in. Both short term and long-term illnesses can develop due to indoor air pollutants. Eye, nose and throat irritation, headaches, dizziness, and fatigue are some of the more milder health issues. Long-term illnesses include respiratory diseases such as asthma, allergies and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart conditions such as angina, arrythmia, heart attacks, heart failure and hypertension, and cancer. Pneumonia, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer can become fatal health risks.

            The ones most affected are usually women and young children who spend more time in and around their homes. Older adults, people with existing heart conditions, and those with breathing/lung problems and illnesses are also at risk.

            Different instruments for cooking, heating, and lighting are powered using kerosene, biomass, coal, and charcoal. To collect some of these materials, it exhausts a lot of time especially for women and children. This takes away time that could be spent to work or attend school. Individuals can become injured from gathering the fuel and can develop musculoskeletal damage. Safety can become a big issue as kerosene can be accidently consumed and often results in childhood poisoning. Severe burns can also occur. A lot of the black carbon and methane released from these instruments can contribute to climate change pollutants.

What are some solutions?

            Eco-friendly stoves are one way to reduce emissions of gases if alternative methods to burning wood or charcoal are applied. Solar power and other natural fuel sources like biomass, volcanic rocks and briquettes can be used. These energy sources are sustainable as they last for a long time and do not emit the harmful gases that contribute to air pollution. Solar panels can be installed and hooked up to the stove to supply energy. Solar energy is a large potential power source as the geographical location increases the amount of sunlight that can be captured. Volcanic rocks can be heated up and then used. These rocks can be reused for up to two years. Briquettes are made from dried pruned branches that are then carbonized and combined with a natural binder. The briquettes produce low carbon emissions.

            Heating is usually done with traditional fireplaces that typically require coal, charcoal, or wood. A more ecofriendly alternative that will not emit those harmful pollutants is an electric fireplace. Smoke which contains carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, two very harmful gases, will no longer be released. These fireplaces are more effective at heating up the home as chimneys and specialized vents aren’t needed. The heat cannot escape from the homes through those spots, which normally occurs in traditional fireplaces. LED bulbs are used which drains less electricity comparatively to standard bulbs and can last up to 50,000 hours. These fireplaces can be positioned in any room in the house and demands little maintenance.

            Proper ventilation and air circulation allow gas buildup to leave the home and biological pollutants to not accumulate. Many household gases can be harmful as appliances that require the burning of materials to run release a lot of gases. Some of the chemicals in the house from the framework and structure of the building also release gases that do not leave the home. With proper ventilation using ducts, pipes and placing items within the home in certain locations, reduces the stockpiling of gases. Interior doors should be left open, and furniture should be kept away from outside walls. Humidity and dampness can also lessen as this limits the creation of a habitat for more biological pollutants to grow.

            Composting organic waste is one way to prevent harmful gases from transpiring in your home. Dry composting toilets take human waste and turns it into compost. This eliminates the need to have a sewage system as proper or lack thereof of such systems has greatly minimized appropriate sanitation methods and organic waste disposable. Other organic waste such as food scraps can also be composted in green bins.   

What will be impacted?

            Shrinking and possibly eliminating indoor air pollution with these potential solutions means that the risks will no longer be present. The health of the residents is severely impacted and if the pollution were to decrease, the improvement in their health will allow them to live much more comfortable and longer lives. They will be able to pursue education and work to further enhance their futures. 


Ebola in Africa

Tiffany Lo-Art in Tanzania Internship

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), most commonly known as just Ebola, is a rare and deadly disease in people and nonhuman primates (CDC, 2021). The viruses that cause the disease are located mainly in sub-Saharan Africa (CDC, 2021). People can become infected with the disease through direct contact with an infected animal (bat or nonhuman primate) or a sick or dead person that was infected with the Ebola virus. (CDC, 2021).  

It is caused by an infection with a group of viruses within the genus Ebolavirus:

  • Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus)
  • Sudan virus (species Sudan ebolavirus)
  • Taï Forest virus (species Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivorie ebolavirus)
  • Bundibuygo virus (species Bundibuygo ebolavirus)
  • Reston virus (species Reston ebolavirus)
  • Bombali virus (species Bombali ebolavirus)

Of these, only four (Ebola, Sudan, Taï Forest, and Bundibuygo) are known to cause disease in people (CDC, 2021). Reston virus is known to cause disease in nonhuman primates and pigs, but not in people, whereas it is currently unknown if Bombali virus causes diseases in either animals of people (CDC, 2021).

