The common issues for clean drinking water availability in the Eastern Africa

By Ekaterina Kilima – Art in Tanzania internship

The shortage of freshwater resources is considered a global problem which affects many parts of the world, including the Eastern African countries. It is often wrongly believed that, because the majority of the Earth’s surface is covered with water, the availability of clean drinking water for humans is abundant. In reality, only 3% of the global water is considered freshwater suitable for drinking (WWF). Therefore, there is a high need for a well-balanced management of the available water resources.

One of the main issues for high water demand in the Eastern Africa is the ongoing population growth and urbanization, which in fact increases the standards of living and requires more water per capita. For example, urban population in Tanzania has increased by 7.2 million people between 2005 and 2015 but the water sector bodies fail to respond adequately to these changes (GIZ 2018). It may sound like a paradox that, while the Eastern African states hold the largest amount of on ground water reservoirs on the continent, with Lake Victoria being the second largest freshwater lake in the world, at least half of the population is vulnerable to the water scarcity problem. Nonetheless, there are several socio-economic and socio-political causes which enhance the problem of drinking water availability.

Lake Victoria

One of these causes is an increasing water demand in agriculture which receives water for irrigation from the nearby freshwater resources such as rivers and lakes. Some amount of freshwater from the wetlands is being lost in the process because of inefficient irrigation methods. Due to the increasing population, the conflict between the water needs of citizens and the water needs of farming is going to become more explicit. Moreover, surface water reserves often get polluted because of the closely located industrial activities, for example oil extraction or transportation. Water contamination can also happen due to nutrient and wastewater transportation from urban and rural areas which is closely connected to poor sanitation practices. After getting polluted, this water cannot be used in households unless using multi-stage water filters.

Perhaps, one of the most complex causes for freshwater scarcity for the Eastern Africa is the trans-boundary ownership of the water sources as well as their weak management. Most countries in the Eastern Africa must share water resources with each other which often leads to uneven distribution of the fresh water (IJWRD 2016). Therefore, the problem is not in the lack of water reservoirs but in the unfair distribution and poor management. The inaccuracy of the water management involves inadequate implementation of the environmental law, corruption of interests among authorities but also lack of problem-specific knowledge and funds.

There is no universal list of solutions that would help all the countries in the Eastern Africa. The perfect mix of solutions for each country would depend on the criteria such as population, climate, level of corruption, economic and political stability, and others. However, there are some suggestions that are critical for each country. One, it is important to support local farmers in their transition to more efficient irrigation practices which would allow more water to be available for drinking and household needs. Second, governments should increase the global awareness on the positive changes in the region to attract more foreign investments. Governments should work closely with international organizations and NGOs to develop more sustainable projects to provide equitable access to clean drinking water. Third, it is critical to legally protect African wetlands from human-led contamination and avoid any disturbance of the ecosystem.

The Economic Consequences of Climate Change in Tanzania

Romaisa Hussain – Art in Tanzania Internship

Keywords: sustainability, climate change, environment, economic growth

Climate change has emerged as a potentially existential threat all across the globe that poses a serious risk to the survival of mankind and sustainable development. Over the last few decades, the world has witnessed changes in weather patterns as a result of global warming and human-caused greenhouse gas emissions. Based on a numerous lines of evidence, it is now more certain than ever that climate change is a threat multiplier that can amplify the effects of existing dangers. These threats include human security, scarcity of natural resources, environmental degradation, and poor economic growth.

The United Nations General Assembly set up the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 which serve as a blueprint for a sustainable future to be achieved by 2030. The 13th Sustainable Development Goal of the United Nations talks about Climate Action. The goal discusses the critical impact of climate change and encourages developing countries to move towards low-carbon emission in the environment. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) is a separate organisation working within the UN that deals with climate change and other environmental issues. The UN aims to adapt to low carbon development especially in the vulnerable regions that contribute towards climate action and sustainable natural resource management through collective action. Most of the states in the world are affected by climate change with East Africa being one of the most affected regions.

Tanzania is suffering the brunt of the consequences of climate change in East Africa. The agricultural-based economy of Tanzania has become vulnerable to the extreme climatic conditions. The majority of the population is located in the rural areas which heavily relies on agriculture and farming that is threatened by rising temperatures, droughts, and extreme rainfalls. The country is home to the world’s largest river system, the River Tanzanian. Despite immense water resources, Tanzania struggles with a shortage of water both spatially and temporally, which is worsened by the climate on its nine main river basins. In the recent years, there has been a severe decline in the water level in Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Jipe, as well as a decrease in the water level of about 7 kilometers in Lake Rukwa during the last fifty years. These are connected with climate change and are endangering towards socio-economic activities. The effect also puts the country’s hydropower system at risk. Furthermore, diseases such as diarrhea and malaria remain one of the prime causes of casualties in the country especially in the urban settlements consisting of poor infrastructure prone to flooding and increased temperatures. 

Tanzania’s economy relies on its natural and environmental resources where a good number of people depend on fisheries for their income which are at risk from rising sea waters and freshwater temperatures. Tourism is another aspect that has the potential to boost the economy of Tanzania as the country has a tropical climate and is home to wildlife, forests, beaches, mountains, rivers, lakes, and minerals. The attractions are found in abundance in national and marine parks, historical and cultural sites, and recreational sites. Currently, tourism generates 17.5 per cent of GDP and 25 per cent of export revenues, making it an important economic sector. Due the unpredictability of climate it is endangering the ecosystem services on which tourism relies. For example, the Serengeti National Park has been famous tourism spot for the wildlife migration for decades, contributing significantly to Tanzania’s economy and serves as a key source of employment. There is a growing fear that the climate has shifted dramatically, potentially affecting wildlife tourism. 

Threats to the sustainability of the natural resources and environmental degradation remain an issue in Tanzania such as the untimely harvesting and usage of natural resources, unsupervised cultivation process, and trespassing on water sources. Collectively, these can seriously affect the sustainable development goals of a country. Due to the unsustainable consumption of resources, there can be problems in the production of sources that may affect livelihoods. In addition to that, they can lead to the deficiency of food which could eventually lead to poverty. An increase in the population and high reliance on agriculture becomes rather burdensome on the environment and its natural resources which contribute negatively to climate change and water-deficient regions. 

