CHALLENGES IN THE ACCESIBILITY OF PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION IN TANZANIA

By Dickson Straitony – Art in Tanzania internship

Introduction

 Pre-school education involves education and care Early childhood period is the crucial and sensitive time for children development holistically including social, physical, emotional and cognitive development. The child need positive with the environment as they are very active to learn everything they interact with by imitation and experience. Child’s learning and development occurs in multiple contexts from home to school context that should be well prepared, stimulating and supportive for learning and development holistically (Sestini, 1985). Play is the best method of learning for children in this age group. All activities must be arranged on the basis of play and all activities should be planed and organized based on the interest of the child where the process of learning should start from what the child know that is bottom-up approach.  

Preschool education considers the needs of children and individual differences, should support the psychomotor, social-emotional, linguistic and cognitive development of the child, build in self-care skills and prepare the child for school continuity as it should impart in children self-respect, self-confidence and self-control.

 To respond to the needs of children, preschool education institutions should provide education environments in compliance with an understanding of democratic education. 

 The process of education should start from what children already know and provide a room for learning by trying and experimenting. Education given in preschool phase should be contributory to the development of children in terms of affection, respect, cooperation, responsibility, tolerance, solidarity and sharing. 

Background

Tanzania is the country found in East Africa in Sub-saharan Africa with 59.7 Million number of population where 77% of population lives in rural area and only 23% lives in urban with the area of about 945,087 km2. According to UNESCO (2015), Tanzania has an adult literacy rate of 77.8% where the male literacy rate is 83.2% and for females is 73.09%.   

According to Education for All (EFA) of 1990 as an international initiative for making education to benefits every citizen in every society the first goal out of six is to “Expand and improve comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for most vulnerable and disadvantaged children”. Tanzania adopted Pre-primary Education Policy in 1995 as the part of Education and Training Policy where all primary schools where established pre-primary education program as the part of formal education program for two years that included children with age from five to six are enrolled before join to primary school but not mandatory to that age where it depends the parents.  According to Mtahabwa and Rao (2009), currently young children in Tanzania attend programmes in child care centre nursery schools, Montessori or other preschools and pre-primary classes which are affiliated to primary schools. Children attend different programs that are nursery, Day care, Kindergarten, Montessori and pre-primary school. Pre-school educational program is considered as the preparation for primary education and it is the period of transition from home to school environment where parents and teachers a have to prepare the transition environments for child school readiness.

Total Enrolment in Pre-Primary Education has increased by 46.1% from 1,069,823 in 2015 to 1,562,770 in 2016. The increase is a result of community sensitization as well as a prevailing strong partnership of the government and parents, faith-based organizations (FBOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) in providing Pre-Primary Education. (URT 2016) Pre-primary, Primary and Secondary Education Statistics in brief. In 2019 Prep-primary school enrolment was reported at 41.59%, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators and this indicated the drop of number of enrolment from 46.1% in 2016 to 41.59% in 2019. Different private sectors provide education and care for children below five years as the part of preschool program.

Volunteer and intern in nursery school in Tanzania in Africa, työharjoittelu koulut afrikka, vapaaehtoisena koulussa afrikassa

  Problems facing the accessibility of preschool education in Tanzania

The success of the Early Childhood program has been the effort of both public and private sectors linking together although not all Tanzanians have been able to access it.

Low social-economic status of parents. This is the challenge poor families faces in access to education, the charging fees in private schools is not affordable to many parents in that case they fail to send their children to preschool centers  where they opt  to remain them at home helping different domestic works as the number of household are involving in agricultural activities and they become street children.

Education quality and resources constraints in public schools. (UNICEF Tanzania, 2018).  Compared to private schools in Tanzania the government has not invested much to make sure there is quality early childhood education where mostly children who attend to public preschools they do not achieve satisfactorily basic learning skills for school continuity. The challenge of resources for teaching and learning to public preschools like stimulating learning materials and supportive environment but also we found that preschool and primary schools they share the same classes learning by shifts.

 Low parents’ awareness towards early childhood education. In Tanzania there is existing of large number of parents who are not aware of the need and the importance of early childhood education to their children specifically in villages and remote areas. The value of education still low in Tanzania villages where other they don’t send them to school totally neither preschool nor primary school and they believe in workforce (Pambas, 2010).. So children from this group of parents get affected and if they get enrolled at primary school they have limited fundamental learning skills.  

Public preschools are located far away from home environment. In some regions children have to walk for a miles to school no passenger vehicles and if they are available some parents may fail to afford daily fare with other expenses. Parents fear the security of their children hence they do not enroll them to preschools.

Inadequate of preschool teachers has become a challenge to public primary and secondary schools but also preschools. Primary school teachers they take the role of teaching due to lack of professional preschool teachers at the same time they teach primary schools as a result they had a heavy workload that reduce efficiency of work and sometimes volunteers nonprofessional teacher they teacher those preschool children in private centers. They don’t have professional knowledge and skill about teaching and learning to those preschool children and leads to poor quality education and those are qualified they don’t get in-service training as the apart of professional development (Kitta, 2004).   

Traditional norms, cultural values and gender discrimination. Gender inequalities due to discriminatory norm has the negative effect to children access to education from early childhood education and above  as the families cannot afford to fully educate all children girls they are not given much importance and treated inferior to boys children especially in rural areas within Tanzania (Mligo 2018).  In some societies with norms around marriageability norms related to gender division of labour all these affect girls’ education. Children with disabilities also the face challenges in access to education due to negative perception on their ability to learn.