According to the World Health Organization, the average EVD case fatality rate is around 50%, although case fatality rates have varied from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks (World Health Organization, 2021).


Scientists believe that people are initially infected with Ebola virus through contact with an infected animal, such as a fruit bat or nonhuman primate (CDC, 2021). After that, the virus spreads among people (CDC, 2021).

The virus is spread through direct contact, such as through broken skin or mucous membranes in the nose, eyes, or mouth, with:

  • Blood of body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, amniotic fluid, semen) of a person who is sick with or has died from the virus
  • Objects, such as clothing, bedding, needles, and medical equipment that were contaminated with body fluids from a person who is sick with or has died from the virus
  • Semen from a man who recovered from the virus (through oral, vaginal, or anal sex). The virus can remain in certain body fluids of a patient who has recovered from the disease, even if they no longer have symptoms of severe illness. Currently, there is no evidence that Ebola can be spread through sex or other contact with vaginal fluids from a woman who had the virus

When people first become infected with the virus, they do not start showing or developing symptoms right away (CDC, 2021). A person can only spread Ebola to other people after they develop signs and symptoms of Ebola (CDC, 2021).

The virus is not known to be transmitted through food (CDC, 2021). However, through the handling and consumption of wild animal meat or wild animals infected with ebola, the virus can spread (CDC, 2021).

Symptoms and Ebola Diagnosis

Symptoms may occur anywhere from 2-21 days after contact with Ebola virus, with an average of 8-10 days (CDC, 2021). The illness typically progresses from “dry” symptoms such as fever, aches, pains, and fatigue to “wet” symptoms. Such as diarrhea and vomiting when the person becomes more ill (CDC, 2021).

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, some primary symptoms of Ebola include some or several of the following:

  • Fever
  • Aches and pains, such as a severe headache, joint and muscle pain, and stomach pain
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Diarrhea and vomiting
  • Unexplained hemorrhaging, bleeding or bruising

Some other symptoms include red eyes, skin rash, and hiccups in the late stage, and many common illnesses have the same symptoms as Ebola Virus Disease, such as influenza, malaria, or typhoid fever (CDC, 2021).

Some diagnostic methods include collecting blood samples, as Ebola virus can be detected in blood after symptoms appear, and it may take up to three days after symptoms start for the virus to reach detectable levels (CDC, 2021). Another method is Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is one of the most commonly used methods to diagnose the virus as it can detect low levels of Ebola virus (CDC, 2021). However, when the virus is no longer present in high numbers in a patient’s blood, this method becomes ineffective, and other methods, based on the detection of antibodies on EVD case produces to an infection, can then be used to confirm a patient’s exposure and infection to the virus (CDC, 2021).

While Ebola is a rare disease, it is often severe and deadly, and recovery from the disease depends on the patient’s immune response and quality of clinical care (CDC, 2021). Survivors of the infection have antibodies that can be detected in the blood up to 10 years after recovery, and it is thought that survivors have some protective immunity to the type of Ebola that infected them (CDC, 2021). Ebola survivors may experience side effects after they recover from the disease, such as tiredness, muscle aches, eye and vision problems and stomach pain (CDC, 2021).


Currently, there are two treatments that are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat Ebola Virus Disease caused by the Ebola virus, species Zaire ebolavirus, in adults and children (CDC, 2021). The first drug is Inmazeb™, which was approved in October 2020 (CDC, 2021). The second drug is Ebanga™, which was approved in December 2020 (CDC, 2021). Both of these treatments were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial during the 2018-2020 Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (CDC, 2021). Overall, the survival rate was much higher for patients that received either of the two treatments, however, neither Inmazeb™ nor Ebanga™ have been evaluated for their efficiency against other species of ebolavirus (CDC, 2021).

