Taking actions to reduce neonatal disorders

By Pooja Senthamaraiselvan – Art in Tanzania internship

Tanzania is making great strides in reducing child mortality, but has demonstrated slower progress in reducing neonatal deaths. There has been a declining trend in NMR over the past decade but it indicates a very gradual improvement. In order to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 for child survival, the number of newborn deaths in Tanzania must be greatly reduced. At the current rate of progress, Millennium Development Goal 4 could be met, if more attention is given to newborn survival [1].

Most neonatal deaths are due to preventable and treatable causes. Up to two-thirds of newborn lives could be saved if essential care reached mothers and babies [1]. Hence, there are opportunities to lower mortality rates even further with interventions at both the health facility level and the community level in Tanzania to ensure better healthcare provision to these parties. This will mainly require implementing improvements in resources for maternal and neonatal care in terms of quality, availability, accessibility, and affordability as well as creating more awareness about birth plans for labour and delivery among the people in Tanzania, particularly pregnant women.

Actions at the health facility level to save newborn lives

  • Improve infrastructure and supplies – ensuring every district hospital has a neonatal unit, practices Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) and all health facilities have functional equipment and essential drugs such as gentamicin for treating neonatal sepsis
  • Recruit and retain quality staff – filling vacant posts and addressing turnover among existing staff; ensuring competence in key skills such as neonatal resuscitation
  • Improve guidelines and service delivery – establishing or improving procedures for routine postnatal care and management of preterm and sick newborns
  • Integrate services – linking emergency obstetric services with newborn care and improving transport and referral mechanisms
  • Use data locally for quality improvement – recording and auditing neonatal deaths and stillbirths [1]

Actions at the family and community level to save newborn lives

  • Identify a means to reach every mother and baby in the early postnatal period (within the first two days after birth)
  • Invest in primary health care at the village level by ensuring appropriate supervision, remuneration and working conditions for village health workers
  • Strengthen community – Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) to effectively reinforce healthy behaviours, recognition of danger signs and timely care seeking, to identify harmful traditional practices and awareness of key newborn health packages, such as routine postnatal care, KMC and IMCI
  • Engage communities in birth preparedness, including planning to give birth at a health facility and emergency transport
  • Reduce the economic burden of a facility birth on women and their families [1]

These actions depend on leadership at all levels. Tanzania’s decentralised health system ensures that public health interventions are linked to those who need them but more effort is needed to integrate newborn health packages into district level budgets and planning. Newborn lives can be saved by implementing appropriate policies, improving staffing levels and supervision in health facilities and providing an enabling environment for community-level care. There is an immediate opportunity for Tanzania to implement the recommendations within the Road Map/One Plan to improve newborn health from the highest level in both public and private health facilities and to infl uence the care newborns receive at home. Tanzania’s future depends on the ability of these newborns to survive and thrive. This situation analysis sheds light on the current state of care and the opportunities to save lives. While better data, policy change and revised guidelines will make a difference, it takes people to act to save newborn lives. Will you use this information to become a champion of the country’s most vulnerable and precious citizens?

References

[1]https://www.countdown2015mnch.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Tanzania_SituationAnalysis_Newborn.pdf

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR IN TANZANIA

By Rosemary David – Art in Tanzania internship

Child labour or child labor refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful. Such exploitation is prohibited by legislation worldwide, although these laws do not consider all work by children as child labour; exceptions include work by child artists, family duties, supervised training, and some forms of child work.

All over the world, children are being exploited through child labour. This mentally and physically dangerous work interferes with schooling and long-term development -the worst forms include slavery, trafficking, sexual exploitation and hazardous work that put children at risk of death, injury or disease.

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR IN TANZANIA

Personal Variables

Physical and mental attributes of children influence their abuse. Physical disabilities have long been associated with child abuse and neglect, as these children are often victims of discrimination, sexual exploitation and social exclusion. More often than seldom, the abused or the victims of abuse do not report such cases to the authority, for fear of reprisal by the abuser who may be a parent and due to ignorance.

Socio – economic Aspects

Modern socio-economic developments have diminished the traditional role and power of women. This change in status, has brought about strains in family life and decreased the value of children, resulting into more frequent occurrences of child abuse and neglect.

Social – cultural Aspects

Social-cultural aspects, play a vital role in contributing to the increasing rate of child labour in many developing countries today. Traditionally, children have been viewed as personal property and were generally expected to work. There was a maximum division of labour, where girls were expected to do all the house chores and the boys went hunting. These roles were meant to prepare the children for future adulthood, especially girls who were often subjected to early marriages when they clocked the age of puberty, while their male counterparts went to school. It is however important to note that, some of the household work is too excessive and exploitative and can be categorized under child labour.

Family Characteristics

Family characteristics have played a crucial role in the employment of children based on the type of family (polygamous and monogamous), family size and the employment of parents. Household poverty, is one of the underlying causes of child labour that affects school enrollment, as many cannot afford school fees and school materials. Child labour becomes a majority option for most families for survival, which eventually affects the academic performance of some children, who labour for fees which endangers them physically and psychologically. While it might seem obvious that, children had to fend for their families, parental consent to work, comes in the way as a major issue of maximum consideration in child employment.

Single Parenthood

Many studies indicate that, children who reported their parents as no longer staying together, or those who had lost one of their parents and in most cases drained in poverty, engaged in work. The increasing number of orphans and children raised by single parents, undoubtedly necessitated the employment of children.

Community Variables

At community level, societal transformation and challenges therein, act as a stressor on families and diminishes the capability of families to look after their children properly. The rampant slum developments, which are a manifestation of poor socio-economic conditions and overcrowding, represent a bigger challenge to the life of a child than the society itself.

 Political Factors

Political factors, refer to conditions that cause civil and national strife and unrest including wars inter alia as considered. Children migrate to bigger cities in search for help. These children sometimes go accompanied by their parents and some unaccompanied, especially orphans. War zones, serve as catchment areas for vulnerable children who end up on the streets and involve themselves in child labour for survival.