One of the leading contributing factors to the environmental degradation is the unsustainable management of land and watershed. Many challenges are still needed to be tackled to reduce this issue including unexpected growth of human settlements, wildlife hunting, illegal farming and livestock, uncontrollable bushfires, weak inter-sectoral association, and stakeholder linkages. This may lead towards the social and economic development of the country as well as reduce poverty. The Tanzanian Government has marked the water-oriented issues as a major factor that has affected the environment. This has led to the implementation of national policies and necessary plans and strategies needed to tackle it. The visibility of climatic changes in Tanzania is increased by 60% which are seen in the form of a decrease in water sources, land degradation and the reduction in agricultural land. The Government also tends to focus on carbon emission with the protection of ecosystems and biodiversity, the saving of wildlife to abolish the hunting system as a means of income, reducing vehicle usage and improving urban planning in the country to promote urbanization. It also placed environmental sections under the sector ministries to ensure and monitor the environmental issues as well as raising awareness amongst the community. The Government also needs to guarantee that efforts are being made in terms of the development of the environment and climate change in national as well as subnational plans. 

The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) is one among many partners of the Government of Tanzania that has aided in the development of the environment and contributed to measures regarding natural resources and climate change issues. The UNDP encourages the Government and respective communities in terms of sustaining the environment and contributing to the reversal of environmental degradation. As long as the correct policies are implemented, the chances for preserving the ecosystems in terms of food, energy, wood i.e., timber, clean water, consistent climate etc. are possible. Over the past few years, Tanzania has recently experienced high growth rates of about 7.4%.

The impact of climate change has had a huge effect on the incomes of the people in Tanzania. It has had a severe impact on the economy, agriculture, natural resources, and livelihoods of people which exposes the vulnerable part of the country. It is, to say the least, that the Government of Tanzania is to be respected for the progress it has made regarding the development and exercising of policies and strategies to prevent degradation and the protection of the environment. The Government tends to cater to the environmental needs of the country and maintain its natural resources as a means of saving economic and social development. This would mean effectively establishing immediate measures to improve the damages caused. The Government also needs to guarantee that efforts are being made in terms of the development of the environment and climate change in national as well as subnational plans.

References

Kijazi, A. L. (2019). The Contribution of the Global Framework for Climate Services Adaptation Programme in Africa (GFCS APA) in National Adaptation Plan (NAP) Process for Tanzania. doi:10.4236/acs.2019.94040

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. (n.d.). Current and future challenges and opportunities in Tanzania. Retrieved from https://um.dk/en/danida-en/strategies%20and%20priorities/country-policies/tanzania/current-and-future-challenges-and-opportunities-in-tanzania/

Ordu, E. I. (2021, April 7). Climate adaptation and the great reset for Africa. Retrieved from Brookings: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2021/04/07/climate-adaptation-and-the-great-reset-for-africa/

UNDP. (2016-2021). ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY, CLIMATE CHANGE AND RESILIENCE PILLAR, STRATEGY PAPER.

UNDP Annual Report 2020. (2020). Goal 13 CLIMATE ACTION. Retrieved from UNDP Organization: https://www.undp.org/sustainable-development-goals#climate-action

United Nations. (n.d.). Department of Economic and Social Affairs Sustainable Development. Retrieved from Sustainable Deevelopment Goals: https://sdgs.un.org/goals

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA. (2007). NATIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMME OF ACTION (NAPA). Division of Environment.

USAID From the American People. (2020). Tanzania. Retrieved from climate links: https://www.climatelinks.org/countries/tanzania

Relations between Tanzania and China could be central for future African ecological transition

By Alessandro Deligios – Art in Tanzania internship


In these last year’s China is exploiting her economic power to take more influence in geopolitical arena. According with the future model of geo-economic competition, China firstly seems try to become the leader State in Asia, secondly is taking more power in many areas of the word. One of the strategies to extend her influence is the Belt & Road Initiative (BRI), with which, through financing project in different word areas, China is able to deeply link the economy of various countries to her one and so create a global economic network that have Chinese economic and financial system as reference – the so-called Beijing consensus.
In particular China is focusing on East Africa and in this region Tanzania-China relationship is a key for Beijing to get a strategic economic position: in 2013 the Tanzanian ex-President Jakaya Kikwete signed an agreement for allow China to invest in the financing of Bagamoyo port project, around which it should have place a special economic zone, that expected China to have especial condition for example for water and energy provisions and the security that Tanzania wouldn’t have financing another competitor port. But in January 2016 the project has been annulled by the President John Magufuli because the agreement for him was like sell Tanzania to Chinese investors.


In climate discussion we know that African countries are the most affected by the problem brought by climate changes, especially by the global warming: the continent probably will be exposed to longer periods of drought and water provision will be always more difficult. About this we also know that China is one of the countries which release the highest levels of greenhouse gases. Despite the attempts of Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997 and started in 2005, and of Paris Agreement in 2016, emissions have not yet been limited in satisfactorily way. Developed countries have the responsibility to help the development in ecological transition and the GEF (Global Environment Facility) is a program managed by the UN and the Word Bank that give financing to the developing countries for they can get positive results related to four areas: climate changes, desertification, international water pollution and biodiversity. Good results are got in third and fourth areas, buty not in the first two.


At the start of April 2021, the First Minister Geoffrey Mwambe said that Tanzania would be ready for a new agreement about Bagamoyo port project if terms will be changed: in this Tanzania-China relations can be central for the ecological transition of all the Africa. Tanzania could advance conditions for the project according with UN 2030 Agenda sustainability goals, cooperating with others African countries for doing the same with others Chinese investments in Africa, when possible. With high chance China is so interested in extending her economic influence in Africa to get more global diplomatic weight to be disposed to accept conditions of sustainability for her projects. It could be one of the few ways to do that China – but not only, also other countries that would like investing in Africa – massively reduce her emissions. And this will be more powerful based on how many countries will collaborate: it should be a priority because fast growing economies have to develop in sustainable way and must do pressure on developed countries, especially on China in that global big player that is trying to extend own power.