Basic interventions can also greatly improve chances of survival when it is provided early, and they include:

  • Providing fluids and electrolytes (body salts) orally or through infusion into the vein
  • Using medication to support blood pressure, reduce vomiting and diarrhea, and to manage fever and pain
  • Treating other infections, if they occur


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are a number of ways to protect yourself and prevent the spread of Ebola Virus Disease:

  • avoid contact with blood and body fluids (ex: urine, feces, saliva, vomit, sweat, breast milk, amniotic fluid, semen, and vaginal fluids) of people who are sick
  • Avoid contact with items that may have come in contact with an infected person’s blood or body fluids (ex: clothes, bedding, needles, and medical equipment)
  • Avoid funeral or burial services that include touching the body of someone who died from EVD or potentially EVD
  • Avoid contact with bats, forest antelopes, and nonhuman primates (such as monkeys and chimpanzees) blood, fluids, or raw meat prepared from these or unknown animals (ex: bushmeat)

Currently, the Ervebo vaccine has been shown to be effective in protecting people from the species Zaire ebolavirus, and in December 2020, the vaccine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and prequalified by the World Health Organization for use in individuals over the age of eighteen (except for pregnant and breastfeeding women) for protection caused by the Zaire ebolavirus (World Health Organization, 2021). In May 2020, the European Medicines Agency recommended granting marketing authorization for a 2-component vaccine called Zabdeno-and-Mvabea for people over the age of one (World Health Organization, 2021). The vaccine requires two doses, where Zabdeno is first administered while the second dose, Mvabea, is given approximately eight weeks later (World Health Organization, 2021). The 2-dose regimen is thus unsuitable for an outbreak where immediate protection and response is vital (World Health Organization, 2021).

Ebola virus can also survive on dry surfaces, such as doorknobs and countertops for several hours, and cleaning and disinfection should be performed with hospital-grade disinfectant (CDC, 2021).

Outbreak Preparation

Outbreaks in nonhuman primates and antelope often precede or happen at the same time as human cases of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the same or nearby areas (CDC, 2021). An example would include that in 1994, the chimpanzee population of the area where the Taï National Forest outbreak occurred decreased by half (CDC, 2021). Typically, cases of ebola in people emerge after the handling and butchering of these infected animals, and once the virus spreads to people, it quickly spreads from person to person (CDC, 2021). As such, rapid identification of cases in vital to prevent large-scale epidemics (CDC, 2021).

However, because the early symptoms of Ebola are not specific to this disease alone, it can be hard to distinguish it from other illnesses, such as malaria, influenza, leptospirosis, yellow fever, and other viruses spread by insects, or viral or bacterial infections of the intestines, such as typhoid fever (CDC, 2021). Once a case is identified, everyone who has come in direct contact with the sick patient is found—this practice is called contact tracing (CDC, 2021). The contacts are watched for symptoms of Ebola for 21 days from the last day they came in contact with the Ebola patient and if the contact develops a fever or other symptoms, they are isolated, tested, and provided care (CDC, 2021). The cycle starts again until all new contacts are found and observed for 21 days (CDC, 2021). The World Health Organization declares an Ebola outbreak over when two incubation period (42 days) have passed without any new cases (CDC, 2021).

Ebola in Tanzania

While there are no officially confirmed cases of Ebola in Tanzania, many countries nearby are battling Ebola outbreaks, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (World Health Organization, 2019; Marchione, 2021). Due to the possibility of cross-border spread and regional risk, it is highly important to remain vigilant to prevent the spread of the disease.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 18). Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease).

Marchione, M. (2021, March 31). Man’s Ebola relapse spawned dozens of new cases in Africa

World Health Organization. (2019, October 30). Cases of Undiagnosed Febrile Illness – United Republic of Tanzania

World Health Organization. (2021, February 23). Ebola virus disease

The Role of Business Finance in Business Modernization

By Marina Joseph – Art in Tanzania internship

Many companies have begun to take significant steps to modernize their finance departments. Digital innovations, which have completely reshaped many sectors and flipped long-held business models on their heads, are now offering new cost-effective ways to improve Finance’s capabilities. Organizations must abandon conventional finance practices and embrace the digital revolution in today’s highly competitive, data-driven business climate. Many businesses put off switching from conventional finance practices to digital technology because modernizing the finance operations entails spending money. However, financial management systems that are obsolete and fragmented are sluggish and prone to human error. The strategic process of using emerging technology to boost efficiency by streamlining business processes and organizational activities is known as digital transformation. Traditional positions such as sales, marketing, and finance must be reimagined to meet the changing competitive climate and consumer demands.

Accounting departments can use digital transformation to move away from manual processes and automate core finance functions like accounts receivable, accounts payable, payroll, and so on. It allows the organization to remove ineffective document-based communication, which is often the source of duplication of effort, mistakes, and miscommunications. Finance and accounting teams can save time and gain the flexibility they need to expand efficiently as the company expands by modernizing their finance operations and making internal processes more efficient.