 Possible solutions      

Involving Parents and community as active participants in early childhood education and care intervention program. The involvement of these two actors to children educational experience as the parents they participate to children’s education by actively supporting, encouraging, and providing supportive home learning environment, when parents are involved in they become an expert to their child and reinforce the development of preschool program The child and his/her family should actively take part in the process of education as it is urged that when parents are involved in child education the possibility of that child to school achievements is higher     

Provision of fund from government to preschools. Due to preschool settings being not conducive and supportive for children the government should provide funds from different sources can be internal or external sources thereafter preschool education should have its own budget for better investment and improvement in the provision and aces of quality education and for all. Enough preschool classes with supportive infrastructures for both children including disadvantaged children 

 The government has to increase the number of preschool center. In some area of Tanzania the number of children is over the school facilities as the results the indoor activities are all done outside. But also the limited number of preschools results to long distance from home to school and few are able to attend hence dropouts and truancy increase

Conclusion

Tanzania as the among of developing countries  investing in early childhood education is the crucial step towards development that will ensure public provision of high quality early childhood education by establishing clear policy, and work to ensure the increase in enrolment, registration and curriculum development as well as producing large number of quality early childhood teachers. The government should work more on sensitizing community and parents the value of preschool education and set the suitable environment to raise their social-economic status.   

Reference

Kitta S. (2004).  Enhancing mathematics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge and skills in   Tanzania. Enschede: University of Twente. 

Mligo I. (2018). Enhancing Young Childrens Acces to Early Childhood Education and Care in      Tanzania. Contemprary perspective on Child Psychology and Education,          

Pambas, T. (2010). Stakeholders’ conception of young children’s readiness for primary    schooling in Tanzania.Unpublished M.A Thesis, University of Dodoma.   

Sestini, E. (1985). Preschool Education: Recent Developments in Preschool Policies and Provision in Developing Countries and in the UK. In Lillis, K. M. (Ed.). School, and          Community in Less Developed Countries. Biddles Limited, Guiford King’s Lynn,             Greatain

UNICEF Tanzania. 2018. Education :The Situation 

            http://www.unicef.org/tanzania/education.html

THE HISTORY OF THE TWO GREATEST FOOTBALL CLUBS IN TANZANIA

By Jofrey – Art in Tanzania internship

SIMBA

Simba sport club is one of the biggest club in Tanzania which commence and established in 1936 Dar es salaam, Tanzania. Simba when was founded in 1936 they were named Queens, then later on named Eagles but that name does not last much longer it changed to Sunderland until 1971 when official they named and recognized as SIMBA (“Lion” in English).

Owner of Simba SC Mr. Mo Dewji

Simba reside at Kariakoo Dar es salaam and their cross-city rival is Young Africans (YANGA). Simba nicknamed as “The King” or “Wekundu wa Msimbazi” (The Reds of Msimbazi).

CEO Ms. Barbara Gonzalez

Simba has won 21 league titles and five domestic cups, also simba participated in the CAF champions league multiple times. Their home playground is Mkapa stadium also known as “National stadium “.

Simba is owned by wanachama (citizens) by 51% and Mo Dewji by 49% where by Mo Dewji invest to simba sports club the total amount of USD 8,700,000 (Tsh 20 Billion)

Simba Squad
Head Coach Mr. Didier Da Rosa

Simba Fans Celebrate
Simba Player Benard Morrison (BMW)

YANGA FC

Yanga Sports club is one of the biggest club in Tanzania which was founded in 1935 but the history of Yanga is traced back to 1910 when they were known as Jangwani boys then later on in 1930 they change the name to “new youngs”

Yanga Head Coach Investor Mr. Said Gharib Mohamed

In 1935 misunderstanding and conflicts appear between the members of new youngs which led to the disintegration of the club, some members remain with new youngs and start afresh and official they call their club as “Yanga” in the same year 1935, while other member left and form their new club called “Queens ” which currently known as “Simba”

Yanga nicknamed as “Wananchi” (Citizens) or (Young Boys). Young Africans reside at Jangwani Dar es salaam and their cross-city rivals Simba, the club play their home games at Mkapa stadium and Uhuru stadium. 

The club has won 22 league titles  and four domestic cups, and have participated in multiple CAF Champions league. They also have won the CECAFA Club Championship five times.

Yanga Squad
Yanga Head Coach Mr. Cedric Kaze
Yanga Fans Celebrate

Impact of domestic tourism as a strategy to the recovery of tourism activities from COVID-19

Written by Daniel Christopher Mkilanya – Art in Tanzania internship

One year into the COVID-19 pandemic there isn’t one industry unaffected, and tourism is no exception. From canceled weddings and festivals to less dining out, the world has taken a hit from the large decline in tourism. The U.S. alone has seen more than $297 billion in losses from the decrease in travel since the beginning of March 2020.

However, as the summer months push on and people look for any excuse to leave their houses, tourism is making a comeback – for better or worse. The tourism industry is undoubtedly changing, but people still want to travel. And tourism research is seeing that wanderlust desire. We need to remain mindful of the millions of people who work in the tourism industry and understand that changes in the industry directly affect individuals who depend on tourism.” For us to understand the impact of COVID-19 on the tourism industry first we have to know what the coronavirus is and how is it spreads from one person to another

Flu coronavirus pandemic virus infection, travel and health concept. Medical stethoscope and travel documents on wood background. 3d illustration

1. What is a corona virus?

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered type of coronavirus.

Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illnesses. The best way to prevent andslow down transmission is to be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes,and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol-based rub frequently and not touching your face.

The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow).

2. How coronavirus has affected the tourism industry

Failure of tourism business

It is often that tourism companies suffer in times of hardship, The independent travel agent in Arusha, the street seller in Zanzibar, the taxi driver in our airports. If there are no tourists, there is no business.

I have met many local workers on my travels during the Coronavirus outbreak. The effect of Coronavirus on tourism is most certainly evident in Tanzania. Many tourists have paid half the usual price for hotels and also many tourist attractions are without the crowds.

Whilst this has been good for tourists, it has been desperation for the local business people; the man who wants to sell ice cream, the lady who offers a ride home and the family-run restaurant business. Coronavirus has gone far by affecting large tourism business as a well. We have recently seen collapse of airline companies as a result of the reduction in tourism.