The Social Capital Theory

The social capital theory offers a beginning point in the theoretical analysis of the street children phenomenon in Tanzania. This theory draws a correlation between family structure and home-leaving. Most of street children end up being employed at small age.

THE IMPORTANCE OF MENSTRUAL HYGIENE EDUCATION TO ADOLESCENCE STAGE IN TANZANIA

By Rosemary Balyagati – Art in Tanzania internship

Menstruation (also termed period or bleeding) is the process in a woman of discharging (through the vagina) blood and other materials from the lining of the uterus at about one monthly interval, from puberty until menopause (ceasing of regular menstrual cycles), except during pregnancy. This discharging process lasts about 3-5 days.

What are the signs and symptoms of menstruation?

Beside the bleeding, other signs and symptoms of menstruation may include headache, acne, bloating, pains in the low abdomen, tiredness, mood changes, food cravings, breast soreness and diarrhea.

When does menstruation begin? When does it end?

The menstrual cycle is a hormonal driven cycle; day 1 is the first day of your period (bleeding) while day 14 is the approximate day you ovulate, if an egg is not fertilized hormone levels eventually drop and at about day 25 the egg begins to dissolve, and the cycle begins again with the period at about day 30. Menstruation begins day 1 and normally ends days 3-5 of the menstrual cycle.

The average age for a girl to get her first period in the range of age is about 8 to 15 years old. Women usually have periods until about ages 45 to 55.

So at this average age of her first period is the time for menstrual hygienic education has to be given to girls.

Importance of menstrual hygienic education at adolescences stage.

Menstruation is a basic right for women and girls around the world, in many countries there are huge barriers to Menstrual Hygienic education for girls living in poverty. Menstrual hygienic education is essential in ensuring girls get the support they need on their periods and to able to ask questions about menstrual challenges. Menstrual hygienic education is a step towards removing shame from talking about periods for many girls in countries like Tanzania.

Menstruation is seen as taboo in Tanzania; therefore girls feel uncomfortable talking to family, peers and teachers, let alone attending school during their cycle. Most girls during their menstrual period experience stigmatization, this excludes girls from learning about their own bodies and from opportunities to learn about hygiene and use of sanitary products.

Lack of sexual education in schools, particularly in Tanzania, means that boys add to the stigma around periods. Girls are embarrassed by comments made by boys who do not understand menstruation. Menstrual hygienic Education is the key for both male and female students to aid in eradicating period poverty.

Menstrual hygienic education breaks down the barriers faced by girls in Tanzania and many other developing countries. Cultural barriers often stand in the way of providing girls with knowledge and ability to manage their periods, therefore menstrual education provides an open space to break down taboos. By normalizing menstrual education schools will become better equipped with period-friendly toilets and sexual education classes that will benefit all students.

Italian tourism in Africa: popular destinations and trends

Art in Tanzania internship by Dilyara Shantayeva

While the COVID situation across the world begins to ease, travel agencies are starting to promote the most popular destinations around the world, including Africa. In this article the most popular destinations for Italian tourists in Africa, as well as the main observed trends.

Concerning specifically Italy, the country still maintains its state of emergency, and entry from abroad remains heavily restricted. Complete information is available on the Italian Foreign Ministry website. Entry from most of Europe is allowed in principle but persons arriving from these countries must provide a negative COVID-19 test result taken within 48 hours upon entry, undergo a five-day quarantine, and present another negative test after five days. This regulation runs until mid-May. Then a national “green vaccination passport” is to be introduced to be able to travel freely within the country. Italy is gradually easing the restrictions within the country where a traffic light system is in place.

The traffic light system mentioned above is a set of maps published by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in order to provide travelers in Europe with a better overview of the COVID infection situation and possible restrictions. Before going anywhere out of your home country, it is necessary to remember to submit a negative PCR Covid test, ensuring that you are not a carrier of the aforementioned disease. Fortunately, some of the tour operators offer packages with pre-planned PCR testing, so travellers can get back safely to their countries.

The most visited country in Africa is Morocco. This Northern African nation saw a whopping 12.3 million visitors in 2019, making it the most visited country on the entire continent. Some of the highlights of Morocco include Marrakesh, one of the most chaotic and charismatic cities in the world. Then, of course, there is Fes, a historic city with so much culture you could spend a week here and not scratch the surface. If you’re taking a tour of the country, consider stopping by Essaouira as well. This beautiful beach town has a European feel to it, with all the rugged charm of Northern Africa.

In 2019 there were an impressive 11.3 million visitors to Egypt, making this the second most visited country in Africa. The main draw cards in Egypt are of course the Egyptian pyramids, the pharaoh’s tombs and the Luxor temple dating back thousands of years. Egypt is popular not only for the European tourists, but also for tourists from the CIS countries due to comparatively low prices and good transport connectivity.

One of the destinations in Africa that has a potential of growing as a huge honeymoon market not only for the Italian couples, but for the newlyweds around the world is South Africa. Even though there is not much research in this area, the paper by Andrea Giampiccoli from the Durban University of Technology “The Italian tourism market and South Africa: an initial investigation on the potential honeymoon market” starts a discussion about the opportunity arising. According to the researcher, the demand of the Italian young couples is met by the supply offered by the destinations of South Africa, therefore establishing a popular route for the honeymoons. The abundance of beach resorts, spa hotels and the availability of the so – called “honeymoon packages” are what makes South Africa so popular. It is not only the leisure and relaxing that the couples could do in South African destinations, but also many captivating activities in the fascinating African nature. Adventurous couples can choose from a traditional safari within a private game reserve, white-water rafting through the bush or turtle spotting at a beachfront lodge. Places like Franschoek in Cape Town, Queenstown in Eastern Cape, The Garden route in Western Cape and Elephant coast in Kwazulu Natal seem to be the most visited destinations by Italians.