Sources:

  • (About climate issue and international relations)
    J. Grieco, G. J. Ikenberry, M. Mastanduno, Introduzione alle relazioni internazionali, UTET, 2017
  • (About Bagamoyo port project)
    D, Ayemba, Bagamoyo port project timeline and all you need to know, 15 April 2021, on Construction Review Online
  • P. Mittal, Tanzanian Bagamoyo Port Project Story, 16 September 2020, on Belt and Road News.
  • A. D’Amaro, Un ponte tra Cina e Africa: il porto di Bagamoyo, Tanzania, 8 September 2020, on Lo Spiegone.

Clean drinking water condition in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). General Overview

By Ekaterina Kilima – Art in Tanzania internship

According to the World Bank (2019), Ethiopia is one of the priority African countries for the Global Water Security & Sanitation Partnership (GWSP) programs. In other words, a lot of money is being invested in Ethiopia to improve its water and sanitation systems. Currently, Addis Ababa is considered a region with very safe drinking water (85 % of water is low risk) compared to other regions of Ethiopia (only 7% of water is low risk in particular places) (CSAE 2017). Access to clean drinking water is a big inequality issue as the region’s poorest people barely have access to high quality water unlike the richest group.

A recent epidemiological study conducted by Wolde et al. (2020) suggested that the clean water in Addis Ababa might be exposed to bacteria and parasites more during the wet season (January-October) due to high rainfall. The results of the study have shown that, although mostly insignificant, slight contamination was found in the water samples from public taps and reservoirs (around 6% each). Traces of fecal coliforms and total coliforms were found in those samples. The highest contamination results were observed in the water samples from springs and wells (76% and 79% contamination respectively). The number of fecal coliforms was decreasing with every week of the season while the number of total coliforms was increasing. Moreover, some samples were collected from Akaki, Gefersa, and Lege Dadi water plants but the parasitological results for them were negative. Wolde et al (2020) also note that the quality of the water might depend on the condition of the water supply reservoirs. For example, most reservoirs in Addis Ababa are well maintained. However, most springs are often exposed to heavy rain, flood, and microorganism contamination. It is important to check the serviceability of the public and private taps in a timely manner and to prevent them from being tied with cloths, ropes, and plastic tubes as it can enhance the contamination. This statement can also be proved by another study conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia in 2017. It was found that nearly 95% of households that receive low-risk water, get it from improved high-quality sources. The most common source of clean drinking water was the piped water on premises while the most dangerous was unprotected springs and surface water (CSAE 2017).

Some key lessons to remember are that the highest quality water is usually consumed in urban areas rather than rural and this water comes from secured and improved sources such as public pipes or kiosks. Bottled water is also a good source of high-quality water but is not consumed by many people. It is important to maintain the quality of the water reservoirs and make necessary repairments to ensure that people get good quality water. One of the biggest social issues regarding water supply is inequality because Addis Ababa poorest areas still do not have access to clean water.

Sources:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339804186_Quality_and_safety_of_municipal_drinking_water_in_Addis_Ababa_City_Ethiopia

https://washdata.org/report/drinking-water-quality-ethiopia-ess-2016

THE SCOPE OF AGRIBUSINESS AND AGRICULTURAL EXPORT IN TANZANIA.

By Rajabu Juma Rajabu – Art in Tanzania internship

THE SCOPE OF AGRIBUSINESS:

Agribusiness is a business sector encompassing farming and farming related commercial activities. It can be sometimes referred to as Commercial Agriculture.

Definition: Agribusiness is a combination of two broader things or words “Agriculture “and “Business” and refers to any business related to farming and farming related commercial activities. This involves all the steps required to send agricultural products or goods to the required Market, as we know agribusiness issues start primary from Production and then followed by Processing, Transportation and Distribution up to the finally step of Consumption.

Agribusiness include all activities within the agricultural food and natural resources industry involved in the production of food and fibre. Individual agribusinesses may sell items to farmers for production: provide services to other agricultural businesses: or be engaged in the Marketing, transportation, processing, and distribution of agricultural products or commodities.

DEFINIATIONS OF THE TERMS:

Agri Services – is the activities of value to the user or buyer. The activities are an intangible product.

Marketing – providing the products and services that people want, when and where they want them.

Agribusiness process inputs into outputs – An input is a resource used in production and an output is a result of the production process after processing the inputs.

Production – Is an act of making products such as goods and services.

Agribusiness provides people with food, clothing, and shelter. It also provides jobs for millions of people in science, research, engineering, education, advertisement, government agencies, trade organizations, and community organisations.

Agribusiness can be performed by both small farmers and large farmers. This is important component of the economy in the country because it contribute the huge amount to the national GDP. The agricultural sector is fundamental to the economy of developing countries especially in Tanzania.

According to the economics data included in the National Data of Tanzania Mainland of 2013-2019 by the National Bureau of Statistics at the current market price, the agriculture sector contributes 29.1 percent of the national GDP.

In November 2020, President Magufuli announced that in the next five years its government will put great emphasis on key economic sectors especially agriculture.

Agribusiness sectors

Agribusiness can be divided into major sectors like:

  1. The agribusiness INPUT SECTOR. Includes all resources involved in production or producing farm commodities. I.e., includes seeds, fertilizer, machinery, fuel, and credit. Production efficiency can also be linked to improvement in these agricultural inputs.
  2. The agribusiness OUTPUT SECTOR. Include any agribusiness that effects an agricultural commodities or goods between production and the consumer. I.e., include transportation, selling, storing, and inspection. Millions of people are employed in this sector of agribusiness.
  3. The AGRI-SERVICE SECTOR includes people who research new ways of producing and marketing of Agri-products. They protect food producers and provide specialised services to all areas of agriculture. Both public and private agencies are responsible for the actions of the Agri-services sector.

Economic Impact of the Agribusiness Industry in Tanzania

  • Creation of employment opportunities both direct and indirect to agricultural activities
  • Expansion of trade and Market
  • Source of government earnings like taxes
  • Improvement of productivity performance
  • Improvement of living standards of the citizens
  • Development of Industrial sectors from raw materials obtained from agriculture
  • Poverty reduction.
  • Construction of infrastructure like roads, industries, and schools

AGRICULTURAL EXPORT IN TANZANIA.

Agribusiness is a very wide scope that also looks into the agricultural exportation.

Agricultural export means the way a country produces agricultural products for exportation or to sell them outside the country. Tanzania is the one among many countries that engage in exportation of Agri-products to other countries. Examples of other countries are; Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Mozambique, Congo, Zambia, Burundi, India, United of Arab Emirates, and China.

