CHALLENGES IN THE ACCESIBILITY OF PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION IN TANZANIA

By Dickson Straitony – Art in Tanzania internship

Introduction

 Pre-school education involves education and care Early childhood period is the crucial and sensitive time for children development holistically including social, physical, emotional and cognitive development. The child need positive with the environment as they are very active to learn everything they interact with by imitation and experience. Child’s learning and development occurs in multiple contexts from home to school context that should be well prepared, stimulating and supportive for learning and development holistically (Sestini, 1985). Play is the best method of learning for children in this age group. All activities must be arranged on the basis of play and all activities should be planed and organized based on the interest of the child where the process of learning should start from what the child know that is bottom-up approach.  

Preschool education considers the needs of children and individual differences, should support the psychomotor, social-emotional, linguistic and cognitive development of the child, build in self-care skills and prepare the child for school continuity as it should impart in children self-respect, self-confidence and self-control.

 To respond to the needs of children, preschool education institutions should provide education environments in compliance with an understanding of democratic education. 

 The process of education should start from what children already know and provide a room for learning by trying and experimenting. Education given in preschool phase should be contributory to the development of children in terms of affection, respect, cooperation, responsibility, tolerance, solidarity and sharing. 

Background

Tanzania is the country found in East Africa in Sub-saharan Africa with 59.7 Million number of population where 77% of population lives in rural area and only 23% lives in urban with the area of about 945,087 km2. According to UNESCO (2015), Tanzania has an adult literacy rate of 77.8% where the male literacy rate is 83.2% and for females is 73.09%.   

According to Education for All (EFA) of 1990 as an international initiative for making education to benefits every citizen in every society the first goal out of six is to “Expand and improve comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for most vulnerable and disadvantaged children”. Tanzania adopted Pre-primary Education Policy in 1995 as the part of Education and Training Policy where all primary schools where established pre-primary education program as the part of formal education program for two years that included children with age from five to six are enrolled before join to primary school but not mandatory to that age where it depends the parents.  According to Mtahabwa and Rao (2009), currently young children in Tanzania attend programmes in child care centre nursery schools, Montessori or other preschools and pre-primary classes which are affiliated to primary schools. Children attend different programs that are nursery, Day care, Kindergarten, Montessori and pre-primary school. Pre-school educational program is considered as the preparation for primary education and it is the period of transition from home to school environment where parents and teachers a have to prepare the transition environments for child school readiness.

Total Enrolment in Pre-Primary Education has increased by 46.1% from 1,069,823 in 2015 to 1,562,770 in 2016. The increase is a result of community sensitization as well as a prevailing strong partnership of the government and parents, faith-based organizations (FBOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) in providing Pre-Primary Education. (URT 2016) Pre-primary, Primary and Secondary Education Statistics in brief. In 2019 Prep-primary school enrolment was reported at 41.59%, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators and this indicated the drop of number of enrolment from 46.1% in 2016 to 41.59% in 2019. Different private sectors provide education and care for children below five years as the part of preschool program.

Volunteer and intern in nursery school in Tanzania in Africa, työharjoittelu koulut afrikka, vapaaehtoisena koulussa afrikassa

  Problems facing the accessibility of preschool education in Tanzania

The success of the Early Childhood program has been the effort of both public and private sectors linking together although not all Tanzanians have been able to access it.

Low social-economic status of parents. This is the challenge poor families faces in access to education, the charging fees in private schools is not affordable to many parents in that case they fail to send their children to preschool centers  where they opt  to remain them at home helping different domestic works as the number of household are involving in agricultural activities and they become street children.

Education quality and resources constraints in public schools. (UNICEF Tanzania, 2018).  Compared to private schools in Tanzania the government has not invested much to make sure there is quality early childhood education where mostly children who attend to public preschools they do not achieve satisfactorily basic learning skills for school continuity. The challenge of resources for teaching and learning to public preschools like stimulating learning materials and supportive environment but also we found that preschool and primary schools they share the same classes learning by shifts.

 Low parents’ awareness towards early childhood education. In Tanzania there is existing of large number of parents who are not aware of the need and the importance of early childhood education to their children specifically in villages and remote areas. The value of education still low in Tanzania villages where other they don’t send them to school totally neither preschool nor primary school and they believe in workforce (Pambas, 2010).. So children from this group of parents get affected and if they get enrolled at primary school they have limited fundamental learning skills.  