The next prominent destination is Northern Sudan. It is an independent country since July 2011, it has a stable political situation and it is safe to travel, particularly between Khartoum and the Egyptian border. After the separation from the South, Northern Sudan is still a very large and diverse country. The astonishing landscape of the three deserts, associated to the beauty of the Nile Cataracts, the hidden Nubian villages and the welcoming people make of this place an innovative, unexpected destination. There are companies that provide tours for the Italian people, tailor made safaris, escorted tours etc. Travellers can choose preferred locations as well as the duration of the holiday, the organizers claim that every individual’s demands will be met.

Tunisia is also a quite popular place, because the flow of tourists is going not only from the international airport travel, but also from the cruise ships that dock in the nearby port. Particularly, the Holland America Line cruise company has several cruise ships that visit Tunis in an ordely manner. The tourists are able to get acquanted with the hospitality of the region as well as to visit the ancient Carthage ruins.

Tanzania is also a very popular destinations among the Italian tourists. Such famous attractions as Serengeti National Park, mount Kilimanjaro, the Ngorongoro crater attract the adventurous travellers, while wild and fascinating beaches attract the connosieurs of leisure and relaxation.

Serengeti great migration safari in Tanzania, Africa. Suuri massavaellus Serengetissä, unohtumattomat seikkailu safarit.

The next promising tourist attraction for the Italians is Zimbabwe.There are many reasons to visit Zimbabwe, but most of them start with safari and end with the Victoria Falls. This landlocked country in Southern Africa is still one of the most popular choices for safari goers in search of the big five. The game viewing in Zimbabwe is second to none, but the Victoria Falls are unlike any other. As one of the world’s largest waterfalls, they extend some 1,708 metres in length.

This article has outlined several most popular destinations for Italian tourism in the African continent, as well as the latest changes that happened due to the current pandemic situations. Each country has its own regulation regarding the COVID, but most of them should soon be available for the vaccinate tourists or for a person with a PCR test.


Access to Drinking Water in Africa

By Atilla Cermikli – Art in Tanzania internship

According to a report in 2018, nearly half of the population in East Africa could not access drinking water and Tanzania caught the average with 49.2% accessible rate.

The main problem is basically investment. Installing the pipe to transport the water needs large investments and since it does not seem profitable by the investors, governments step into funding to cover expenses through supplying bonds. Nevertheless, most of the countries in Africa could not find enough amount of financing. For instance, one report in 2014 indicates that Tanzania has less than 50% of the funds needed to meet Millennium Development Goals (MDG) requirements but have a high-level capacity for investment and it makes Tanzania one of the most applicable countries in Africa.

The latest Glaas report shows that Tanzania is located in the most aided region and got 316 million USD financial aids in 2017, ranked 3rd in Sub-Saharan Africa. Also, Tanzania prepared its financial plans and these financial plans consistently using in the decision-making process. Furthermore, the country has the data for decision-making such as resource allocation, sector review and/or planning processes, national standard or regulation development, targeting surveillance activities both in water-sanitation and drinking water areas.

To reach the national goal Tanzania needs a budget of 237 million USD dollar annually and government finance 154.2 million USD which means Tanzania needs to increase its funding approximately by 35%. Financing of the investments for drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are met between 50%-75%. Tanzania also pursuing regulations and standards in order to attract investors such as on-site sanitation and drinking water standards, audited by the governmental bodies and also by independent observers. Although a sufficient budget is clearly indicated in the plan the government could only bear the implementation expenses between 50%-75% due to lack of foreign-domestic private investments.

Another problem is in the human resources sector. Because of the lack of education in maintenance, designing and construction Tanzania has only between 50%-75% of needed human resources.

Related to water sector development plan for 2018, the approved budget is 319.5 million USD and 42% of the shares are funded by foreigners while 58% of the shares belong to local funders.

           As explained by the numerical data above, Tanzania has to foster investments in every area of the water supply and sanitation such as maintenance, protection of the water resources, management and development.

           The type of investment might be diversified. For instance between 2018-2020, a project led by Water and Development Alliance (WADA) and its key partners in order to provide safe water access through solar power systems.

To sum up, Tanzania is getting more and more attention by years but still, the country struggles with investments and educated human resources and government seems to be the only investor but it is not enough to bear all the expenses. Although Tanzania published guidelines in WASH investment plans, due to lack of profitability it does not attract private investments. USAID defines the reason, while the legal framework is well-defined implementation is not effective at all. Also, investment should be focused on sanitation as well as a water supply but research shows that it is biased in favour of water supply. So it is important to invest in water sanitation since it has added value potential. Performance-based investment plans would run to expand sanitation services. Another reason could be collaboration intention of public agencies with private sector investments. The government enjoys from private sector contemporary technologies and provide technology transfer. Due to lack of integration of water sanitation with healthcare, nutrition and food security investments were not fully effective. For example, water sanitation ameliorates food security so it helps to reach Tanzania Development Vision 2025.

Selous Game Reserve

By Farzad Ghotaslou Art in Tanzania internship

Selous Game Reserve is a popular Art in Tanzania safari destination starting from the Madale compound in Dar es Salaam.

The Tanzanian national park authority (TANAPA) in 2019 proposed and declared a change of identity of the northern sector of this reserve such that it is known as The Nyerere National Park as a way of honoring President Julius Nyerere who was the first president of Tanzania. Today the boundaries of this Nyerere National Park are being properly established but according to sources it is believed that this park will encompass the photographic sector in the northern part of the reserve and stretch out all the way to the wilderness area of River Rufiji to the south.

The Selous Game Reserve is the largest protected game reserve on the African continent covering an area of 54,600 square kilometers comprised of a vast wilderness with forests, grassy plains, mountains and open woodlands. This reserve was named after Frederick Selous Courtney who was a great Hunter and explorer. Selous Safari Holidays are highly recommended as in size this reserve is twice the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and three times Kruger National Park in South Africa. This reserve was established in 1922, and in 1982 it was declared a UNESCO world heritage site thanks to its rich diversity of wildlife and uninterrupted nature.