Tanzania’s major export are of agricultural communities such as Coffee, Cotton, Tobacco, Cashewnuts, Tea, Cloves, Sisal, and Maize. Additionally, some farmers raise livestock exports including cattles, goats, sheep, pigs, and chickens as well as small numbers of turkeys, ducks, rabbits, donkeys, and horses.

Most common foods and cash crops in Tanzania are maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, bananas, sorghum, and sugar canes.

Agriculture is a source of food, industrial raw materials, and even foreign exchange earnings from the countries that Tanzania exports the agricultural products or commodities. Agriculture is a critical economic sector representing 29.1 percent of the National GDP and almost three quarters of the productive workforce and more than 30 percent of export earnings. Agricultural export have been growing at about 6 percent per year while food crops have been growing about 4 percent per year.

Importance’s of Agricultural exports in Tanzania Economy:

  • Employment opportunities both direct and indirect
  • Provide taxes to support government services
  • Create International relationships
  • Market expansions and Trade growth like forex markets
  • Improve productivity for the farmers

SUSTAINABLE FISHING AND OVERFISHING

By Rajabu Juma Rajabu – Art in Tanzania internship

SUSTAINABLE FISHING

The overexploitation of the Lake, Rivers, Seas, and ocean is leaving them without fish. This is confirmed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) in one of its latest reports. It calls for sustainable fishing model to ensure the survival of species and fishing activities. Sustainable Fishing contributes to protecting marine fauna and conserving the Oceans and Seas.

Sustainable fishing is one that is harvested at a sustainable rate where the fish populations does not decline overtime because of fishing practices. The sustainability in Fisheries combines theoretical discipline  such as the population dynamics of fisheries, with practical strategies such as avoiding overfishing through techniques such as individual fishing quotas, curtailing destructive and illegal fishing practices by lobbying for appropriate laws and policies, setting up protected areas, restoring collapsed fisheries, incorporating all externalities involved in harvesting marine ecosystems into fishery economies, educating stakeholders and the wider public, and developing independent certification programs.

Sustainable Fishing means leaving enough fish in the ocean, respecting habitats and ensuring people who depend on fishing can maintain their livelihoods. As also to ensure the fish harvesting is not fully exploited by keeping fish stock remains for future generations.

SUSTAINABLE FISHING PRACTICES:

There are ways to fish sustainably, allowing us to enjoy seafood while ensuring that populations remain for the future. In many indigenous cultures people have fished sustainably for thousands of years. Today’s sustainable fishing practices reflect some lessons learned from these cultures.

Due to issues such as overfishing global fish stocks are in trouble today. It has been estimated that approximately 70% of Fisheries worldwide have been over exploited or have already collapsed. So, what can we do to remedy this challenging situation and help our global fish stocks rebound?

We can remedy this challenge by using sustainable practices that you can use when you fish at your favourite local fishing holes. These include:

  1. Hook and lining (Pole Catching). This fishing technique involves using a fishing pole that have one line and several hooks. This allows fishermen to quickly release bycatch.
  2. Harpooning: Fishermen use hand thrown harpoons or barbs that are fired from a gun to catch large fish like Swordfish with very little bycatch.
  3. Traps: This fishing technique involves guiding fish into boxed or reef nets placed near the water surface that allows the fish to be tipped into a holding tank. Wire mesh traps that lie on the bottom can also be used sustainably if they are not dragged a long the ocean floor.
  4. Longlining: This technique uses a very long central fishing line that has many smaller lines of baited hooks attached to it. If these longlines are placed deep in the water and if special circle hooks are used, they greatly reduce the incident of bycatch.
  5. Gillnetting/ Drifting: A massive curtain of net that is suspended using floats or anchored using weights. The netting is essentially invisible so fish swim into the net and get their gills caught.
  6. Trawling: Think about a huge net being dragged behind a boat. The boat is hoping to catch large schools of fish within the net and tire them out forcing them into the back of the net. This practice can be done on the bottom of the ocean or in mid water.

  • Trolling. You have probably seen this one along coastline where a boat has multiple lines being dragged behind a boat. This is a sustainable approach to open water fishing because soon after being caught fish are brought to the boat and released without much stress as other methods. It has minimal bycatch and sustainably approach.

ADVANTAGES OF SUSTAINABLE FISHING:

Sustainable fishing is a more artisanal and small-scale method with social, economic, and environmental benefits, some of which are based by FAO code of conduct for responsible fisheries some of these are summarized below:

  • Protect Marine Fauna.

Sustainable fishing respect marine ecosystems and adapt to the reproductive rate of fish to maintain a balance and ensure the survival of all species. Fishing must be at a level that ensures it can continue indefinitely and fish populations can remain productive and healthy.

  • Avoid waste

In sustainable fishing the bycatch is used for example to make fish meal to minimize food waste. Fishing activity must be managed carefully so that other species and habitat within the ecosystem remain healthy.

  • Contribute to food security.

Sustainable small-scale Fisheries account for about 66% of all catches destined directly for human consumption so due to this it enables to protect the full exploitation of fish resources.

  • Reduce pollution.

Sustainable fishing generates less waste minimize energy consumption and reduce the use of chemicals that damage the ozone layer and the whole fish ecosystem.

  • Certifies the sustainability of the catches.

International standards such as the MSC (Marine stewardship council ) standard determine whether a fishery is sustainable and is being well managed MSC certified Fisheries must comply with relevant laws and be able to adapt to changing environmental circumstances.

OVERFISHING;

Catching so many fish at a time can result in an immediate pay off for fishers. Fishing with this consistency leads to few fish of each species left in the sea or ocean. If fish population is small, it cannot be easily replenished through reproduction. Taking wildlife from sea faster than population can reproduce and keep up with is known as overfishing.

OVERFISHING: Is catching too many fish at once so the breeding population becomes too depleted to recover. Overfishing often goes hand in hand with wasteful types of commercial fishing that haul in massive amounts of unwanted fish or other animals which are then discarded.