Public preschools are located far away from home environment. In some regions children have to walk for a miles to school no passenger vehicles and if they are available some parents may fail to afford daily fare with other expenses. Parents fear the security of their children hence they do not enroll them to preschools.

Inadequate of preschool teachers has become a challenge to public primary and secondary schools but also preschools. Primary school teachers they take the role of teaching due to lack of professional preschool teachers at the same time they teach primary schools as a result they had a heavy workload that reduce efficiency of work and sometimes volunteers nonprofessional teacher they teacher those preschool children in private centers. They don’t have professional knowledge and skill about teaching and learning to those preschool children and leads to poor quality education and those are qualified they don’t get in-service training as the apart of professional development (Kitta, 2004).   

Traditional norms, cultural values and gender discrimination. Gender inequalities due to discriminatory norm has the negative effect to children access to education from early childhood education and above  as the families cannot afford to fully educate all children girls they are not given much importance and treated inferior to boys children especially in rural areas within Tanzania (Mligo 2018).  In some societies with norms around marriageability norms related to gender division of labour all these affect girls’ education. Children with disabilities also the face challenges in access to education due to negative perception on their ability to learn.

 Possible solutions      

Involving Parents and community as active participants in early childhood education and care intervention program. The involvement of these two actors to children educational experience as the parents they participate to children’s education by actively supporting, encouraging, and providing supportive home learning environment, when parents are involved in they become an expert to their child and reinforce the development of preschool program The child and his/her family should actively take part in the process of education as it is urged that when parents are involved in child education the possibility of that child to school achievements is higher     

Provision of fund from government to preschools. Due to preschool settings being not conducive and supportive for children the government should provide funds from different sources can be internal or external sources thereafter preschool education should have its own budget for better investment and improvement in the provision and aces of quality education and for all. Enough preschool classes with supportive infrastructures for both children including disadvantaged children 

 The government has to increase the number of preschool center. In some area of Tanzania the number of children is over the school facilities as the results the indoor activities are all done outside. But also the limited number of preschools results to long distance from home to school and few are able to attend hence dropouts and truancy increase

Conclusion

Tanzania as the among of developing countries  investing in early childhood education is the crucial step towards development that will ensure public provision of high quality early childhood education by establishing clear policy, and work to ensure the increase in enrolment, registration and curriculum development as well as producing large number of quality early childhood teachers. The government should work more on sensitizing community and parents the value of preschool education and set the suitable environment to raise their social-economic status.   

Reference

Kitta S. (2004).  Enhancing mathematics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge and skills in   Tanzania. Enschede: University of Twente. 

Mligo I. (2018). Enhancing Young Childrens Acces to Early Childhood Education and Care in      Tanzania. Contemprary perspective on Child Psychology and Education,          

Pambas, T. (2010). Stakeholders’ conception of young children’s readiness for primary    schooling in Tanzania.Unpublished M.A Thesis, University of Dodoma.   

Sestini, E. (1985). Preschool Education: Recent Developments in Preschool Policies and Provision in Developing Countries and in the UK. In Lillis, K. M. (Ed.). School, and          Community in Less Developed Countries. Biddles Limited, Guiford King’s Lynn,             Greatain

UNICEF Tanzania. 2018. Education :The Situation 

            http://www.unicef.org/tanzania/education.html

THE HISTORY OF THE TWO GREATEST FOOTBALL CLUBS IN TANZANIA

By Jofrey – Art in Tanzania internship

SIMBA

Simba sport club is one of the biggest club in Tanzania which commence and established in 1936 Dar es salaam, Tanzania. Simba when was founded in 1936 they were named Queens, then later on named Eagles but that name does not last much longer it changed to Sunderland until 1971 when official they named and recognized as SIMBA (“Lion” in English).

Owner of Simba SC Mr. Mo Dewji

Simba reside at Kariakoo Dar es salaam and their cross-city rival is Young Africans (YANGA). Simba nicknamed as “The King” or “Wekundu wa Msimbazi” (The Reds of Msimbazi).

CEO Ms. Barbara Gonzalez

Simba has won 21 league titles and five domestic cups, also simba participated in the CAF champions league multiple times. Their home playground is Mkapa stadium also known as “National stadium “.