The reserve is located in the southern part of Tanzania along the southern Tanzania safari circuit and offers the best escape from the large tourist crowds in the northern safari destinations like Serengeti while offering you a remarkable wildlife experience. It is considered to be among the hidden gems in the county and offers a wide range of Selous Game Reserve Camps for accommodation. The reserve is located about 219 kilometers from the busy city of Dar es salaam and may take about 4 hours drive.

Regions of Selous Game Reserve

Selous Game Reserve is crossed by River Rufiji (which is the largest river in the country) in the center and forms a network of swamps, channels and lakes to create a very unique ecological system. The reserve is separated into 2 major sections by the river which are the northern and southern Selous.

The Northern Selous: this region covers just about 5% of the total area of the reserve and hunting is completely prohibited in this area which has been exclusively set aside for photographic safaris. See, the best time to visit.

The southern Selous: the southern part of the river is separated into various hunting blocks each covering an area of approximately 1,000 square kilometers however we emphasize that we do not operate or even support wildlife hunting.

Since 2005, the protected area is considered a Lion Conservation Unit. A boundary change to allow the use of uranium deposits has been approved. The approval for the boundary change was given by the UNESCO and seriously criticized by environmentalists and organizations e.g., Uranium-Network and Rainforest Rescue.

Tanzania president John Magufuli has given an approval of constructing a new Stiegler’s Gorge Hydroelectric Power Station of 2,115MW over the Rufiji River. The power station will result to an additional 2,100 megawatts of electricity, more than tripling Tanzania’s installed hydropower capacity of 562 megawatts. The project started on 26 July 2019 and should be completed by 2022. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has criticised the Government of Tanzania for failing to consider, the impact of the flooding of nearly 1,000 km2 will have, on both the people and biodiversity of the reserve. Thousands of people are dependent on the river for fishing and agriculture.

Interesting places in the park include the Rufiji River, which flows into the Indian

Ocean opposite Mafia Island and the Stiegler Gorge, a canyon of 100 metres depth and 100 metres width. Habitats include grassland, typical Acacia savanna, wetlands and extensive Miombo woodlands. Although total wildlife populations are high, the reserve is large, and densities of animals are lower than in the more regularly visited northern tourist circuit of Tanzania. In 1976, the Selous Game Reserve contained about 109,000 elephants, then the largest population in the world. By 2013, the numbers had dropped to about 13,000 – including a 66% drop from 2009 to 2013. Sources blame corrupt politicians, officials and businessmen who help poachers.

The Rufiji River runs through the Selous, pretty much bisecting it into a northern and southern section, with most people tending to visit the area to the north of the river. Visitor numbers to the reserve are relatively low compared to those found in Tanzania’s northern parks, which is partly Selous’ attraction, especially to people returning to Tanzania for a second visit.

The park offers back-to-nature walking safaris along with boat trips along the river and more conventional vehicle safaris. There are several very good camps and exclusive lodges here to choose from, some based on the banks of the river and practically guaranteeing incredible game viewing on your doorstep. A Selous Game Reserve safari is best enjoyed between June – October and in January – early February, although visiting in the green season is equally good.

Most of the reserve remains set aside for game hunting through a number of privately leased hunting concessions, but a section of the northern park along the Rufiji River has been designated a photographic zone and is a popular tourist destination. There are several high-end lodges and camps mainly situated along the river and lake systems in this area. Rather difficult road access means most visitors arrive by small aircraft

from Dar es Salaam, though train access is also possible. Walking safaris are permitted in the Selous, and boat trips on the Rufiji are a popular activity.

The Rufiji River runs through the Selous, pretty much bisecting it into a northern and southern section, with most people tending to visit the area to the north of the river. Visitor numbers to the reserve are relatively low compared to those found in Tanzania’s northern parks, which is partly Selous’ attraction, especially to people returning to Tanzania for a second visit.

The park offers back-to-nature walking safaris along with boat trips along the river and more conventional vehicle safaris. There are several very good camps and exclusive lodges here to choose from, some based on the banks of the river and practically guaranteeing incredible game viewing on your doorstep. A Selous Game Reserve safari is best enjoyed between June – October and in January – early February, although visiting in the green season is equally good.

Wildlife

There are a number of wildlife mammals found within this national reserve among which are: approximately 145,000 buffalos, 4,000 Lions, 100,000 wildebeests, large hands of giraffes, 35000 zebras, 40000 hippos, 250,000 impalas, large numbers of Lichtenstein’s hartebeests, waterbucks, elands and bushbucks, in addition to leopards, crocodiles and hyenas. Furthermore, this is among the few wildlife sanctuaries on the African continent where you will find the puku antelopes the African wild dogs as well as the sable antelope. Previously the Selous was home to a very large number of elephants but because of excessive poaching these numbers have greatly reduced.

References:

  1. “UNESCO sacrifices wildlife preserve for uranium mine”. Rainforest Rescue. Retrieved 2021- 01-26.
  2. “Tanzania to Construct Hydropower Plant on National Reserve”. Voice of America. July 26, 2019.
  3. “Tanzania launches Rufiji power plant”. The EastAfrican. 26 July 2019.
  4. Fair, James (July 2019). “African reserve threatened by dam”. BBC Wildlife. p. 51
  5. Wikipedia

Status of the Microfinance in Tanzania

By James Mathew Mgaya – Art in Tanzania internship

Introduction

The movement of microfinance is started since 19th centaury in the time of European Union and the creation of modern microfinance in Bangladeshi social entrepreneur Muhammad Yunus in 1983, microfinance was simultaneously created. In 1983, Yunus established Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. The goal of Grameen Bank was to initially provide small loans to entrepreneurs. Microfinance is all about financing low-income earner like food venders (mama lishe), farmers, poor communities, micro- enterprises.