Restriction in traveling

Due to the increase in the number of victims, different countries have decided to impose traveling restriction as one of the ways of preventing further spread off coronavirus but also the general public is scared that they may transmit the virus to their elderly or immune- compromised friends and relatives.

As a result, many people are choosing not to travel. It’s a effective way to prevent further spread of coronavirus but for the traveling business it’s a great loss.

2. How the Domestic tourism will recover?

UN World Tourism Organization UNWTO Secretary-General Zurab Pololikashvili said: “UNWTO expects domestic tourism to return faster and stronger than international travel. Given the size of domestic tourism, this will help many destinations recover from the economic impacts of the pandemic, while at the same time safeguarding jobs, protecting livelihoods and allowing the social benefits tourism offers to also return.”

The briefing note also shows that, in most destinations, domestic tourism generates higher revenues than international tourism. In OECD nations, domestic tourism accounts for 75%of total tourism expenditure, while in the European Union, domestic tourism expenditure is 1.8 times higher than inbound tourism expenditure. Globally, the largest domestic tourism markets in terms of expenditure is the United States with nearly US$ 1 trillion, Germany with US$ 249 billion, Japan US$ 201 billion, the United Kingdom with US$ 154 billion, and Mexico with US$ 139 billion (UNWTO, 2020).

Initiatives to boost domestic tourism

Given the value of domestic tourism and current trends, increasing numbers of countries are taking steps to grow their markets, UNWTO reports. This new Briefing Note provides case studies of initiatives designed to stimulate domestic demand. These include initiativesfocused on marketing and promotion as well as financial incentives (UNWTO, 2020).Examples of countries taking targeted steps to boost domestic tourist numbers include:

In Italy, the Bonus Vacanze initiative offers families with incomes of up to EUR 40,000 contributions of up to EUR 500 to spend on domestic tourism accommodation.

Malaysia allocated US$113 million worth of travel discount vouchers as well as personal tax relief of up to US$227 for expenditure related to domestic tourism.

Costa Rica moved all holidays of 2020 and 2021 to Mondays for Costa Ricans to enjoy longweekends to travel domestically and to extend their stays.

France launched the campaign #CetÉtéJeVisiteLaFrance (‘This Summer, I visit France’) highlighting the diversity of destinations across the country.

Argentina announced the creation of an Observatory for Domestic Tourism to provide a betterprofile of Argentine tourists.

Thailand will subsidise 5 million nights of hotel accommodation at 40% of normal room rates for up to five nights.

The impact of climate change on water stocks

By Felicity Checksfield – Art in Tanzania internship

Climate change is having an instrumental impact on water stocks in Eastern Africa. This is consequently impacting many citizens’ enjoyment of their human rights. The United Nations suggests that ‘water is the primary medium through which we will feel the effects of climate change’ (United Nations, 2018). This is because higher temperatures and more extreme, less predictable, weather conditions are projected to affect the availability and distribution of rainfall and further deteriorate water quality. As of 2019, 12% of the world population drinks water from unimproved and unsafe sources and more than 30% of the world population, or 2.4 billion people, live without any form of sanitation (United Nations, 2020).

Specifically, in Eastern Africa, 75% of Africa’s population could be at risk of hunger. This is because 75 million hectares of land currently suitable for agriculture is being lost in sub-Saharan Africa due to drought. This is a matter pertaining to human rights for a number of reasons. Contaminated water and poor sanitation are linked to the transmission of diseases such as cholera, diarrhea and polio. Inadequately managed water and sanitation facilities expose individuals to health risks that would be otherwise preventable. It is predicted that approximately 842, 000 people are to die each year from diarrhea as a result of unsafe drinking-water, sanitation and hand hygiene.

This post with consider potential climate policies from a variety of time scales and their effectiveness at combating the issue of water scarcity in Eastern Africa. Some of the policies to be assessed will include the re-use of wastewater, to recover water and improved sanitation.

Population data

The current population of Eastern Africa is approximately 451, 600, 500. However, 37% of people in the world that do not have access to safe and clean water live in this region. Access to sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa is in fact declining with only 31% of people able to access a toilet (6% less than that reported in 2006). 

In Tanzania, the population is approximately 60,712,700, with 80% of people living in rural areas. These rural areas are especially sparsely population, with as low as 1 person per square kilometers. This increased to approximately 53 people per square kilometer in the water-rich mainland highlands. It is estimated that up to 80 percent of Tanzania’s rural population relies on use of natural resources to sustain a livelihood, which makes stewardship of these resources a fundamental priority for Tanzania’s continued stability and growth. However, 4 million people in Tanzania lack access to an improved source of safe water, and 30 million don’t have access to improved sanitation.

Agricultural Production Data

These statistics have instrumental implications for the production of agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania. This is because approximately 93% of water withdrawn from the Tanzanian environment is used for agriculture. It is therefore of great importance that Tanzanian communities have access to safe and clean water. Agriculture accounts for 27% of Tanzania’s gross-domestic product (GDP) and provides employment for the majority of the nation’s population. Moreover, the livestock sector contributes 7% to the country’s GDP. The sector is severely constrained by low livestock reproductive rates, high mortality and high disease prevalence.

By the 2080s, land unsuitable for agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa due to severe climate, soil or terrain constraints may increase by 30 to 60 million hectares (United Nations, 2019). It has been projected that, as a result, there will be a 4.9% decrease by 2080 in agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2020). This will have a detrimental impact on the economy of rural Tanzania that relies considerably on agriculture production and livestock to supports livelihoods. 

Human rights and vulnerable groups in rural Tanzania

Climate change, and its effects on water stocks, has a variety of impacts on individuals. Some of the factors include whether they live in rural or urban areas, whether they live in an area that receives high rainfall or whether they belong to a group that is particularly vulnerable or marginalized. 

a) Children

Children and young adults are particularly vulnerable to climate change and water scarcity. Children make up approximately 44% of the Tanzanian population and all are vulnerable to poor health, malnutrition and to the general lack of basic needs, at different levels depending on the structure and assets commanded by their families. Children under-five are mostly vulnerable to diseases, malnutrition, and inadequate care.