Digital Technologies Transforming Finance

Finance decision-makers will need to integrate their expertise and experience with these specialized tools and applications as these technologies develop and strengthen. Here are some of the financial innovations that are already changing and modernizing business functions.

Advanced Data Analytics

The issue with obsolete systems is that data is likely scattered throughout the organization. Advanced predictive analytics helps CFOs and leaders to develop core processes with data and insights that improve accuracy in predicting revenue and detecting industry patterns, enabling them to avoid market risks and possible stumbling blocks. When old systems were used, it took weeks to get the data and insights needed to make educated decisions. Finance executives and accounting team managers will cut administrative expenses while growing job volumes.

Cloud-based Infrastructure and Software-as-a Service (SaaS)

Because your data is stored on secure, remote servers, or the “cloud,” the SaaS model eliminates the need to worry about maintaining, managing, or securing it. Cloud-based infrastructure and software-as-a-service (SaaS) simplify operations and save businesses money on system upgrades. Cloud computing is no longer considered cutting-edge; in fact, many people are still using it without even realizing it. Organizations no longer need to manage either cloud-based applications or physical servers while using SaaS.

Robotic Process Automation (RPA)

RPA streamlines business processes and improves financial processing performance by automating mundane, manual activities. RPA software may be set up to connect with other automated systems in order to process transactions, minimizing the amount of human work that would otherwise be needed to transfer routine data between external applications and various accounting systems. Transactional processes before RPA consisted of several steps that were vulnerable to errors. Working in accounts payable and receivable involved separating Excel files from xml files, then zipping the xml files and uploading them to the right website for customers to access. RPA transfers invoices to a designated network folder automatically, navigating the system to find the correct folder and reducing screen clutter. RPA accomplishes this by recording work steps, generating process blueprints, and establishing automated scripts to process data through multiple systems. The entire procedure decreases the number of clicks and time it takes to upload an invoice significantly.

Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence

Finance and accounting will benefit from machine learning and AI to boost balance sheet integrity, predict capital availability more accurately, cut operating costs, and improve cash collection. Companies can use AI to tap into their data and analytics at a quicker pace, exposing their full potential. As a result, decisions are made quicker, and expenses, cash flow, and working capital are better managed. The more an AI-based system is used, the more it learns and becomes smarter. In invoice management, for example, the technology analyzes journal entries using algorithms, natural language processing, and data to simplify invoice sorting. Invoice payment history and trends are used through machine learning and logic to speed up invoice collection and reconciliation, enabling finance and accounting professionals to be more strategic and concentrate on strategy and development.

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION (Causes, effects and remedies)

by Maria Mazzoli, –  Art in Tanzania internship

What is pollution?

Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment. These harmful materials are called pollutants.

•Trash and runoff produced by factories are examples of pollutants created by human activity.

•Pollutants damage the quality of air, water and land.

•Many things that are useful to people produce pollution (cars spew pollutants from their exhaust pipes).

•All living things depend on Earth’s air and water. When these resources are polluted, all forms of life are threatened.  

Pollution is a global problem:

Although urban areas are more polluted than the countryside, pollution can spread to remote places where no people live.

In the middle of the northern Pacific Ocean, a huge collection of microscopic plastic particles forms what is known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.

Air and water currents carry pollution.

. Which are the different types of pollution?

We can identify several types of pollution on Earth:

Air pollution:

• The main sources of air pollution are gases pouring from the exhaust pipes of factories and burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas).
• When fossil fuels are burned, they produce carbon monoxide, a colorless, odorless gas, which is harmful in high concentration.
• Polluted air makes people’s eyes burn and make them have difficulty breathing.

Water pollution:

Polluted water looks muddy, smells bad, and has garbage floating in it.

Some polluted water looks clean, but it is filled with harmful chemicals you can’t see or smell.

Polluted water is unsafe for drinking and swimming.

Sometimes, people get sick because they eat fish that lived in polluted water.

Sources of water pollution:

•When Chemicals and oils from factories are dumped into waterways, they create a toxic environment for aquatic life. •Mining and drilling can also contribute to water pollution.

=>Acid helps miners to remove coal from the rocks, but when it is washed into rivers, it releases chemical sulfur, which is toxic to plants, fish, and humans.

=>Oil spills can produce large plumes of oil under the sea and oil slick on the surface killing marsh plants and aquatic organisms

=>In 2010 more than 2 million animals died as a result of the Deep-water Horizon oil spill.