Simba is owned by wanachama (citizens) by 51% and Mo Dewji by 49% where by Mo Dewji invest to simba sports club the total amount of USD 8,700,000 (Tsh 20 Billion)

Simba Squad
Head Coach Mr. Didier Da Rosa

Simba Fans Celebrate
Simba Player Benard Morrison (BMW)

YANGA FC

Yanga Sports club is one of the biggest club in Tanzania which was founded in 1935 but the history of Yanga is traced back to 1910 when they were known as Jangwani boys then later on in 1930 they change the name to “new youngs”

Yanga Head Coach Investor Mr. Said Gharib Mohamed

In 1935 misunderstanding and conflicts appear between the members of new youngs which led to the disintegration of the club, some members remain with new youngs and start afresh and official they call their club as “Yanga” in the same year 1935, while other member left and form their new club called “Queens ” which currently known as “Simba”

Yanga nicknamed as “Wananchi” (Citizens) or (Young Boys). Young Africans reside at Jangwani Dar es salaam and their cross-city rivals Simba, the club play their home games at Mkapa stadium and Uhuru stadium. 

The club has won 22 league titles  and four domestic cups, and have participated in multiple CAF Champions league. They also have won the CECAFA Club Championship five times.

Yanga Squad
Yanga Head Coach Mr. Cedric Kaze
Yanga Fans Celebrate

5 skincare items to pack for travels

By Darlene Joshua – Art in Tanzania internship

 Travelling can bring a ton of changes to our daily routines and lifestyles. Flying into different time zones, or simply driving through polluted areas can have a huge impact on your skin. Dehydration, puffy eyes, and breakouts can all result from these changes. Consequently, it is critical to take right skin care products with you that will preserve your skin through this lifestyle change.

 So, you have a few days before you go on your trip, you are surfing through the web to find the right skin care products but find yourself overwhelmed with thousands – if not millions – of skin care options. The last thing you need is to feel exasperated about which product to take with you. 

An attractive young woman applying cream to her face

 A few multi-functional and high-quality products are all you need to enjoy a worry-free trip while preserving your healthy skin. We have compiled a few products that will make a big difference in your trip. No longer so you have to worry about skin breakouts, flakiness, or dull skin.

  1. Face mist 

If your skin is prone to dryness and puffiness then a rejuvenating mist is sure to cure this skin problem. The Protective Dust Screen Mist by Accoje is a highly effective option because it is free from harsh chemicals like paraben and alcohol. Its triple protection technology forms a protective barrier on the skin to prevent micro-particles from clogging your pores. It is best suited for travels where your skin will be exposed to dust. All you need to do is spray it directly on your face and enjoy long hours of moisturized, and supple skin. As we have said before, skin care is a solemn ritual. Including a mist in your travel bag and replenishing skin moisture should top the list. 

 2) Face packs 

Face masks are great additions to any skincare regimen to target specific skin care issues. Face Masks are especially beneficial if you are headed to warm or hot destinations. Being in a humid environment means you will perspire more, sweat cannot dry up, leaving the skin feeling warm and sticky. This makes facial skin vulnerable to infections and breakouts. Masks can help restore skin’s PH balance, remove excess oils and tighten the skin pores. Face packs come in containers.

and you may need to travel light- especially in road trips. The Missha Pure Source Pocket Pack is a commendable product that comes in a compact size. Comes with a variety of textures and extracts like pomegranate, green tea, and shea butter. With gel like and thick creamy textures, you can choose from this range the one that best suits your skin type. 

3) Light facial oils 

Need a moisturizer that will keep the PH of your skin balanced even when you are out on a long walk on a sunny day? Then choose the WONDER Black Rice Facial Oil by Haru Haru Wonder a light weight and fast absorbing formula that does not leave a greasy residue on your face. Prolonged exposure to the sun or extreme winds and cold can cause evaporation of moisture from the skin and may lead to dry skin – this applies to all skin types. So if you are going to a place where you will be out in the sun all day this face oil is for you. Formulated with sweet almond, jojoba oil which promote collagen synthesis, soothes irritated skin and keeps it hydrated. this product immediately revives the skin’s elasticity. 