CAUSE OF OVERFISHING:

  1. Poor Fisheries Management. This happens when the fisheries organisations are not stable on formulating and monitoring the rules and regulations for fishing practices. With this kind of situation, it will enable fisheries with the freedom to harvest at their maximum ability.
  2. Unsustainable fishing. Means  to catch or harvest fish without considering the needs for the future generations, like the current generation, exploiting fish stocks for their own needs only and not considering the others.
  3. Illegal and Unregulated Fishing activities. This happens when fishers harvest fish populations illegally without any recorded reports for the government. In addition, the fishers are harvesting resources like open access area due to government and Fisheries regulations being weak.
  4. Bycatch. The incident of catching non targeted species such as dolphins, Marine turtles and seabirds also resulted to overfishing because those untreated species may be depleting and destroying their reproduction.
  • Overcapacity. When the fishing vessels of all sizes are entering in water bodies such as ocean or seas many with increasing capacity and efficiency to catch and carry out more fish will result to overfishing. Because the vessels have ability to harvest fish more than the stock available in their habitat.

IMPACT OR EFFECTS OF OVERFISHING:

  • Ghost fishing.

This is occurring when lost or discarded fishing gear that is no longer under a fisherman control continues to trap and kill fish, crustaceans, marine mammals, sea turtles, and sea birds. Derelict fishing nets and traps can continue to ghost fish for years once they are lost under the water surface or depleted.

  • Fish depletion.

Overfishing can occur in waters bodies of any size such as lake, sea, ponds, rivers or oceans and can result to resources or stocks to be depleted, reduction in biological growth rates, and low biomass levels. Which leads to fish populations to be depleted or full exploited.

  • Ecosystem destruction.

Excessive overfishing in water bodies will result to destruction of some marine ecosystems like fish habitat near shorelines as well as in the deep sea, and destruction of fish reproduction. When more fish are taken out of the ocean or sea it creates an imbalance that can erode the food web and lead to losses of other important marine life including vulnerable species like sea turtles and corals.

  • Decreasing food and economic security.

Demand for fish continues to increase around the world and that means more business and jobs are dependent on dwindling stocks. When fish disappears so do jobs and coastal economies are drive over exploitation and environmental degradation.

SOLUTIONS OF OVERFISHING

  • Catching control

Thereare still little control countries have with their fisherman. There needs to be control so the Fisheries know what catch an endangered species of fish is or not. The control could be done before and after the fishing, so the controller could see the catch.

  • Protect some Marine areas.

We haveto know where the real habitats of some endangered fish species are and protect the area. By protecting these areas fisheries will not be allowed to fish in those areas . The protection of some marine areas we will help the water ecosystem recovery by giving the time for them to recover.

  • Fish farming.

The other way we could be done to increases fish stocks or populations without harming the water ecosystems is by farming the fish (Aquaculture) . We create another small ecosystem that will not hamper another ecosystem. By feeding and taking care of our fish, they will breed and creates more fish stocks.

  • Fishing licence.

This is an act of providing fishing license to the fishermen, just like a licence for the owner of the gears and licenses for those who practice fishing. This will help  monitor the fishers who harvested resources illegally without any permission and make easily managed overfishing.

  • Public education provided.

The government must use their Fisheries extension to provide the knowledge to fisherman on how maximum sustainable yield is important and practise to keep reproduction of fish stocks continuous for future generations.

  • Seasonal fishing. The government should implement rules and regulations for fishing to be conducted at a specific period of time. This will help by giving fish stocks more time to reproduce and grow at a healthy state and remedy the fish depletion problem to the maximum.

The economic consequences of climate change in Tanzania

by Romaisa Hussain & (Junna) – Art in Tanzania internship

Climate change has emerged as a potentially existential threat all across the globe that poses a serious risk to the survival of mankind and sustainable development. Over the last few decades, the world has witnessed changes in weather patterns as a result of global warming and human-caused greenhouse gas emissions. Based on a numerous lines of evidence, it is now more certain than ever that climate change is a threat multiplier that can amplify the effects of existing dangers. These threats include human security, scarcity of natural resources, environmental degradation, and poor economic growth.

The United Nations General Assembly set up the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 which serve as a blueprint for a sustainable future to be achieved by 2030. The 13th Sustainable Development Goal of the United Nations talks about Climate Action. The goal discusses the critical impact of climate change and encourages developing countries to move towards low-carbon emission in the environment. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is a separate organ working within the UN that deals with climate change and other environmental issues. The UN aims to adapt to low carbon development especially in the vulnerable regions that contribute towards climate action and sustainable natural resource management through collective action. Most of the states in the world are affected by climate change with East Africa being one of the most affected regions.

Tanzania is suffering the brunt of the consequences of climate change in East Africa. The agricultural-based economy of Tanzania has become vulnerable to the extreme climatic conditions. The majority of the population is located in the rural areas which heavily relies on agriculture and farming that is threatened by rising temperatures, droughts and extreme rainfalls. The country is home to the world’s largest river system, the River Tanzanian. Despite immense water resources, Tanzania struggles with a shortage of water both spatially and temporally which is worsened by the climate on its nine main river basins. In the recent years, there has been a severe decline in the water level in Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria and Lake Jipe as well as a decrease in the water level of about 7km in Lake Rukwa during the last fifty years. These are connected with climate change and are endangering towards socio-economic activities. The effect also puts the country’s hydropower system at risk. Furthermore, diseases such as diarrhea and malaria remain one of the prime causes of casualties in the country especially in the urban settlements consisting of poor infrastructure prone to flooding and increased temperatures. 

Tanzania’s economy relies on its natural and environmental resources where a good number of people depend on fisheries for their income which are at risk from rising sea waters and freshwater temperatures. Tourism is another aspect that has the potential to boost the economy of Tanzania as the country has a tropical climate and is home to wildlife, forests, beaches, mountains, rivers, lakes and minerals. The attractions are found in abundance in national and marine parks, historical and cultural sites and recreational sites. Currently, tourism generates 17.5 per cent of GDP and 25 per cent of export revenues, making it an important economic sector but climate unpredictability endangers the ecosystem services on which tourism relies. For example, the Serengeti National Park has been famous for tourism wildlife migration for decades which contributes significantly to Tanzania’s economy and serves as a key source of employment. There is a growing fear that the climate has shifted dramatically, potentially affecting wildlife tourism. 