By 2002, 4.1 million out of 10.2 million children in Tanzania aged 5-14 years were not attending school. The often-long distances to primary school is a problem to about 30% of households. That may discourage children from attending school and receiving an education which commonly includes information about the importance of access to water and sanitation. As we shall see later on, schools are also increasingly becoming an important place for children to access clean water and sanitation facilities.

b) Women

Women are especially vulnerable to the implications of water scarcity due to their existing lack of social mobility. When this is paired with food insecurity, limited access to health, sanitation and education, the result is a low income. This perpetuates social isolation and as a result it puts powerful constraints on their capacity to make a living. Moreover, poor access to water and other household services, often results in women spending long hours and walking long distances to collect these amenities. Finally, many women experience stressful childbearing and rearing due to inadequate or poor-quality maternal health care, sanitation and a clean environment. 

c) Disabled individuals 

One of the core characteristics of persons with disabilities is their limited mobility, which reduces their opportunities for participating in income generating activities to increase their wealth. This consequently limits their access to basic needs such as food, health services and education. When this preexisting vulnerability is paired with intense water scarcity, disabled individuals can become some of the most marginalized in rural communities.

d) Individuals with a long-term illness

Finally, individuals with a long-term illness are at an acute health risk which water scarcity can perpetuate. In 2001, approximately 28% of the rural people fall into this category. In Dar es Salaam and other urban areas, the figures decreased to approximately 19%. By any means this is an enormous figure as more than a quarter of the population falls into this category. Poor nutrition and health services that weaken the health status of the members of poor households exposes them to the risks of contracting diseases and living with ill health. These individuals could be vulnerable to poverty, as they cannot work. Access to clean water is therefore instrumental in preventing the decline of their condition. 

Tanzanian Government Policies for Climate Change

There is an abundance of legal provisions that support the securing of access to clean water. Africa is particularly advanced in comparison to the rest of the world in this respect. The African Charter of Human Rights was the first broadly ratified international document which stipulated the right ‘to a general satisfactory environment’ and referred to the right as one of ‘peoples’ in a community, as opposed to individuals. This has the effect of emphasizing both the rights and duties of individuals consistent with African conceptions of human beings as integral members of a larger community.

The Tanzanian government have provided the Environmental Management Act 2004 which aims to provide the goals of this charter. Section 4(1) provides that every person living in Tanzania shall have a right to clean, safe and healthy environment and section 4(2) states that this shall include the right of access by any citizen to the various public elements or segments of the environment for recreational, educational, health, spiritual, cultural and economic purposes. 

The 2004 Act established the existence of the Tanzanian National Environment Management Council. As per section 17(1) the object and purpose for which the Council is established is to undertake enforcement, compliance, review and monitoring of environmental impact assessment. As per section 17(2) the Council shall prepare and submit to the Minister a bi-annual report concerting how it has implemented the provisions of this Act and fulfilled the objects and the purpose for which it was established. 

However, these provisions provide of no more than a broad and general right. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has suggested five policy responses to implement such a goal.

  1.  Include adaptation and mitigation measures for agricultural water management in national development plans.
  2. Promote technical and management measures to improve the flexibility of rainfed and irrigated agriculture and reduce water losses in irrigated production systems.
  3. Improve knowledge on climate change and water and share good practice among countries and regions.
  4. Promote risk management in national policies through better monitoring networks and innovative insurance products.
  5. Mobilize adaptation funds to meet the challenges of water and food security under climate change.

5.1.      School Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (SWASH) guidelines

The School Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (SWASH) guidelines provide one example of the Tanzanian government adopting some of these policy responses. The guidelines aim to increase education and awareness of the importance of access to water and sanitation. It is a toolkit with both hardware and software aspects to bring about changes in the hygiene behavior of students and, through these students, in the community at large.

They suggest a number of systems and methods to improve sanitation, water preservation and water collection.

Protected springs offer a source of water that is often free from pathogens. If the dissolved minerals are within permitted parameters, they can provide good quality drinking water. SWASH advices that at the collection point of the spring, appropriate civil construction can prevent this water from being contaminated. Moreover, the surrounding environment of the spring should not be degraded, and advices against deforestation or contamination in this area especially. 

Shallow wells or hand dug wells are a simple method of making use of groundwater. They are only suitable for regions that have an especially high-water table and good water quality. However, SWASH provide two systems – one automatic and one manual – for the collection of water. Rainwater harvesting is another simple and yet effective way of collecting water. 

However, as SWASH highlights, the weakness in these methods often comes in the form of sanitizing the water before drinking it. It is necessary to follow the methods provided and removing any solid material and boiling the water to remove any bacteria. This reduces the chances of contracting waterborne diseases. 

With regard to sanitation, ventilation improved pit (VIP) latrines serve to provide a clean and cheap way to store human waste. A draft is passed through the collection area of the pit which means that the smell and insects cannot linger. This improves sanitation and the appeal of using the facilities. 

Finally, the guidelines significantly stress the importance of using hand washing stations. This is a simple but highly effective way in which students can reduce the likelihood of carrying diseases on their body and spreading infection. 

What next?

The SWASH guidelines provide an incredibly important educational tool for schools to implement these systems. However, a lot of the structures require advanced infrastructure in order for their long-term effectiveness. There consequently needs to be much more investment in these rural communities in order for these systems to be of the best quality they can be. For example, the VIP latrines require a high level of construction to prevent the human waste from contaminating the surrounding groundwater and soil.

Moreover, in order for the program to work as intended, its information and guidance needs to be spread beyond the school environment and implemented in rural communities. This distribution of information is arguably the most effective way of mitigating the impacts of water scarcity in these regions. The important work of Non-Governmental Organizations such as Art in Tanzania in distributing and educating local communities is an example of this. 