4) Sun blockers 

A sun-kissed glowing face looks amazing in Instagram pictures! But skin suffers a lot when constantly exposed to the harmful ultraviolet rays while you are basking at the beach. To prevent skin inflammation, pigmentation, and reddened skin it is absolutely necessary to pack your sunscreen with you. The Rovectin Double tone-up UV Protector SPF50+ PA++++ is an option; a mineral sunscreen infused with Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide. SPF50+ acts as a protective barrier on your skin by blocking 98% of ultraviolet rays. Vitamin E stimulates cell reproduction and fights free radicals, most importantly it traps moisture in your skin. Ideal for teen-age to mature skin, pack this for yourself and your mom. 

5) More Sun-protection 

They say you can never have too much sunscreen, and that is the truth! After a long day out doors your skin will still need to be replenished. Extra UV protection, moisturization, calmness and softness are just what your skin needs. Choose I’M REPAIR AFTER SUN soothing cream by Suntique because it provides a major boost of hydration. Infused with panthenol, it improves the skin’s elasticity, and smooth appearance. This is beneficial to the skin after spending the day outdoor where your skin is exposed to the hot sun or cold weather. It is an effective treatment for all skin types with special mention of ageing and dehydrated skin. 

A compact bag with all these items is all you need to maintain a youthful appearance and a room somewhere. They will cater to your skin problems while you enjoy the road trip and let you be free from worries. With all these products that we tried on, why wont you have all the fun? 

Celebrities who influence and inspire youth in Tanzania

By Joffrey Kabobe – Art in Tanzania Internships

1. Diamond Platnumz

Diamond Platnumz also known as SIMBA start his hustling of music in the street of Tandale- Dar es salaam. Diamond met with producer Bob Junior who introduce him to the music industry of Bongofleva by producing and recording the first hit song titled “Nenda kamwambie”. Diamond Platnumz in 2014 met with Davido and record the remix of Number one song which made him famous to all over Africa. Diamond is a CEO of wasafi record label called WCB, CEO of wasafi media and zoom production. So his hard work and hustle influence and inspire many young people in Tanzania and even in Africa at large, diamond is a role model to many youth of this generation. 

2. Alikiba

Many of his fans they call him Kingkiba , he is recording artist and vocalist from Tanzania. Alikiba is the owner of Kings Music Label which currently signed two artists namely Abdu Kiba and Tommy Flavour. In 2017 he became the director of Rockstar 4000. Alikiba first album titled “Cinderella ” made him famous in Tanzania and all-over East Africa, he is one of the biggest celebrities in Tanzania that influence and inspire youth in Tanzania.

3. Nancy Sumari 

Nancy Abraham Sumari is a Tanzanian author, business woman and social entrepreneur. Nancy Sumari was miss Tanzania (2005) and later she competed at miss world 2005 where she placed in top 6 and won the title of continental Queen of Africa for 2005. Nancy Sumari influences many youths in Tanzania due to the fact that she is hardworking woman who own Bongo 5 media Group Ltd, she is the executive director of the Neghasti Sumari Foundation and Jenga Hub. So Nancy is a pride to many youth in Tanzania who looking into her as their role model.

4. Millard Ayo

Millard Afrael Ayo is the founder of Ayo Tv company Limited which runs millardayo.com . Millard Ayo before own a television and a blog he started working with ITV and Radio one (IPP Media Group) in 2008 where he hosted different programs and being paid mostly salary of 300,000/= . Years pass Millard Ayo start to grow and be famous all over Tanzania whereby he joins Clouds Media Grop in 2010 up to date. Millard he is one of the celebrity that influence many young people in Tanzania who aspire him and be inspired by him in many things apart from his profession of journalists.

5. Nandy 

She is Tanzanian musician who own a label of African princess and other business such as Nandy Bridal and Nandy meat. Nandy inspire a lot of youth in Tanzania because she is a real Hustler and hardworking woman who hustle from nothing to something which made her to stay at the top. She is a self-made who own houses, cars and different businesses.  Nandy is a role model of many youth in Tanzania 

Existing problems with using a Title Deed as a Collateral in Tanzania

By Marina Joseph – Art in Tanzania Internships

When a business has cash flow problems, it fails to operate efficiently as its financial capacity is not stable. Most businesses to overcome such cash needs turn to the form of a line of credit, which means having to secure the loan with collateral in order to obtain this financing. Asset-based lending allows companies to borrow money based on the liquidation value of assets on its balance sheet. Common assets that are provided as collateral for an asset-based loan include physical assets like real estate, land, properties, company inventory, equipment, machinery, vehicles, or physical commodities. 