Threats to the sustainability of the natural resources and environmental degradation remain an issue in Tanzania such as the untimely harvesting and usage of natural resources, unsupervised cultivation process, and trespassing on water sources. Collectively, these can seriously affect the sustainable development goals of a country. Due to the unsustainable consumption of resources, there can be problems in the production of sources that may affect livelihoods. In addition to that, they can lead to the deficiency of food which could eventually lead to poverty. An increase in the population and high reliance on agriculture becomes rather burdensome on the environment and its natural resources which contribute negatively to climate change and water-deficient regions. 

One of the leading factors that contributes to the environmental degradation is the unsustainable management of land and watershed. Many challenges are still needed to be tackled to reduce this issue including unexpected growth of human settlements, wildlife hunting, illegal farming and livestock, uncontrollable bushfires, weak inter-sectoral association and stakeholder linkages. This may lead towards the social and economic development of the country as well as reduce poverty. The Tanzanian Government has marked the water-oriented issues as a major factor that has affected the environment which is why it has been implemented in national policies and necessary plans and strategies needed to tackle it. The visibility of climatic changes in Tanzania is increased by 60% which are seen in the form of a decrease in water sources, land degradation and the reduction in agricultural land. The Government also tends to focus on carbon emission with the protection of ecosystems and biodiversity, the saving of wildlife to abolish the hunting system as a means of income, reducing vehicle usage and improving urban planning in the country to promote urbanization. It also placed environmental sections under the sector ministries to ensure and monitor the environmental issues as well as raising awareness amongst the community. The Government also needs to guarantee that efforts are being made in terms of the development of the environment and climate change in national as well as subnational plans. 

A National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) was developed by Tanzania’s government in 2007, as required by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. According to NAPA, the most affected areas in Tanzania that suffer from the impacts of climate change are agriculture, water, health, and energy. In 2012, Tanzania’s government devised a strategy to address the growing concern about the detrimental effects of climate change on the country’s economy and environment. Furthermore, the Government of Tanzania initiated the first phase of the Global Climate Services Framework (GFCS), held in 2014-2016, to strengthen the resilience of individuals who are most exposed to the effects of weather and climate-related disasters. On September 18, a ceremony in Dar es Salaam marked the start of the second phase from 2016-2019. It was conducted in partnership with the International Red Cross Federation and Tanzania Red Cross Society, Ministry of Health, Gender, Elderly Affairs, World Health Organization (WHO), Ministry of Agriculture, Tanzania World Food Program, and Tanzania Meteorological Agency.

The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) is one of the partners of the Government of Tanzania that has aided the development of the environment and contributed to measures regarding natural resources and climate change issues. The UNDP encourages the Government and respective communities in terms of sustaining the environment and contributing to the reversal of environmental degradation. As long as the correct policies are implemented, the chances for preserving the ecosystems in terms of food, energy, wood i.e. timber, clean water, consistent climate etc. are possible. Over the past few years, Tanzania has recently experienced high growth rates of about 7.4%.

The impact of climate change has had a huge effect on the incomes of the people in Tanzania. It has had a severe impact on the economy, agriculture, natural resources and livelihoods of people which exposes the vulnerable part of the country. It is, to say the least, the Government of Tanzania is to be respected for the progress it has made regarding the development and exercising of policies and strategies to prevent degradation and the protection of the environment. The Government tends to cater to the environmental needs of the country and maintain its natural resources as a means of saving economic and social development. This would mean effectively establishing immediate measures to improve the damages caused. The Government also needs to guarantee that efforts are being made in terms of the development of the environment and climate change in national as well as subnational plans.

Relations between Tanzania and China could be central for future African ecological transition.

By Alessandro Deligios – Art in Tanzania internship

Bagamoyo, Tanzania

In these last years China is exploiting her economic power to take more influence in geopolitical arena. According with the future model of geo-economic competition, China firstly seems try to become the leader State in Asia, secondly is taking more power in many areas of the word. One of the strategies to extend her influence is the Belt & Road Initiative (BRI), with which, through financing project in different word areas, China is able to deeply link the economy of various countries to her one and so create a global economic network that have Chinese economic and financial system as reference – the so-called Beijing consensus.

Jakaya Kikwete and Xi Jinping

In particular China is focusing on East Africa and in this region Tanzania-China relationship is a key for Beijing to get a strategic economic position: in 2013 the Tanzanian ex President Jakaya Kikwete signed an agreement for allow China to invest in the financing of Bagamoyo port project, around which it should have place a special economic zone, that expected China to have especial condition for example for water and energy provisions and the security that Tanzania wouldn’t have financing another competitor port. But in January 2016 the project has been annulled by the President John Magufuli because the agreement for him was like sell Tanzania to Chinese investors.

In climate discussion we know that African countries are the most affected by the problem brought by climate changes, especially by the global warming: the continent probably will be exposed to longer periods of drought and water provision will be always more difficult. About this we also know that China is one of the countries which release the highest levels of greenhouse gases. Despite the attempts of Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997 and started in 2005, and of Paris Agreement in 2016, emissions have not yet been limited in satisfactorily way. Developed countries have the responsibility to help the developing ones in ecological transition and the GEF (Global Environment Facility) is a program managed by the UN and the Word Bank that give financing to the developing countries for they can get positive results related to four areas: climate changes, desertification, international water pollution and biodiversity. Good results are got in third and fourth areas, but not in the first two. At the start of April 2021 the First Minister Geoffrey Mwambe said that Tanzania would be ready for a new agreement about Bagamoyo port project if terms will be changed: in this Tanzania-China relations can be central for the ecological transition of all the Africa. Tanzania could advance conditions for the project according with UN 2030 Agenda sustainability goals, cooperating with others African countries for doing the same with others Chinese investments in Africa, when possible. With high chance China is so interested in extend her economic influence in Africa to get more global diplomatic weight to be disposed to accept conditions of sustainability for her projects. It could be one of the few ways to do that China – but not only, also other countries that would like investing in Africa – massively reduce her emissions. And this will be more powerful based on how many countries will collaborate: it should be a priority because fast growing economies have to develop in sustainable way and must do pressure on developed countries, especially on China in that global big player that is trying to extend own power.

GEF logo
UN 2030 Agenda sustainable development goals

Sources

– (About climate issue and international relations)

J. Grieco, G. J. Ikenberry, M. Mastanduno, Introduzione alle relazioni internazionali, UTET, 2017

– (About Bagamoyo port project)

D, Ayemba, Bagamoyo port project timeline and all you need to know, 15 April 2021, on Construction Review Online, https://constructionreviewonline.com/project-timelines/bagamoyo-port-project-timeline-and-all-you-need-to-know/.