5 skincare items to pack for travels

By Darlene Joshua – Art in Tanzania internship

 Travelling can bring a ton of changes to our daily routines and lifestyles. Flying into different time zones, or simply driving through polluted areas can have a huge impact on your skin. Dehydration, puffy eyes, and breakouts can all result from these changes. Consequently, it is critical to take right skin care products with you that will preserve your skin through this lifestyle change.

 So, you have a few days before you go on your trip, you are surfing through the web to find the right skin care products but find yourself overwhelmed with thousands – if not millions – of skin care options. The last thing you need is to feel exasperated about which product to take with you. 

An attractive young woman applying cream to her face

 A few multi-functional and high-quality products are all you need to enjoy a worry-free trip while preserving your healthy skin. We have compiled a few products that will make a big difference in your trip. No longer so you have to worry about skin breakouts, flakiness, or dull skin.

  1. Face mist 

If your skin is prone to dryness and puffiness then a rejuvenating mist is sure to cure this skin problem. The Protective Dust Screen Mist by Accoje is a highly effective option because it is free from harsh chemicals like paraben and alcohol. Its triple protection technology forms a protective barrier on the skin to prevent micro-particles from clogging your pores. It is best suited for travels where your skin will be exposed to dust. All you need to do is spray it directly on your face and enjoy long hours of moisturized, and supple skin. As we have said before, skin care is a solemn ritual. Including a mist in your travel bag and replenishing skin moisture should top the list. 

 2) Face packs 

Face masks are great additions to any skincare regimen to target specific skin care issues. Face Masks are especially beneficial if you are headed to warm or hot destinations. Being in a humid environment means you will perspire more, sweat cannot dry up, leaving the skin feeling warm and sticky. This makes facial skin vulnerable to infections and breakouts. Masks can help restore skin’s PH balance, remove excess oils and tighten the skin pores. Face packs come in containers.

and you may need to travel light- especially in road trips. The Missha Pure Source Pocket Pack is a commendable product that comes in a compact size. Comes with a variety of textures and extracts like pomegranate, green tea, and shea butter. With gel like and thick creamy textures, you can choose from this range the one that best suits your skin type. 

3) Light facial oils 

Need a moisturizer that will keep the PH of your skin balanced even when you are out on a long walk on a sunny day? Then choose the WONDER Black Rice Facial Oil by Haru Haru Wonder a light weight and fast absorbing formula that does not leave a greasy residue on your face. Prolonged exposure to the sun or extreme winds and cold can cause evaporation of moisture from the skin and may lead to dry skin – this applies to all skin types. So if you are going to a place where you will be out in the sun all day this face oil is for you. Formulated with sweet almond, jojoba oil which promote collagen synthesis, soothes irritated skin and keeps it hydrated. this product immediately revives the skin’s elasticity. 

4) Sun blockers 

A sun-kissed glowing face looks amazing in Instagram pictures! But skin suffers a lot when constantly exposed to the harmful ultraviolet rays while you are basking at the beach. To prevent skin inflammation, pigmentation, and reddened skin it is absolutely necessary to pack your sunscreen with you. The Rovectin Double tone-up UV Protector SPF50+ PA++++ is an option; a mineral sunscreen infused with Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide. SPF50+ acts as a protective barrier on your skin by blocking 98% of ultraviolet rays. Vitamin E stimulates cell reproduction and fights free radicals, most importantly it traps moisture in your skin. Ideal for teen-age to mature skin, pack this for yourself and your mom. 

5) More Sun-protection 

They say you can never have too much sunscreen, and that is the truth! After a long day out doors your skin will still need to be replenished. Extra UV protection, moisturization, calmness and softness are just what your skin needs. Choose I’M REPAIR AFTER SUN soothing cream by Suntique because it provides a major boost of hydration. Infused with panthenol, it improves the skin’s elasticity, and smooth appearance. This is beneficial to the skin after spending the day outdoor where your skin is exposed to the hot sun or cold weather. It is an effective treatment for all skin types with special mention of ageing and dehydrated skin. 

A compact bag with all these items is all you need to maintain a youthful appearance and a room somewhere. They will cater to your skin problems while you enjoy the road trip and let you be free from worries. With all these products that we tried on, why wont you have all the fun? 

A GIRL CHILD IN TANZANIA DURING MENSURATION PERIOD

By Ayanna Albert – Art in Tanzania Internship

Down deep in the valleys very far away from town, were there is neither much electricity nor water to take. Down deep where a girl is also a shepherd of cattle’s as well but then thanks to education now she can attend.

Been a witness through my own campaigns as we visited these girls in the interior villages, their stories they told “where when they were on MP home they had to stay. These are girls who had same right to education and hence they would miss classes just because of the biological nature that God had created in them.”

Yes!! They are girls who can’t afford pads every month and yet some due to their biological being the piece of cloth that some use isn’t enough to carry the blood weight and hence they are forced to stay inside the whole days until the days are gone. So this basically means no school, no access to some of the things. So is now menstruation a disability to girls??(Some would ask) or is just the whole issue of poverty having and not of having.

So then further more this girl child is expected to perform well or maybe better further more than boys without including the stories of house chores, fetching water from a long distance as it was in the past and still to some.

The same girl child faces consequences when she fails to perform well in class such as forced marriage and they like.

So here is a cry to a girl child and an applaud to every movement around the world that supports such groups to purchase a reusable pads at least that they could wash again and again , back to those without water still this is still a question?

A special note to this girl child;

Dear Girl child,

You’re beautiful, you are strong, and you’re worth beyond a thousand reasons why

There is nobody in the world like you

You got to get up (no matter what)

You got get up and make a move

Because the world won’t ever see you till you do

(Some of the lyrics song by Tatiana Manaois, song name: Like you)

By; Ayanna Albert Mushi

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS IN TANZANIA


 By Bazilius Emmanuel – Art in Tanzania internship

Introduction

Environment is a famous word in current days, as it used to refer to different settings, ranging from local to international ones. The origin of term environment is from the French word “environed “which means surroundings, so people may use environment to refer to everything found in a certain location.