Fertilizer is material added to soil to make plants grow larger and faster.

Rainwater washes fertilizers into streams and lakes, where chemicals contained in the fertilizers cause harmful algal blooms.


There are certain rivers that have so much garbage floating in them that you cannot even see the water.

Floating trash makes it difficult to fish in.

Trash is a threat to fish and seabirds, which mistake the plastic for food.

Land pollution:

•Many of the same pollutants that foul the water also harm the land.

•Mining leaves the soil contaminated with dangerous chemicals.

•Pesticides and fertilizer from agriculture are blown by the wind, and can harm plants, animals and people.

•Trash mar the landscape. Litter makes it difficult for plants to grow well. Garbage contains pollutants as oil, chemicals and ink.

Focus on Greenhouse gases (GHGs):

GHGs are the main source of air pollution.

GHGs such as carbone dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) occur naturally in the atmosphere.

They absorb sunlight reflected from earth, preventing it from escaping into space.

By trapping heat in the atmosphere, they keep Earth warm enough for people to live. This is called greenhouse effect.

What happens when the level of GHGs is too high?

Some human activities, such as burning fossil fuels, increase the amount of GHGs in the atmosphere.

More GHGs in the atmosphere result in increased heat across the globe.

This is called global warming.

Global warming is causing ice sheets and glaciers to melt.

Melting ice is causing sea levels to rise.

This will flood low-lying coastal regions.

Entire regions (such as Maldives) are threatened by this climate change.

Global warming also contributes to the process of ocean acidification.

It means that the ocean absorbs more CO2 from the atmosphere and becomes acid.

The ocean food web is threatened as plants and animals such as coral  fail to adapt to more acid oceans.

Global warming is causing increases in storms, droughts, and flooding.

Since more greenhouse gas emissions are released into the air, causing air temperatures to increase, more moisture evaporates from land and lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water.

Warmer temperatures also increase evaporation in plant soils, which affects plant life and can reduce rainfall even more.

And when rainfall does come to drought-stricken areas, the drier soils it hits are less able to absorb the water, increasing the likelihood of flooding.

The commitment of the International community:

The Paris Agreement is the most recent international treaty on climate change.

 It was adopted by 196 countries (among which Tanzania) in Paris (France), on 12 December 2015.

Its goal is to limit global warming, by reducing greenhouse gases.

Tanzania’s commitment includes adaptation and mitigation measures such as planting adequate trees and sustainably using existing forest and woodland resources.




Welcome to carry out a Paint and Prevent workshop! This workshop framework introduces an evidence-based, piloted day of fun, mixing visual arts and facts about the importance of handwashing in infection prevention.

The workshop you are about to carry out aims at teaching the participants handwashing skills and knowledge. It consists of two parts: first, engaging the participants in a conversation about handwashing, and second, strengthening their memory with a painting session.

The framework was created as a part of two Global Health and Crisis Management Master’s students’ thesis project in Finland. The workshops will be carried out for the first time in March 2021. The outcomes of these first workshops will be studied by comparing before and after intervention surveys from the participants.

This is the first version of the framework. The partners of the project are Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Finland, and Art in Tanzania, Tanzania and Finland. This study is organized by Global Health and Crisis Management students Emmi Hamara and Noemi Watson and the main supervisor of this research is principal lecturer Teija-Kaisa Aholaakko from Laurea University. The partner organization in the study is Art in Tanzania.

  1. The Ten Hand washing Topics

Familiarise yourself with the ten handwashing topics on page 10 and the additional material in the links on page 12. The more you know about the topics, the better.

2. Materials

You will need a room or outdoors space, which comfortably accommodates the participants and you. You may choose between having desks or just everyone sitting on the floor or ground, as long as there is enough space for everyone to do their art.
You will also need art supplies for painting or drawing, and the more the better! Paper used should be sturdy, and there should be at least a couple of sheets per participant. Carboard is fine, too. A small hand soap will also be given to each participant after the workshop. The workshop could take anything between 2 to 4 hours.

3. Structure

The workshop starts with you telling the participants why they are there. They have been invited to the workshop to learn about handwashing skills and knowledge. Emphasise the fact they are all there to have fun and to learn about handwashing!

All participants, as well as you, introduce themselves. You may ask them also if they like drawing or painting. Let everyone have a chance to speak. This may take 10 to 20 minutes.