We call them low-income earner to financial service providers, but the nature of this industry is too slow and small in fact they misunderstood it with banking services, but they are so different aspect. Moreover, Microfinance is likely to be called micro-credit or micro-loan which most users are low-income earner while apparently women in Tanzania perspective. In rural areas, they are usually small farmers and others who are engaged in small income-generating activities such as an anti-poverty tool for the people living in rural areas. It claims to assisting communities of the economically excluded to achieve greater level of asset creation and income security to eradicate poverty in Tanzania at the household and community level which is not achieved as it initially aimed.

Many microfinance institutions currently operating in urban areas than rural areas. Microfinance are known to Its reputation of helping low-income households to stabilize their income flows and save for future needs; observing facts are too slow build up existence of Microfinance institutions to rural areas are yet to focus to rural areas while remain with poverty and these kinds of financial services remain unknown to other rural and remote areas. Furthermore, microfinance may help families, farms, and small businesses to prosper, and at times of crisis it can help them cope and rebuild rural communities if introduced and operated in these remote areas.

It is must to be regulated by central bank in Tanzania and have mandate to any financial services provider especially Microfinance is well regulated under BoT but also their National Microfinance policy and other supervisory framework. The emphasis on them is too low as for presence of commercial banks with their innovative product which interfered Microfinance financial services.  It’s not bad notion since it is competitive and commercial era, but it seizes to suppress these micro capital institutions to its existence. In good formality must learn to co- exist as alpha be alpha (BoT) and beta doing beta thing (commercial banks) and let omega enjoy the fruits of being omega (Microfinance institution); this interruption redirects the main purpose of microfinance and it main objective in Tanzania.

Microfinance industry

Regulation 

According to “mondaq.com ” The Bank of Tanzania (the BoT) exercising its powers under section 60(1) and (2) of the Microfinance Act of 2018 (the Act) has published the Microfinance (Non-Deposit Taking Microfinance Service Providers) Regulations of 2019 (the Regulations) among other regulations.”        According to Finandlaw.co.tz which said The Central Bank of Tanzania (Bank of Tanzania) has finally issued the regulations governing Microfinance Business in Tanzania. The regulations come in trio containing, Microfinance (Non-Deposit Taking Microfinance Service Providers) Regulations 2019 (GN No. 679 of 2019), Microfinance (Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies) Regulations 2019 (GN No. 675 of 2019), The Microfinance (Community Microfinance Groups) Regulations 2019 GN No. 678 of 2019.Government view microfinance as powerful allied to combat poverty in Tanzania so they establish it regulate it , supervise it and governed it through Bank of Tanzania, some supervisory frameworks and policies.

Microfinance institutions

Microfinance institutions in Tanzania appeared with three faces: first is Non- Governmental Organisation (NGO’s) which include PRIDE, FINCA, Vision Fund, SEDA, PTF etc. Another, banking services which offer similar range of micro- credit and some are large banks like NMB, CRDB, ACB, and most of regional banks and community banks are also providing these kinds of services like Kilimanjaro cooperative bank, Dar es salaam community bank, Mfindi community bank etc. Finally, cooperative based institutions here we are talking about SACCOS, SACCAS, AMCOS, VIKOBA etc. But not only them provide financial services that predominately as saving based and these are not regulated BoT these don’t work directly as financial institution as agency for poverty eradication includes SIDO, YOSEFO, SELFINA, and Poverty Africa and Zanzibar based Women Development Trust Fund.

Recent years their existence of e-banking or mobile banking institution which provide micro- credit to borrowers with access of internet and some no access of internet. In fact, some are not real financial institution but provide micro- credit and micro- saving like M-pawa through M-pesa, Tigopesa, Halopesa, etc. With those include online microfinance are like TALA, Branch, Timiza, TMF, easy loan, mkopo chap chap loan finder etc.

Source of fund and Operation

Source of financing microfinance so they say is from donors, SACCOS, Government, community based and bank loans. International donors play big part to fund institutions and NGO’s and provide not only substantial financial resources but even technical assistance to them. SACCOS and Community based are mostly use internal source of fund by collective fund measure toward membership that provide equal contribution and distribution and some time the get assistance from donors, government through subsides and noninterest loans, also the use banks loan which can be accessed.

Many microfinances operate though micro borrowing, but the market is widespread nowadays when involved the big guns like bank they tend to have saving. But may borrower’s ideology is not saving is about getting micro credit which is main purpose. Since then, microfinance drift to commercial more than serving low-income earner and eradicating poverty as government intended. Microfinance suppose to deal with poor and rural areas and urban, but many operations are urban centered which the get collaterals, easy to reach them than rural areas. The interest pricing can be high because most of the local microfinance providers borrow from bank for 10% to 20% this may lead for Microfinance to charge more than bank rate. Which make borrower to use commercial banks despite of many procedure but for some they still enjoy microfinance though they are affected by it.

Challenges

There many developmental challenges faced by micro credit providers in Tanzania because is substantial to the backbone to low income and unemployed to enter economic activities. And these are some challenges.

Criticisms: their propaganda involve charging low rate and oversimplification of procedures than of those commercial banks. Most of them charge low interest of 1% up to 10% mostly with no transaction cost or restriction of having saving. This approaches and techniques cannot do by banks because they can not take risk on loan but to microcredit provider can offer loan for 24 hours, with national identity cards only, that made accessing loans to be very easy than using banks.

Beneficiaries of the benefits; the aim of microfinance institution by Dr Muhammad Yunnus and other idealist like US President Bill Clinton once said, “the poor are credit worthy and that micro financing effort can be self-sustainable, create growth and widespread peace.” But do poor benefit microcredit? All of this institution focusses on commercialize services drift away from it main purpose. These institutions target civil servant’s government officials by using lawson verdict. In large percent poor and rural areas are outreached and not capable of getting these services but other groups benefit these services.