 -Also, in geography some words like nature, habitat, domain and surrounding are used as synonym of the term environment.

Meaning of environment

Our environment is the set of complex physical, chemical and biological elements, conditions and factors that affects an organism and determines its form of survival. It is comprising of all surroundings in which an organism lives and interacts with living things and non-living materials like water and air.

 -The environment is dynamic depending on interaction of living organisms with non-living materials. Also, the environment is regarded as the sum of total conditions surrounded human beings at a certain time and space.

Natural resources are derived from the environment, So the interaction between human beings and other living organisms has more to do with the environment(which can be good or bad for the sustainability of the environment)

N.B The interaction on the earth is what creates the environment, and environmental interactions are continuous. See the diagram below:

Components of the environment

From above explanation you can see that everything surrounding human beings in a particular time and space is a component of our environment. But geographers have tried to categorize all these environmental components into three, which are;

   (a) Physical components, includes all naturally occurring environmental elements like air, water, mountains etc. 

   (b) Biological components i.e., abiotic and biotic components, including all living and non-living things. See diagram below;

    ( c) Cultural components, includes all man-made parts of the environment such as buildings, population, farms etc. 

Diagram shows the three environment components;

IMPORTANCE OF THE ENVIRONMENT

Our environment has a vital role to our daily survival. The environment plays an important role in the survival of all living things by:

  (a) Supporting agriculture for food production•Climate and soil are essential during farming

  (b) Temperature modification and climatic change control•The presence of trees and water bodies are essential for temperature regulation, also good agricultural practices have a lot to do with controlling climatic change.

    (cNatural resources are derived from the environment.•Resources like medicine, air, water and minerals are essential human needs obtained from natural resources derived by the environment.

    (d) Minimize and or prevent disasters•swamps and marshes act as reservoirs of more water which may lead to flood, also air and plants absorb much gases emitted from human activities which will have more contribution to global warming.

(e) Absorption of our pollutants•Environmental components like air, land and water absorb pollutants, such as poisons, radiations and chemicals which effects our healthy survival. 

(f) Food web and food chain advantage•All food is obtained from environmental components, so without the environment there is no potential for life. 

  (g) Disease preventionEnvironmental components like air, water and minerals are required by the human body for proper growth and rescue our bodies from different diseases. E.g., the use of table salt decreases the chances for disease like goitre.

So, We can conclude by saying, the environment gives us life. 

See the diagram as it shows how living organisms interact with environmental components.

It shows the mutual benefit in the ecosystem.

 TANZANIAN ENVIRONMENT

The environment of Tanzania includes its’ land and marine surfaces which covers approximately kilometer squares 947.303. That also includes its’ natural resources endowment found in Tanzania mainland and Tanzanian Islands.

As our discussion focuses on the environment in Tanzania,  we need also to get insights about different things which form the whole environment of Tanzania.

Below are major components of Tanzania’s environment including its’ natural resources:

(a) Population, which is approximated at 56. 3 million by 2018

(b) Water bodies, which covers 6.49% of whole Tanzania land. These water bodies include;

   (i) Some part of Indian ocean

   (ii) More than 20 lakes include Victoria, Tanganyika, Nyasa, Rukwa and Natron among others.

       (iii) More than 75 rivers include Kagera, Malagalasi;Pangani, Wami, Rufiji, Ruvuma, Tarangire and  Songwe

       (iv) Natural ponds and artificial lakes

  (c) Seven World Heritage Sites (as per UNESCO) which are: Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Serengeti National Park, Kondoa Rock Art Site, Stone Town of Zanzibar, kilimanjaro National Park, Selous Game Reserve and Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara

  (d) Sixteen National Parks including lake ManyaraNational park, Ruaha National Park and Serengeti National Park

  (e) Seven Historical Sites includes Kilwa Kisiwani, Mbozimeteorite and Olduvai Gorge & Laetoli among others

(f) Islands includes Saanane island National Park, Zanzibar island, Pangani town and Ukerewe island

  (g) Marine Parks and Reserves like Chumbe island Marine Sanctuary, Dar es Salaam Marine Reserves and Tanga Coelacanth Marine Park among others

  (h) Wildlife Management Areas which includes IpoleWMA, Mbomipa WMA and Buninge WMA among others

  (i) Cave, Gorges and Rocks like Amboni cave, Kalambofalls, Nyombe region, Nyumba Nitu Natural forests and Kaporogwe falls

  (j)Twelve Tanzania Forest Reserves 

  (k)Thirty two Game Reserves 

  (l)More than two thousand mountains and highlands includes mount Meru and Kilimanjaro among others

  (m)More than twenty mines includes Geita Gold Mine(GGM-Geita), Bulyakulu & Mwadui (Shinyanga) and Kabanga Nickel(Kagera)

(n) More than five famous and important Cities and Towns includes Mwanza( Rock City), Arusha (Tourist City), Mbeya(Green City) and Dar es Salaam (island City) among others

  (o)Biological diversity includes  more than 75 endemic species like Kihansi Tod and horned chameleon

 (p) Agricultural land and rangelands

From above it seen how Tanzania’s environment is endowed with ample valuable natural and man-made resources. 

Tanzania’s environment is engine for sustainable development for Tanzania and the World at large. While Tanzania is blessed with more natural and man-maderesources that are distributed throughout the Country, the friendly and sustainability exploitation of these resources can be advantageous to Tanzanians.

Furthermore, We are born to create a better future. We need to use our environment and its’ God given resources for sustainable development.