P. Mittal, Tanzanian Bagamoyo Port Project Story, 16 September 2020, on Belt and Road News, https://www.beltandroad.news/2020/09/16/tanzanian-bagamoyo-port-project-story/.

A. D’Amaro, Un ponte tra Cina e Africa: il porto di Bagamoyo, Tanzania, 8 September 2020, on Lo Spiegone, https://lospiegone.com/2020/09/08/un-ponte-tra-cina-e-africa-il-porto-di-bagamoyo-tanzania/ .

EFFECTS OF POLITICAL CHANGE TOWARDS FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT

JAMES MGAYA – Art in Tanzania internship

Political changes may change in regime of ruling, due to new philosophies in leadership, ruling parties, country policies, laws and rules, diplomacy, and democratic changes. While financial development is all about improving and expanding financial services and resources to boost economic growth. 

Democracy is one of the significant forces that lead governments to undertake reforms to enhance financial development, as in the period of SAP’s (structural adjustment programs) attempt to correct economic imbalances, to improve efficiency of developing in transitional economies, thereby setting the state for further development. This institutional improvement (i.e., democratisation) stimulates financial development. We all agree in the era of the Late President Benjamin Mkapa, his improvement in the institutional quality is associated with increases in financial development at least in the short run. During this era many investors were attracted leading to a rapid establishment of new companies, NGO’s, financial institution, and governmental institutions like the TRA.

Democratic transitions are typically preceded by low financial development, much work has been done to explore the relationship between institutional improvement, especially in political liberalisation and economic growth. Which is followed by a short-run boost in financial development and greater volatility of financial development.

How do democratic processes improve institutional quality and influence financial development?

By facilitating property rights protection, contract enforcement, and encouraging investment. President Samia Suluhu who insists in institutional improvement could serve as one channel in which trade openness could boost financial development and growth. Although there are positive feedback effects and interaction effects between economic and political liberalisation, institutional reform under an open economic environment could exert an additional boost to investment and economic growth.

The financial sector development plays an important part in economic growth as it can reduce the cost of acquiring information, conducting transactions, and facilitating savings mobilisation. By providing these services, the financial sector can enhance resource allocation and increase aggregate savings. Credit provided to the private sector seems to follow a path with increased influence associated with a decreased income level and seems to be important for convergence and a country’s economic growth.

How Political Climates Affect the Financial Development?

  1. A change in government often means a change in ideology for the country’s citizens, which usually means a different approach to monetary or fiscal policy, both of which especially the former, are big drivers of a currency’s value. The hope is that a new leader might make changes that boost a country’s economic growth potential or improve its financial outlook. Bureaucracy and interference in the financial service industry by the government and pricing regulations are mechanisms for financial and taxation for tax rates and incentives

Conclusion

The financial development generates a good portion of its revenue for an economy to remain stable, it needs to have a healthy financial sector and an open economic condition for more capital projects and investments. When this occurs, the financial sector benefits due to economic growth. Political factors play a significant role in determining the factors that can impact financial development and long-term profitability in a certain country or market. This allows for success in a dynamic financial industry by diversifying the systematic risks of political environments in Tanzania, but financial developments expose itself to different types of political environment and political system risks.

Corporate Social Responsibility in Tanzania

Art in Tanzania internship report

What it is, why it matters and how it can help Tanzania

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a consistently used business practice in Tanzania, with huge corporations such as MIB Bank. Twiga Cement and Coca-Cola endorsing and investing in a large number of CSR schemes.

Despite its potential to greatly help local communities, it is a concept that has not taken root in Tanzania. For a number of reasons, whether it be poor organization, a failure to engage and educate local communities or businesses being held back by a desire to put its shareholders and profits first, CSR seems to be misunderstood and at times misused.

This holds Tanzania back, especially considering how important sustainable practices and further community engagement could greatly help both Tanzania and the corporations that operate within them. It can improve employment prospects for Tanzanian men and women across all sectors, help Tanzania’s environment become cleaner and safer and it can ensure sustainable and continued economic growth for Tanzania, which benefits everyone from the business directors to the local farmer.

What is CSR?

CSR stands for social corporate responsibility. It involves companies using their resources and money to try and benefit the communities they work in. This includes keeping pollution down, providing more energy and resources to the community and working alongside the community to improve conditions for the local people.

This can take many forms, from making its manufacturing or extracting processes more sustainable to helping pay for classroom equipment to ensure local students have the tools to succeed. It can also involve companies donating some of its profits to local projects such as building new irrigation systems or helping refurbish local community centers.

By providing these resources and funding, the companies can enhance their reputations both locally and across the region they operate in by helping to gain a loyal customer base, who trust and support the business due to their positive investment in the community.. When done well, CSR has the potential to improve society for the better and benefit everyone within it.

Why is CSR important to Tanzania?

While CSR schemes can be a huge benefit to any country or region willing to embrace them, it can be even more important for Tanzania. Firstly, by working with businesses to implement sustainable practices, it can ensure that Tanzania can maintain its key resources.

Around a quarter of Tanzania’s economy is taken up by mining, industry and construction. In particular, as of 2013, 89% of Tanzania’s mineral export wealth comes from gold, although diamonds and tanzanite also contribute to Tanzania’s export wealth. Therefore, it is vital that businesses mine these resources sustainably so that more people can use and profit from their natural resources for many generations, not just for short term profitability.

Another key aspect of the Tanzanian economy is farming, with agricultural workers representing around half of the employed workforce in Tanzania. However, climate change and unsustainable irrigation and farming practices mean that it is becoming harder and harder to farm successfully in Tanzania. Due to these challenges, people will struggle to grow crops or earn money, in turn leading to more people in poverty.

CSR projects take many different forms, but a key aspect is that they encourage businesses to use sustainable practices. This includes reducing water, soil and air pollution that can badly damage the farming land and environment. This will hugely benefit local farmers, who with more clean water and high quality land can continue to grow crops and farm successfully.  