This method has become one of the easiest ways for small businesses to get quick cash in order to continue operating. This is due to the fact that asset-based lending is not as demanding as other methods a business can use to get a loan. There are several problems concerned with using a title deed as collateral. A title deed is a legal deed or document constituting evidence of a right, especially to ownership of property. The following present themselves as the risks involved

  • Repossession

The chance of loosing a valuable asset is always likely in such cases. Failure to repay the loan gives the lender the right to repossess the asset that was used as collateral against said loan and sell it. At times, the lender makes a profit especially for those assets whose value keep on increasing such as land or business premises. A borrower then risks losing a very valuable asset which could have been used to bring about business growth in the near future. Sometimes the collateral listed may not be enough to cover the default loan a lender is then forced to seize other valuable assets of the borrower to recover the amount in full.  

  • Diminishes credit score

When a business reaches a point to use its own asset as collateral that strongly suggests it is financially unstable. A good credit score means an entity will be able to submit the loan repayment on time. However, even if you repay an asset-based loan on time, it won’t improve your credit score.  

  • Regular Monitoring of assets

The need to monitor the performance of collateral on an ongoing basis makes asset-based lending labor intensive, often requiring a significant investment in information systems and specialized personnel who have intimate knowledge of the borrower’s business. A borrower will be forced to write reports about the condition of the asset every now and then. In fact, the lender may even dictate on how you are supposed to use the asset to make sure that it does not have wear and tear. This process can be long and tiring.

  • Over Mortgaging

         Another great risk of placing assets as collateral for the loans is over mortgaging.  The use of real estate or land as collateral will result into the borrower owing more on the loans than what they really have in        equity. If the value of the apartments goes down, then the lender will be forced to take more collateral from borrower in order to recover their money. For instance, there comes a time when the real estate market experiences a downfall. When this equates with the business failing to repay the loan, then the lender will sell the collateral in question and if not enough cash is yielded to cover the loan does not, then more and more      property will have to be seized by the lender in order to recover the money. 

  • Lower Valuations

A lender looks at an asset and how quickly it can convert to cash which means they will always lower the value of collateral in question. Any property presented as a collateral should be correctly valued with a due diligence process and experts to avoid such practices that hurt the borrower.

  • Higher Costs

Compared to traditional loans, asset-based loans do cost more. Some banks or other financial institutions want the borrower to provide very detailed information about the asset being used as collateral for the loan. Business owners are to give very concrete information about the current value of the asset in question and the depreciation rate of the asset. Gathering all that information is an expense on its own and thus increase the cost of the loan. On the other hand, some banks may charge audit fees, diligence fees and the interest rate on the loan. When it comes to a traditional loan, the only thing that is charged by a bank is the interest rate and nothing else.

  • Not all Properties/assets qualify

A lender or financial institution mostly want a borrower to give an asset which has a higher value, low depreciation rate and is easily convertible into liquid cash. This shows that not every asset will meet all these conditions. For an asset to qualify, it has to be of high value, low depreciation rate or high appreciation rate and easily convertible into cash. Those are the conditions that make an asset to be used as collateral when it comes to asset-based lending.

Solar Panels – the future of electricity in Tanzania

Electricity has been named by many Tanzanians as the biggest inhibitor for success.

Tanzania has the largest population in East Africa, estimated at 52,482,726, with a very high annual population growth rate of 2.77%. 31.6% of the population lives in an urban area, leaving an estimated 35,897,237 people residing in rural areas. Access to improved drinking water sources is available to 55.6% of the total population, with just about 3/4 of these people living in urban areas. 46.8% of Tanzanians have unimproved drinking water sources, the majority of which reshopside in rural areas. With regards to improved sanitation facilities, 15.6% of the population utilizes them, leaving 84.4% of Tanzanians with access to solely unimproved sanitation facilities.

Access to safe drinking water and the use of improved sanitation facilities are used as measurements for the development and overall well being of a country. Improved drinking water sources include piped household water collection, as well as access to protected dug wells, springs, and rainwater collection. Unimproved drinking water sources are unprotected dug wells and springs, along with bottled water and tankered truck water.