See the following maps:

Tanzania Lakes and Rivers:

Locations of the major national parks

MAJOR ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ENVIRONMENT IN TANZANIA

These issues are related to unsafe exploitation of above resources. These issues include:

   (a) Illegal and unsustainable wildlife exploitation

   (b) Overgrazing and unsustainable range management

   (c) Poor agriculture practices like bush burning, vertical ploughing across steep slopes, failure to adopt crop rotation, failure to maintain adequate vegetative cover, inadequate use of organic fertilizer and lack of sufficient conservation measures

   (d) Land conflicts

(e)Poor mining techniques

(f)Climatic change includes melting of ice at mount Kilimanjaro and fall of water depth at Ruaha river

(g)Major Six environmental problems in Tanzania which are;

   (i)Land degradation

  (ii)Lack of accessible good quality water for both urban and rural inhabitants

    (iii) Environment pollution

    (iv) Deforestation

   (v) Deterioration of aquatic systems

   (vi) Loss of wildlife habitats and biological diversity

   -The joint measure is required to be taken from local,

 National and International levels to remove or reduce the above harmful issues relating to resource use for sustainable and inclusive development of Tanzania and the world at large.

REASONS FOR ENVIRONMENT CONCERN IN TANZANIA

From above circumstances it is clear how much Tanzania needs to have strong environmental concern which shall focus on eliminating the negative impacts on Tanzanians from endowed natural resources

The reasons for environment concern in Tanzania include the follow but not limited to:

    (a) Despite 55% of Tanzania’s land is potential for agriculture but only 6% of Tanzania total land is under agricultural activities. So, Tanzania and the world at large are needed to set strategies to enhance and expand agricultural activities in Tanzania. (b) With more natural and artificial resources Tanzania is still depend on agriculture, which accounts more than 40% of Tanzania GDP and employs more than 75% of Tanzania workforce

  (c) Energy use of power, although Tanzania is endowed with much fossil fuels, waterfalls and rapids, more than 90% of Tanzania depend on forest related materials as their source of energy.

  (d) Population distribution, with 47.7 kilometers squares population density, but by actual sense Tanzania population is unequal distribution where there are disparities in internal population densities  between urban and rural areas as result of rural-urban migration associated with unequal distribution of man-made resources. 

-Also, more people are living in highland areas and interacting regions like near lake Victoria, therefore government of Tanzania needs to deal with this environmental issue

  (e) Also, from the major six environmental problems affecting Tanzania, the environmental solutions are required to rescue Tanzania’s environment from other disasters that may arise as result of those six environmental problems.

Conclusions and remarks

– We are a large cause of environmental dynamism, so our actions must first assess its negative or positive impacts to our environment.

  – As part of dynamic environment, we are supposed to educate ourselves about all issues related to the environment and to take precautions toward any action that might harm our environment.

  – The Government of Tanzania is required to sharpen the implementation of environmental and natural resource related laws, policies and declarations.

How online payment can save you time and money and its meaningfulness for the rural people

By Marina Joseph – Art in Tanzania Internship

Digital payment sometimes called electronic payment refers to payments that are conducted over the internet and mobile channels and hence, any payment that is sent online or through mobile computing and internet-enabled devices can be called such. And with a number of cultural, societal, and technological worldwide trends intersecting, we’re now seeing the demand for electronic payments increase. Digital payments offer significant benefits to individuals, companies, governments, or international development organizations. The benefits of going digital include:

  • The need to handle cash is greatly reduced 
  • More hygienic
  • Transparency and security by enhancing traceability and accountability, reducing corruption and theft as a result.  
  • Financial inclusion by increasing access to a range of financial services, including savings accounts, credit, and insurance products
  • Saves time
  • Saves money

We will focus on the last two benefits for this post

  1. Saves time

Valuable time is saved as customers simply swipe or tap to pay. No more digging through wallets or purses looking for coins – and moreover sellers don’t need to count out the correct change when someone pays for a low-value item with a large note. Searching for small notes, counting out exact change, and writing checks require more time and energy. Paying via card, contactless, mobile wallet, or wearable device is almost always faster than using cash. Customers could use that time to have a conversation with your staff, enroll in your loyalty program, or give your company a good review online.

  • Saves money

There are no additional charges when accepting contactless payments once acceptance of chip and PIN is completed. You’ll simply pay the same as you would for regular card transactions. There are plenty of packages out there to cater for businesses of all sizes, budgets, and transaction volumes. While some are hesitant to switch over for fear of fees, the Visa data showed that processing digital payments was 57 percent less expensive than non-digital payments once fees and labor costs are accounted for. Expenses related to fraud also cost less with digital payment

MEANINGFULNESS OF ONLINE PAYMENT TO RURAL COMMUNITIES

Digital payments expansion to rural customers or areas has been a challenge for financial services providers in developing countries. However, such institutions are motivated and willing to go through it because of what it will mean to rural communities. This is because when such services expand to rural and remote areas there is promise for development and growth in several ways. 

The following is the meaningfulness of online payment to rural communities.

Easier Access to Economical Facilities

People from rural areas struggle to get their wages paid and get their pension. It is even harder for them to be aware of benefit schemes they are eligible for. With mobile banking speed is achieved which solves their problems. In addition, the reduced transaction and travel is another benefit.

Mobile payment with wallet app and wireless nfc technology. Man paying and shopping with smartphone application and credit card information. Digital money transfer, banking and e commerce concept.

A Boost to Rural Businesses

Mobile banking has various aspects such as e-commerce and making instant digital transaction, once the rural population gets more comfortable with it they can use the same technology to grow their businesses. This is due to the availability of better reach and convenience

Hassle-Free Bank Accounts

The location of bank branches in rural and remote areas maybe very far away, use of digital payments helps people set up bank accounts without having to visit the actual bank branch. It helps them save the time money and energy and redirect to other activities. 

Financial Inclusion

The rural population have to travel long distances to get even the simplest of financial services. Digital payments make the availability of simply using your phone to avail a wide range of financial services. 

How Watching Movies Can Benefit Our Mental Health

By Daniel Christopher- Art in Tanzania Internships

Nowadays films occupy a significant portion of the media products consumed by people in the world, cinema is being considered as a means of individual and social transformation, which makes a contribution to the formation of the audience’s outlook, including their attitudes towards topical social issues. At the same time, the question of the effectiveness of films’ impact remains an open question in psychological science. According to theempirical orientation of our approach to the study of mass media influence.