Insolvent of financial services ingredients; financial literacy, trust issues, repayment measures and access to credit. Borrowers of microcredits are client of banks which have bank accounts in consumer perspective to have MFI’s account is not easy due to misunderstanding of financial services to offer savings as product so, also some low-income earners do not have that knowledge of saving. Trust issue faced by microfinance institutions about borrowers do trust these institution because of the  and repayment measures are not comfortable to consumer as it’s recovery is not smooth transaction the fact that the collateral they use are home furniture’s and some time employer’ concerned this bring fear among borrowers and also institution , targeted poorest people are not able to access credit for claims of geographical and socio economic factor for MFI’s not able to reach them at large; remoteness is fact but also repayment capacity of these projected clients like in rural areas. Inaccessibility of credits in areas and nature of competition and profit oriented with business ideology have made them urban centered mind to the point of loss of clients who uses bank services.

Contribution

The developmental outreach of microfinance institutions is reasonable nowadays which can be accessed through e-banking or known as sim banking/ mobile banking, google apps, telecommunication company services even in the phones so it increases number of borrowers to the easy access to credit. Increase of digital services to borrowers reduce time consuming to loan procedures, it establishes more easily accessible micro loans and other services. Women empowerment is achieved in large number of entrepreneurs are women nowadays. Microfinance institutions boost economy as financial tool to eradicate poverty among urban areas and rural areas, low-income earner are motivated to borrow an start micro enterprises to build their individual / household provision this is baby steps to development.  Competitive market goes with using of technology which open so many unemployment problem and easy access of services and availability of many and different product because of increase of Microfinance Institution and financial services providers. Reasonable and competitive pricing of interest for some MFI’s who use donors and subsidies they offer low interest that benefit customers to encourage other client to apply for credit. Innovative products which have different package like mortgages, leasing of buildings, machines, vehicles and furniture and many other uses for loan.

What should be done?

Most of MFI’s must mobilize savings to client to reduce dependence of international donors which lead to good management of savings and to use them to the loan portfolio and building stable source of fund that expanding operations base on Microfinance institution. There is financial inclusion towards Microfinance institution and borrower or low-income earner to overlook individuals and micro enterprises to access financial services according to income level that maybe useful and affordable financial products and services that meet their needs to smooth transactions, suitable payment methods and approaches, potential savings, available and accessible credit, and insurance to be delivered in a responsible and sustainable technique like online.

Return to basics of Micro finance purpose; the idea of microfinance is to provide financial services to poor households, microenterprises, women, and youth so as government to reach the goals. There notion says “Poor people need not just loans but also savings, insurance and money transfer services.”

Coping with economic and political environment; economic policies like millennium development goals and sustainable development goals these change in time with political interest of the country. Monetary policy has been accommodative to support credit and economic growth, as it was supportive to poverty eradication as goal number one and decent work and economic growth. Microfinance institutions needs to consider the political environment when creating business strategies. The entire political environment includes looking at government policies and the risk and instability of current political factors and current political party in power, the degree of politicization effectiveness and efficiency of the current government, government policies, current legal framework, the public attitude towards the economy.

Professionalism: expertise in Microfinance institution is very important that can make industry is moving very fast as India’s microfinance sector is fragmented with more than 3000 microfinance institutions in India are estimated to account for almost 74 per cent of the total loans outstanding. The work of expertise it means put right person for right job with standards, awareness, and practises in microfinance sector.

The verdict

Upon the creation of microcredit by Bangladeshi social entrepreneur Muhammad Yunus in 1983, microfinance was simultaneously created. In 1983, Yunus established Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. The goal of Grameen Bank was to initially provide small loans to entrepreneurs. When the movement gain momentum globally: Tanzania 1980’s adopted Microfinance institution as the proper tool to reduce poverty, allowing poor citizens from lower socio-economical classes to participate in the building of country’s economy. Microfinance is a government strategy used to help Tanzanians to fight poverty by providing a variety of financial services to poor and low-income individuals who do not have access to banking and related services for the growth of economy to household level.

Climate Change Effect on National Parks in Tanzania

By Veronica Donald – Art in Tanzania internship

Climate encompasses the statistics of meteorological conditions, that is, temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle counts and other meteorological element in a given region over a long period of time. Climate change is attributed directly or indirectly to human activities that alert the composition of global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural variability observed over comparable time period. Variability may be due to internal natural processes within the climate system or variation in anthropogenic external forces. A national park is predominantly unaltered area of the land and/or sea characterized by exceptional and varied natural assets comprising one or several preserved and predominantly unaltered ecosystem and is primarily set aside for conservation of original natural assets.

Tanzania is the largest country in East Africa, covering the area of 945209 km2, 60000 of which is inland water. It’s shares the boundaries with eight countries such as Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Mozambique, Congo, Burundi, Rwanda and Zambia. Tanzania lies close to the equator in East coast of Africa between parallel 1 S and 12 S and meridian 30E and 40E. By being close to the equator, climate variations in temperature are not very extreme. Tanzania is among of African countries in terms of biodiversity of both flora and fauna species in its terrestrial and marine ecosystem, it has numerous vegetation cover distributed along the diverse landscape. It is a home of endemic plants and animal’s species most of which are of world importance. It has 16 national park such as Kilimanjaro, Lake Manyara, Tarangire, Mikumi, Saadani, Saa nane Island, Katavi, Gombe, and etc.

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Climate trend in Tanzania

Rainfall Pattern

Rainfall pattern in country is subdivided into: tropical on the coast where is humid and hot (rainy season is March-May): semi-temperate in the mountains with short rains in November-December and long rains in February-May: and drier in the plateau region with considerable seasonal variation in temperature. The mean annual rainfall varies from 500 mm to 2500 mm and above, the duration of dry period is five to six months. However recent rainfall pattern has become more unpredictable with some areas receive extremely maximum and minimum rainfall per year.

Temperature Pattern

Temperature in Tanzania also varies according to geographical location, relief and altitude. In the Coastal regions temperature ranging between 27℃ to 29℃, while in central, Northern and Western parties, temperature ranges between 20℃ to 30℃ and higher between month of December to March. In the Northeast and Southeast where there is mountainous and Makonde plateau, the temperature occasionally drops to 15℃ at night during months of June and July.