After this, start the discussion about the ten topics. The structure is simple: Bring up any of the topics by asking a leading question about the participants’ habits and knowledge. For example:

“How many of you use soap if it’s available, when washing their hands?”

“Do you have running water available when washing your hands? Do you use it? Do your friends have access to running water?””

“Do you think it is important to wash your hands more because of the Covid-19 pandemic?”

“Who could show the correct handwashing technique?”

“How many washed their hands today before breakfast?”

“Do you like to dry your hands after washing them? Why do you think this may be important?”

“Do you think you can prevent illnesses by washing your hands?”

“Do you think your hands may be extra dirty in certain places?”

“Does anyone know how the germs get into your body from your hands?”

“What other benefits could one get from washing their hands?”

After each question, allow discussion. Encourage the participants to give out their opinion and share their thoughts and ideas. “Wrong answers” may come up, but in these cases provide the participants with correct information. During the conversation on each topic, at some point, provide the correct information. The participants may come from different backgrounds, and their ideas may be different, or they reflect their habits against how accessible hand washing facilities are for them. This is fine. The information given during the workshop should increase their knowledge so that they can understand the importance of aiming at as good hand washing practices, as possible. 

The discussion should take about 30 to 60 minutes. Make sure you go through each one of the ten handwashing topics.

After you have talked about each of the topics, start painting! Introduce the task: everyone can paint or draw about their feeling or thoughts about the discussion. Give them some ideas: they could for example visualize a situation where they are using correct hand washing technique, or draw germs, or paint something about their current hand washing habits. Anything goes! Remember to provide help with using the art supplies, as well. Creating the visual art pieces may take anything from 30 to 60 minutes or even longer, depending on the participants, and the time you have reserved for the workshop.

Finally, it is time for a little art exhibition! In this part, hang or lay out the artwork on a wall, desks or ground. Let everyone introduce what they have done and encourage discussion. There are no “wrong answers” in this part, and the artwork are not graded or critiqued. This is also a fine opportunity to provide the participants with correct information on the 10 hand washing topics, if you notice something is still misunderstood.

Last, give the participants their artwork to take home with them and to remind them of what they have just learned!

The hand washing topics

Ten key items:Identifying learning needs:Transferrable knowledge:
SoapIdentifying the relevance of soap in handwashing manners.Soap should be used every time hands are washed, to remove pathogens efficiently.
TimingIdentifying when washing your hands is necessary.The correct handwashing times: Before, during, and after preparing food; before eating food; before and after caring for someone at home who is sick with vomiting or diarrhoea; before and after treating a cut or wound; after using the toilet; after changing diapers or cleaning up a child who has used the toilet; after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing; after touching an animal, animal feed, or animal waste; after handling pet food or pet treats, and after touching garbage
DryingIdentifying the importance of drying hands regarding infection prevention.Hands should be dried completely dry with a clean towel after washing your hands, to prevent pathogens from attaching to the skin
TechniqueIdentifying the need to cover each part of your hands, while washing your hands. Identifying the correct order and duration of handwashing.The correct order for handwashing is: add water, add soap, scrub, rinse, dry. Hands should be scrubbed together 20 seconds after adding soap to remove pathogens efficiently.
Running water  Identifying the importance of running water.Running water is an important part of handwashing for removing pathogens and soap efficiently, also in the reduction of skin irritation from soap. It is also safer than stagnated water. Water does not have to be hot. Cool water may cause less skin irritation and is more environmentally friendly than warmer water
Preventing illnessIdentifying that handwashing prevents diarrheal disease and respiratory infection related illness and deaths.Washing hands regularly prevents respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases, common cold, flu and the spread of anti-microbial resistant bacteria.
Locating pathogensIdentifying the locations and pathogens living on one´s hands.Most of the microbes on one´s hands live under the fingernails. Normal human flora (germs) can be dangerous in wrong places.
Routes of transmissionIdentifying the most common ways pathogens move from hands to peopleThrough hands to mouth, nose and ears, as well as surfaces.
Global Infection preventionIdentifying the effects of handwashing in a global health aspect.Handwashing is one of the most effective preventative method regarding infection control, and during the Covid-19 pandemic handwashing should be even more regular. Prevents antibiotic resistant pathogens.
AccessibilityIdentifying global issues with running water and lack of soap.40% of the world´s population live in areas where water and soap are inaccessible. Only 19% of adolescents in Tanzania wash their hands after using toilet.