It also means convincing extractive industries that they can still grow and produce profits for its shareholders without drying up Tanzania’s natural resources, which need to be preserved to ensure long term profit and economic growth for Tanzania. Therefore, CSR can be crucial in protecting Tanzania’s economic and environmental future.

Another factor to remember is the disparity between the economic growth in Tanzania and how much of it is reaching the people of Tanzania. In a recent World Bank report, they state how while the country has enjoyed sustained economic growth for the past 20 years, Tanzania’s wealth per capita- the sum of all its human, physical and natural capital has decreased.

This reflects how Tanzania’s natural resources, which as mentioned previously contribute heavily to Tanzania’s wealth overall, are not being managed effectively and are therefore not creating sustainable economic growth for the whole of Tanzania.

Tanzania also has one of the largest poor populations in Africa, with around 21.3 million citizens living below the poverty line. The World Bank report also states how with the population in Tanzania set to grow exponentially (the Tanzanian population is expected to triple to 138 million by 2050), there will be huge pressure on natural resources and necessities.

This will be compounded by increased urbanisation and climate change. In simple terms, more people (who are already struggling with poverty and rely on natural resources) will have to compete for less space, farmable land, water and reliable energy supplies.

CSR can help manage the worst affects. By getting businesses to commit more funding and expertise to local communities, they can help limit the worst effects of poverty, whether it be improving energy supply, helping to educate people and protecting the land from environmental damage, or by introducing schemes that will help jobseekers gain further qualifications and skills that will help them earn the money to improve their living standards.

How is CSR operating in Tanzania now?

The good news is that progress is being made. Government legislation implemented in 2017 has made sure businesses carry out their social responsibilities to the areas they operate in, whether through education and training, more sustainable practices or through providing funding equipment and facilities in the local communities. It also forces them to commit a small percentage (around 0.7%) of their income to CSR schemes. It is a huge step forward from businesses using their own discretion when deciding what their social responsibilities were.

In a recent article by the Citizen, they report on and highlight the key points of a recent social responsibility forum held in Dar Es Salaam focusing on women employment in extractive industries. At this forum, they commend extractive industries for their steps towards taking up greater social responsibility.

However, they also recommend that more should be done to educate girls at the school and university level. More women should be trained and educated in these industries to ensure in the future that these companies can cultivate local women to help them implement more effective and sustainable practices. They emphasized how it would be both economically valuable and socially beneficial to include more women in the extractive industries. What this conference reflects is that while steps are being made to make CSR better understood and more effective and better understood, more can always be done, especially at the local level.

Without continuing to highlight the importance of CSR schemes to both businesses and the community, their positive impact is reduced as companies sacrifice genuine positive change for profitability or some quick publicity. This is reflected in a 2017 study looking at the CSR policies implemented in the Msalala district of Tanzania by extractive and mining industries.

While the Bulyanhulu Gold Mine Company did provide dispensaries, latrines and school desks, the majority of the public response from those surveyed was negative. They felt they were not included in the use of CSR funds and companies in the region also scored poorly amongst the public on dealing with issues of environmental pollution, inflation, healthcare and poverty. This shows how even with the legislation, CSR schemes can still struggle to deliver positive change to local communities

This is not just an isolated case. A comprehensive study of CSR in Tanzania done by a student at the university of Dar Es Salaam concludes that while businesses are quick to proclaim how effective their CSR schemes are, in reality these companies often use these schemes to generate further publicity and create a greater demand for their service/product.

Supporting the local community is often a secondary concern. To solve this, the study concludes that more needs to be done to educate and involve the community in CSR schemes and help push the government to act as a coordinator and enforcer to ensure these schemes are a huge success for both businesses and the local people. This reflects that there is still much more that can be done to raise awareness of the concept in the local communities and ensure businesses help communities by aiding gender equality in employment, implementing sustainable business practices and helping to engage and solve problems within the local community.

So, what more can be done? 

With this article looking at how useful CSR is and how it can benefit Tanzania, it is also important to outline the steps that are needed to make it successful.

Community engagement is a key aspect, and ensuring that local businesses, schools, workers and groups are aware of CSR schemes and become more and more invested in making sure that these schemes truly benefit the community.

As part of this, it also involves educating people on the key reasons why CSR schemes are important. It is also crucial that young students are educated on the importance of CSR, as they can then take these ideas with them as the progress into further studies and a career. Therefore, outreach into schools and universities is important, whether it be through lectures, debates, seminars or even longer educational programs.

These ideas will help them become more employable but also help integrate these important ideas into whatever sector they go into, whether that be the private sector industries, into government or just into public life. This can then create more engagement on these issues with businesses, meaning there are more people who are ready and willing to work in tandem with businesses to ensure the greatest benefit to the local people and communities.

Alongside this, a crucial step is trying to continue to push businesses to invest in the local community. This can be done not only through creating demand for CSR schemes by educating the markets and consumers these businesses are selling too, but through negotiating agreements between non profits, businesses and local institutions that will bring about even more mutually beneficial CSR schemes.

In the long run, it will also be vital that the government becomes increasingly involved in co-ordinating CSR schemes to ensure that both business and societal interests are met. In an ideal world, they will come up with even stricter guidelines that ensure companies are forced to carry out their responsibilities and that they work with local communities to ensure that the local people are able to participate and improve their areas.

CSR therefore offers plenty of opportunity for businesses and communities to work together and create truly positive change, but there is plenty of work to do to ensure that the CSR concept can deliver on its huge potential.

References 

-Citizen Article on CSR forum, March 30th 2019: https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/news/CSR-is-key-to-social-sustainability/1840340-5049158-tftwi0z/index.html

-World Bank Report May 2019: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2019/05/05/accelerated-natural-resource-degradation-puts-tanzanias-development-goals-at-risk—new-world-bank-report

-2017 Study on the impact of CSR studies in the Msalala District by Jonas Kilave: http://scholar.mzumbe.ac.tz/handle/11192/2114

-Shukrani Mbirigend, Corporate Social Responsibility in Tanzania, Misconception, Misuse and Malpractices, Chapter 7 in particular, Dar Es Salaam Student Study: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277389003_Corporate_Social_Responsibility_in_Tanzania_Experience_of_Misconception_Misuse_and_Malpractices:  

-All Statistics not found within other cited works were taken from the publicly available archives of the National Bureau of Statistics, done by Tanzania’s Ministry of Finance