The following are the effects of climate change to National Parks in Tanzania.

Water shortage for large mammals especially in the period of law rainfall is the main challenge to facing wildlife, the places that naturally used to dry water during dry season are no longer used to dry water and thus water dependent animals such as hippopotamus, crocodiles, buffaloes are found crowded in few remaining water ponds elephant eg in Ruaha National Park. Seriously lack of surface water led to considerably hippopotamus and buffaloes’ mortalities. Suffering from lack of water, wildlife physiological functions are impaired and they are becoming easy targets to poachers and predators. Thus, with changing climate and associated decrease in water availability due to reduced amounts and altered seasonal distribution of rainfall, the existing water related problems are likely to be compounded (Elisa at all., 2011, cf. Kangalawe, 2010).

Human-Wildlife conflicts

Due to climate change, wild animals from National Park are roaming around the adjacent villages to search for pastures and water. So many events of crop raiding occur and thus cause human-wildlife conflicts. The animals commonly involved in these conflicts are hippopotamus, buffaloes and elephants and this may be aggravated with changing climatic conditions example is in Lake Manyara National Park.

Affects nature-based tourism

Tourism has close connections to environment and considered to be highly climatic sensitive sector. Climate variabilities determine the length and quality of tourism seasons, thus play a major role in the destination choice and tourist spending. Climate affect a wide range of environmental resources that are key attraction to tourism such as snow conditions over mount killimanjaro, wildlife productivity and biodiversity. Climate also has an effects on environmental conditions that can deter tourists including infectious diseases, wild fires, waterborne pest and insects.

Glacier retreat in Mount Kilimanjaro

The early retreat of glaciers on the Kilimanjaro was due to natural climatic shifts whilst the warming up of the Earth after the industrial era has led to current faster recession of the glaciers. There is no argument today regarding the retreat of Kilimanjaro glacier; the glaciers have been retreating in unprecedented scale in the recent years directly because of climate change. The   retreat of the glaciers is probably the most iconic indication of climate change impacts in Tanzania (Ibid). The most recent available data shows that the glaciers were about 4.2km2 in 1976 (Hastenrath and Greischar, 1997). In 2000, the remaining glaciers were only 2.6km2 (Thompson, et al., 2002).

 Ecosystem shift

Climate change is altering environmental niche and cause species to species their habitat range, as they track their ecological niche. Species shifts allow species to persist but may negatively affect existing species in these areas because the shifted species may be a primarily source of food to the existing species..

Speciation is an evolutionary process by which new ecological species arise. Due to various natural processes including geographical separation and drift, some species become separated. In consequences, under changing climatic conditions and due to natural selection, new species are established. Climate change and invasive species pose ecological challenges to the world. The impact of climate change and rise in average global temperature can have a profound effect to the specie’s geographical ranges that are often set primarily by climate and the host environment. Climate changes alter destination of habitat and increase vulnerability to invasion because of resource scarcity and increased competition among native flora and fauna. Example, Argemone mexicana in Ngorongoro CA.

Strategies for climate change

Enhance resilience of wildlife Ecosystem to impacts of climate change.

This can be done through promoting wildlife management practice that increase resilience to climate change, establishing a wildlife climate change related monitoring and information management system and enhancing protection and conservation of wildlife habitats.

Ensure water quality availability and accessibility in a changing climate.

This can be achieved by protection and conservation of water catchment areas, invest and promote appropriate water management technology, invest exploration and extraction of underground water and conduct vulnerability assessment in water resources.

Undertake research on climate change impacts.

Undertake a detailed and coordinated research on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, mitigation measures and develop technology that will ensure sustainable response system for minimizing impacts and risks associated with changing in climate.

Adequate financial resources for climate change adaptation.

This can be done through effective and efficient system for planning and mobilization and management of climate change funds.

Conclusion

Climate, tourist attraction, wildlife habitat is closely associated to National Parks. Change in climate have directly influenced tourism seasonality and indirectly affect natural attractiveness of the parks by changing tourism flagship species and natural landscape. Decreasing rainfall and increasing temperature have led to more drier conditions and increased aridity resulting to shortage of water for wildlife.

References

Elisa, M., Gara, J.I., and Wolanski, E. (2011). A Review of Water Crisis in Tanzania’s protected areas with emphasis on Katuma River-Lake Rukwa Ecosystem. Journal of Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology [DOI: 10.2478/v10104-011-0001-z]

Fischlin, A., Midgley, G.F., Price, J. T., Leemans, R., Gopal, B., Turley, C., Rounsevell, M. D.A., Dube, O. P., Tarazona, J., and Velichko, A.A. (2007). Ecosystems, their properties, goods, and services. In Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F,. Palutikof, J. P., van der Linden P. J., and Hanson, C.E. (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Workin Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 211-272.

Kangalawe, R.Y.M. (2010). Mainstreaming climate change adaptation in the management of freshwater resources in the Rufi ji Basin. A consultancy report submitted to the Ruaha Water Programme. WWF-Tanzania Country Offi ce, Dar es Salaam.

United Republic of Tanzania – URT (2002). Population and Housing Census 2002. United Republic of Tanzania. National Bureau of Statistics, Dar es Salaam.

Hastenrath S, Greischar L. 1997. Glacier recession on Kilimanjaro, East Africa, 191 89. Journal of Glaciology 43: 455-459.

Thompson LG, Mosley-Thompson E, Davis ME, Henderson KA, Brecher HH, Zagorodnov VS, Mashiotta TA, Lin PN, Mikhalenko VN, Hardy DR, Beer J. 2002.Kilimanjaro ice core records: evidence of Holocene climate change in tropical Africa. Science 298: 589-593.

PROTECTION OF THE EARTH IS A MAN FUNDAMENTAL DUTY

By Godfrido Mallua – Art in Tanzania internship

Genesis 1:26-28

Then, GOD said Let Us make man in our image according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air and over cattle, over all earth and over creeping thing that creeps on the earth. So GOD created man in His own image, in the image of GOD he created him; male and female. Then GOD blessed them, be fruitful and multiply, fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves on the earth.