Additional information at:

Burton, M., Cobb, E., Donachie, P., Curtis, V. & Schmidt, W-P. 2011. The effects of Handwashing with Water or Soap on Bacterial Contamination of Hands. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 8(1), 97-104.

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention 2020. Hand Washing: a Family Activity.

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020. When and How to Wash your hands..

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020. Show me the Science – How to Wash Your Hands.

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020. Global Hand Washing Day.

Centres of Disease Control and Prevention. 2020. Show Me the Science- Why Wash your Hands.

Jefferson, T., Del Mar, C., Dooley, L., Ferroni, E., Al-Ansary, L., Bawazeer, G., van Driel, M., Nair, S., Jones, M., Thorning, S. & Conly, J. 2011. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Cochrane Library.

Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children. 2017. Tanzania Mainland Global School-based Student Health Survey Country Report.

National Health Services. 2019. How to wash your hands.

United Nations Children’s Fund & World Health organization. 2020. Hand Hygiene for All.

World Health Organization. 2009. Hand Hygiene: Why, How and When?

World Health Organization. 2018. Adolescent Health in UR Tanzania.

World Health Organization. 2020a. Country information. Adolescent Health.

World Health Organization. 2020b. United Republic of Tanzania. Statistics.

Text and editing: Emmi Hamara 2021

Drawings and editing: Noemi Watson 2021

Theme photo: Sharon McCutcheon /

Cover photo: Anna Kolosyuk /

For more information or feedback, contact:

Noemi Watson, RMN

Emmi Hamara, RN

Maternal Health in Tanzania

Tiffany Lo-Art in Tanzania Internship

In Tanzania, there are 566 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births, which represents the sixth highest maternal mortality ratio in the world, according to the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (Gailey and McMillan, 2019). The Kigoma Region, which is located in western Tanzania, has the poorest maternal health outcomes in the country (Gailey and McMillan, 2019).

In Tanzania, public health policy and program implementation is overseen by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) (Franz, 2015). The point of entry for mothers and children into the public health system is the community-level dispensary, where patients can access exams, medical supplies, medicines, immunization services and seek advice from a nurse or clinical officer (Franz, 2015). Some dispensaries are also prepared for labor and delivery services, and many also offer HIV treatment options and services for prevention of mother-to-children transmission of HIV (Franz, 2015). However, for more comprehensive healthcare services or physician consultations, mothers must visit a health center, which typically offers a wider range of services than the dispensary and may serve several communities (Franz, 2015).

Most maternal deaths are caused by factors that can be attributed to pregnancy, childbirth, and low quality of health services (Shija et. al, 2011). More than 80% of maternal deaths can be prevented if women have access to essential maternity care and skilled attendance at childbirth as well as emergency obstetric care (Shija et. al, 2011).

Maternal Health Indicators:

Antenatal Care Coverage

Antenatal care can help women adequately prepare for delivery and understand warning signs during pregnancy and childbirth (Unicef, 2020). Essential interventions in antenatal care include identification and management of obstetric complications such as pre-eclampsia, tetanus toxoid, immunization, intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy, and identification and management of infections such as HIV, syphilis, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Lincetto et. al, n.d.). Antenatal care is also an opportunity to promote the usage of skilled attendants at birth and healthy behaviors such as breastfeeding, early postnatal care, and planning for pregnancy spacing (Lincetto et. al, n.d.). There have been large increases in the proportion of Tanzanian women who made one to three antenatal care visits from 26.4% in 1999 to 47.0% in 2016 (Rwabilimbo et. al, 2020). In rural areas, 45% of women made at least 4 antenatal care visits compared to 64% in urban areas (Unicef, n.d.).

Skilled Birth Deliveries

Skilled birth attendance is a key factor in indicating maternal health, however, less than 50% of women in sub-Saharan African countries lack the opportunity to be attended by skilled personnel during childbirth (Ngowi, 2017). Major causes of maternal mortality are preventable if a skilled attendant is present during childbirth, and according to the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), only 63% of women delivered at the health facilities and assisted by health care providers and 37% delivered at home, which is below the national target for health facility delivery to be attended by skilled personnel to go up to 80% by 2015 (Ngowi, 2017). There are also disparities between rural communities and urban communities when it comes to skilled birth deliveries—coverage of skilled attendance at birth is 55% in rural communities compared to 87% in urban areas (Unicef, n.d.). One method for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in Tanzania includes ensuring that all women have access to skilled personnel during childbirth.