Aside from having a few hours of fun with friends and family, watching films can also be a form of therapy. Apart from the obvious — escaping our own lives and problems for a short time, according to Birgit Wolz, PhD., MFT, who facilitates cinema therapy groups, at once said: “Cinema therapy can be a powerful catalyst for healing and growth for anybody who is open to learning how movies affect us and to watching certain films with conscious awareness. Cinema therapy allows us to use the effect of imagery, plot, music, etc. in films on our psyche for insight, inspiration, emotional release or relief and natural change”.

While cinema therapy is a “real thing” sometimes prescribed by therapists, it is often self- administered. Being aware that movies can change the way we think, feel, and ultimately deal with life’s ups and downs can make watching them invaluable, situation. For example, if you or a loved one is struggling with addiction, you might want to watch Clean and Sober or When a Man Loves a Woman. If you are coping with the serious illness or death of a loved one, one of the many movies dealing with these issues might be helpful.

THIS ARE THE WAYS ON HOW WATCHING MOVIES CAN BE HELPFUL

Watching movies encourages emotional release. Even those who often have trouble expressing their emotions might find themselves laughing or crying during a film. This release of emotions can have a cathartic effect and also make it easier for a person to become more comfortable in expressing their emotions. This can be invaluable during counseling as well as in “real life.”

Sad films can make us happier. While it might seem counter-intuitive, I think many of us can relate to this. I know that after I watch a particularly sad or distressing film, I feel thankful for my own life and my “smaller” problems in comparison. Others’ tragedies make us more appreciative of everything good in our own lives.

Watching movies can help us make sense of our own lives. For thousands of years, knowledge and wisdom have been passed down through the art of story-telling. Stories offer us different perspectives and help us understand and make sense of the world. And movies are stories.

As mentioned in the second paragraph of this post, movies give us a break from whatever is currentlybothering us. We are transported to a different time and place and can just focus on the present moment for a short time. This gives our brains a much-needed rest from “the usual.”

Movies bring us a sense of relief, even if they stress us out first. Watching something suspenseful releases cortisol (the stress hormone) in the brain, followed by dopamine, which produces feelings of pleasure.

Going out to a movie theater is not for everyone. Some of us struggle with sensory issues or being in crowds. And others just prefer to watch movies at home, on the couch and in their pajamas. The good news is it doesn’t matter if you’re watching Netflix at home or sitting in a crowded theater. The results are the same — watching movies is good for us.

Best advice for students

Baron and Byrne [10] suggests that one will feel empathy for the fictitious character as to the victim in real life.The fictitious character may be the role of a character in a film. Movies can have a positive effect on other words improving empathy is a positive thing. Film or cinema therapy is a method of using film to give a positive effect on the patient

Reference

Hampton, D. (2018, November 24). How watching movies can help your mental health [blog post]. Retrieved fromhttps://www.thebestbrainpossible.com/movie-help-mental-health-therapy/

PROBLEMS WITH HOUSEHOLD HYGIENE

By NARMY RICHARD MWANBOZI – Art in Tanzania internship

The Tanzanian economy is poor and annual household income is low.  According to the world bank The Gross Domestic Product per capita in Tanzania was recorded at 985.50 US dollars in 2019. 

The GDP per Capita in Tanzania is equivalent to 8 percent of the world’s average, many people depend on seasonal jobs such as in agriculture, which is for survival, while others are totally unemployed. Agriculture is the key activity to many people in Tanzania since about 60 percent of citizens depends on it. 

Many households in Tanzania are poorly constructed and resulting to development of unplanned settlements in the towns. For example townships like Keko, Mbagala and Manzese in Dar es Salaam and Mwanjelwa and Mbalizi in Mbeya, that are dominated by unplanned settlements and poor infrastructure and supply of social services. Infrastructure as connectivity between houses is inefficient due to poor roads, water systems including sewage systems and safe and clean water supply.

Lack of clean water for drinking and cleaning conducts results to household dirtyness and causing contamination base for illnesses.

Also, waste removal is poor especially at the areas that were constructed at the time when the population was still small, but today are highly populated but still dependent on the original basic infrastructure lacking the capacity to manage the need of water and waste management.

Towns like Keko are prone to diarrheal diseases related to hygiene such as typhoid and cholera highlighted by rainy seasons. This is because excess rains reach household and spread the supply of waste including faeces.

People living in poverty their education is low and their knowledge of health and the importance of clean household management is a problem. People believe in witchcraft not necessarily understanding the serious health problems are caused by poor hygiene and sanitation. So there is need for advocating people along with infrastructural development.

Many Tanzanians fail to build good and healthy toilets because of their small income. Visiting some villages in Mbarali, Mbeya such as Itamboleo and Mapunga and observing that toilets are sub-standard or completely missing. The Itamboleo village council come up with a plan to ensure construction of proper toilets in the village and instructing that those failing to follow-up the plan must pay sanctions. The plan did not work properly as villagers blame, they do not have enough money to construct those toilets. Also, the mentality of the leaders is that toilets with septic tanks are the only safe toilets not being factual. 

Thus, we need to educate people in villages about healthy household with affordable cost.

Water supply in the Tanzania is gradually improving in many towns, such as in Mbeya rural districts, Northern regions of Tanzania and Dar es Salaam. But water supply is still a problem in many parts resulting to poor household hygiene and sanitation in Tanzania.

Along the major issues on household hygiene and sanitation smaller issues also largely affect our health. The kitchen appearance and settings is traditionally ineffective. Many households prepare their food in the kitchen full of dirtiness and storage of charcoal, food, and various kitchen appliances in the same place, the light supply is poor, and the kitchen may act as a place for rats and rodents to live thus spreading diseases.

Our bodies hygiene and sanitation are the key factors for our everyday success and activities. It is our choice to make a call for positive changes in household hygiene.