Background

Recently the world has observed human activities that contribute on environmental destruction and leads to climate change. This situation has much been contributed by a lot of factors, some to be Demographically, Politically, Economically etc. Though different initiatives are continuing embarked by government, society, multiple organizations but still the nature and living organism reported to be at high risk of being exposed to unsafe living environments

What should be a man continuing effort on earth protection?

Man efforts depends on several factors which lies behind the policies made by those in power that enforce every human being take responsibility to protect our nature as per country regulation. But also policies itself are never enough to bring change, it also demand self awareness and self initiatives of every human to support those initiatives up on nature protection wisely and meet the will of GOD.

Some efforts which can be embarked by each member of community on protection are elaborated below…

  • Reduce, reuse and recycle: Cut down on what you throw away. Follow the three Rs to conserve natural resources and landfill space
  • Volunteer: Volunteer for cleanups in your community. You can get involved in protecting your watershed too
  • Educate: When you further your own education, you can help others understand the importance and value of our natural resources.
  • Conserve water: The less water you use, the less runoff and wastewater that eventually end up in ocean
  • Shop wisely: Buy less plastic and bring a reusable shopping bag
  • Use long lasting light bulbs: Energy efficient light bulbs reduce greenhouse gas emissions, also flip the lights switch off when you leave the room
  • Plant trees: Trees provide food and oxygen. They help save energy, clean the air and help combat climate change
  • Limit industrial sewage towards water sources: sewage contain a lot of chemicals of which tend to pollute water and even kills living organisms found in water sources
  • Bike more drive less
  • Discourage fire burning into farms and forest areas, illegal pouching, deforestation etc

                   Photo: climbing man around the mountain forests

Tunza mazingira Yakutunze… DBE Jane Goodall Nobel Prize, Un Peace Ambassador once said.

THE PROSPECT FOR TANZANIA ECONOMY AFFECTED BY COVID -19 GLOBAL PANDEMIC

B Nyamboge Mwema Nyawangwe – Art in Tanzania internship

As well as it is known COVID-19 is a global pandemic in the whole world today. Tanzania is among one of the many countries that has been affected in many ways and one of the major areas is in the economic sector. Since last April to May 2020 there was a huge rise of cases regarding COVID-19 which led to lockdowns including shutting down of various public places like schools. The average has reduced highly since last year since and people are no longer quarantined, despite that, the recently new president ordered for more research/investigation with regard to COVID-19 and measures to prevent it from spreading are still taken. Despite Tanzanian boarders being still open several measures are still undertaken by the government and individuals to protect against the spread of COVID19. Some of these measures include the one’s set by WHO like wearing face masks, social distancing in public places and washing hands or using hand sanitizers.

Given the fact that majority of Tanzanian’s are backward economically and can’t afford means of protections such as hand sanitizers, face masks etc., this people are forced to stay at home as to avoid crowds, hence a lot of people have failed to keep up with their daily jobs. This is especially to rural people who are self-employed hence when they don’t work means no income generated and therefore reduction of expenses reducing general revenues. Some companies also have been forced to deduct  workers’ salaries and also expel some workers as to keep up with the financial flows.

Despite the rate of COVID-19 gradually falling but other countries are still highly affected by the disease which is more likely contributing to affecting Tanzania economy, currently and the future. Some of the major areas directly linked with the economy have shown this impacts.

In Public financing/ Government.

The government is facing and will continue facing problem in public budgeting and social services delivery to its people, this is because it has increased demand for public expenditure mainly in procuring tools needed due to COVID-19 such as sanitizers, medical equipment’s and so forth. The government revenues are expected to keep failing due to variety in cash flow obtained in direct and indirect taxes, levies and fees. As it is known with COVID-19 most of companies decreased workers and also most of workers payments were declined also others were forced to stop working naturally due to factors within.

In tourism sector; 

One of the major sources of the government income in Tanzania is through tourism. Which has far more tattered, very few tourists are coming to the country due to restrictions set in countries hence the demand has quite declined. The government has reckoned that this year probably only few tourists will come to Tanzania for the holidays which is about a quarter of the normal rate. Places like Zanzibar has been so much affected since most of their economy depend on tourism. The chain that links from the places that tourist visited and stayed like hotels to the people working there and the suppliers of products or services their jobs have frozen due lack of tourist.  

                

Trade

Tanzania mostly depends on exported products and very few are made within. Trade global chains are disrupted, and some factories have been shut down, most of products are running out hence sellers lack products to sell and money circulation has been declining. Most of the country boundaries have been closed not allowing products to go out or come in for some time. This has also led to rise of prices of some products causing some people not to afford them which leaves these products unsold especially those that are not basic needs or that are luxurious products. Export and import of products has been generally affected due to shutdown of some factories which has highly affected the economy.

In banks and financial institutions;

This are among major helpers of the economy that have been highly affected due to COVID-19,  there has been reduction of bank deposits given all factors generated that has causes slow generation of income, Foreign financial flows have fallen due to no transactions of money from other countries due to the lockdown hence lack of foreign currency within, also there has been deterioration between the customers and bank relationships since it has been hard  to establish a common ground due to operational challenges from both sides.

Conclusively;

As for Tanzania as long as COVID 19 continues to exist despite it being within the country or outside its impact on the economy will always be valid and continue to affect the major sectors of the economy, which will keep causing decline of general income gained by individuals and the government at large. Such hard times require hard decisions on best measure as to what should be undertaken as to try and maintain the economy to avoid great depression.

Already some measures have been taken as to help overcome the economic problems generated due to COVID-19 for example in banks and financial institutions follows the Bank of Tanzania policies measures, this is by issuing relief packages towards their customers especially the small and medium enterprises which include payment holidays ranging from 3-6 months and restricting of loans to extend repayment periods.