Postnatal Care Coverage

Access to care during the postnatal period, which is the six weeks following delivery, is another indicator of maternal health. The postnatal period is a critical phase in the lives of mothers and newborn babies as most maternal and infant deaths occur during this time (WHO, 2020). High quality postnatal care is essential for maternal health, as it provides an opportunity for healthcare providers to facilitate healthy breastfeeding practices, screen for postpartum depression, treat childbirth-related complications, counsel women about family planning options, among other services (Maternal Health Task Force, 2018). However, this is one of the most neglected periods for the provision of quality care (WHO, 2020). In the 2004-2005 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS), it was reported that only 13% women have the recommended one or more postpartum care visit within two days of delivery, with some regions having rates as low as 2% (Mrisho, 2009). Increasing knowledge of and access to postnatal care is essential to improving maternal health in Tanzania.

Modern Family Planning Use

Family planning is critical for preventing unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions, both of which contribute to lowering maternal and child mortality rates (DSW, 2017). Family planning also helps in poverty reduction and empowers women and men to choose freely and responsibly the number and spacing of children (DSW, 2017). It is estimated that in Tanzania, the unmet needs for family planning are at 22% among married women aged 15-19 years old (DSW, 2017). In other words, one in five married women have an unmet need for family planning (DSW, 2017). Tanzania has worked to establish policies and reforms in maternal health, however, funding and budget allocation for family planning remains low and there are still many misconceptions about family planning (DWS, 2017).

Improvements in Maternal Healthcare in Tanzania

The government of Tanzania has articulated ambitious plans to reduce maternal mortality rates by launching the Sharpened One Plan and Big Results Now programs, which outlined a three-pronged approach for ending preventable deaths of women, newborns, and children by providing voluntary family planning services (Franz, 2015). These plans focus on serving regions that face the most challenges and aim to focus the attention of national, regional, and district-level authorities on improving maternal, neonatal, and child health outcomes (Franz, 2015). However, despite ambitious health goals, in 2015, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare estimated a funding gap of $169.5 million for reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health services alone (Franz, 2015). Despite improvements, there is still much to be done in improving maternal healthcare infrastructure in Tanzania.


DSW. (2017). Family Planning in Tanzania: A Review of National and District Policies and Budgets. Retrieved March 27, 2021.

Franz, P. (2015, May 07). Maternal, neonatal, and child health in Tanzania. Retrieved March 26, 2021.

Gailey, A., & McMillan, S. (2019, June 20). Improving Maternal Health in Tanzania. Retrieved March 25, 2021.

Lincetto, O., Mothebesoane-Anoh, S., Gomez, P., & Munjanja, S. (n.d.). Antenatal Care. Retrieved March 25, 2021.

Maternal Health Task Force. (2018, January 08). Postnatal Care. Retrieved March 26, 2021

Mrisho, M., Obrist, B., Schellenberg, J. A., Haws, R. A., Mushi, A. K., Mshinda, H., Tanner, M., Schellenberg, D. (2009, March 04). The use of antenatal and postnatal care: Perspectives         and experiences of women and health care providers in rural southern Tanzania. Retrieved 26, 2021.

Ngowi, A. F., Kamazima, S. R., Kibusi, S., Gesase, A., & Bali, T. (2017, September 06).        

Women’s determinant factors for preferred place of delivery in Dodoma region Tanzania: A cross sectional study. Retrieved March 25, 2021.

Shija, Angela E et al. “Maternal health in fifty years of Tanzania independence: Challenges and opportunities of reducing maternal mortality.” Tanzania journal of health research vol.13,5 Suppl 1 (2011): 352-64. doi:10.4314/thrb.v13i5.5

Rwabilimbo, A. G., Ahmed, K. Y., Page, A., & Ogbo, F. A. (2020, June 03). Trends and factors associated with the utilisation of antenatal care services during the Millennium Development Goals era in Tanzania. Retrieved March 26, 2021.

Unicef. (n.d.). Maternal and Newborn Health Disparities. Retrieved March 26, 2021.          

Unicef. (2020, October 27). Antenatal care. Retrieved March 24, 2021.

World Health Organization. (2020, March 20). WHO recommendations on postnatal care of the mother and newborn. Retrieved March 26, 2021.