598351_10151100231971930_978032409_n-300x199Compared to the world average of 89% of the total population having access to improved drinking water, Tanzania has fallen majorly behind. While taking into account the use of improved sanitation facilities as a means for measuring development, Tanzania also lacks due to the fact that the majority of the population is not able to ensure hygienic separation of human excretion from human contact. Finally, just over 75% of Tanzanians live without electricity, and rely on toxic kerosene or diesel generators for lighting.

Current National Grid and Electricity Access

The current national power grid in Tanzania is summarized as inefficient because of its inability to provide power to the majority of the population. Powered by fossil fuels and hydroelectric, the lines exist in the northern and eastern part of the country and sparsely in the south, but are nonexistent in the more rural west. Increased access to the national grid is at the extremely slow growth rate of 1% per year. Furthermore, in many cases people whose homes are connected to the national grid still do not receive electricity. With the expansion of the national grid, many site unreliable energy supplies and poor quality of supply as great problems. Furthermore, it is expensive to extend the national grid and distribution systems due to a lack of government funding.

charcoalOver three quarters of the population live without access to electricity, and many Tanzanians rely on charcoal for cooking and firewood collection. Currently, one of the largest threats to deforestation in Tanzania is the collection of firewood for fuel. In addition to this, the dirty smoke emitted from charcoal fires leads to many chest and lung problems. Electricity has been named by many Tanzanians as the biggest inhibitor for  success. This takes into account the fact that shopkeepers have to close their doors early due to a lack of light, schools can not operate outside of daylight hours, and many medical facilities have to send patients to farther locations for certain tests and operations.

A Solution for Developmentsolarpanel

Off-grid solar panels are small and durable. They are able to manage enough power to charge cell phones, lights, and other basic necessities. The main advantage to off-grid solar panels is their flexibility, both geographically and economically. Off- grid solar panels can also be implemented into improved drinking water consumption through solar water purifiers and well systems with solar powered pumps. Solar panel cookers will also help reduce the use of nonrenewable fuel sources, therefore greatly improving Tanzanians standard of living.

The environmental advantages of implementing solar panels are enumerable. Tanzania  has the unique opportunity to rapidly reduce the amount of nonrenewable energy sources, by going directly to a solar powered future. With their rapidly growing population a new market of energy consumption will emerge that could be completely fulfilled through solar panels, as opposed to largely contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. Solar is dropping in price and beginning to compete with nonrenewable forms of energy. The World Bank energy data states that it costs 20 cents per kilowatt hour for solar, compared to 25 cents for fuel.

Implementation

img_3075Utilizing smaller off-grid solar panels fits the budgets of rural Tanzanians. People can put the money that would have originally been spent on fuel to finance their solar systems. Microfinance organisations are now  lending to allow householders to buy solar panels. The total installation
of the average off-grid solar panel can cost up to $1,000. However, locals are able to pay smaller installments through their mobile phones in order to eventually cover the entire cost. Payments such as these average around 20c a day, or can be made into larger monthly installments.

Establishing off-grid solar panel networks also offers a plethora of employment opportunities to locals. Over the next decade it is predicted that the renewable energy sector will become one of the largest employers in Africa. The leading seller of off-grid solar panels is creating on average 40 new jobs per month. Companies such as Solar Sister are offering more opportunities to women, and developing communities through leveling gender inequality. Furthermore, off-grid systems often utilize existing means of transportation to get their product to rural areas. The local jobs created through installation and equipment distribution are greatly adding to the development of Tanzania.

Challengessolarpack

As with any new program challenges will arise. The main concern for new solar panel companies is being able to secure their loan payments from customers. This can be achieved through mobile payments, which allow financiers to receive small regular pay installments. After paying the installation fee, customers are able to continue to pay for the rest of the total over time. This ensures that lenders will not lose money, because they are able to remotely lock and unlock the solar panel systems, based on the customer’s repayments. Offering the option to lease the solar panels further enhances the customer’s willingness to pay the smaller fees, while allowing lenders to have collateral. With nearly every Tanzanian having access to a cell phone, mobile payments for solar panels is an effective solution.

Sustainable operation of the solar panels is another issue that must be addressed initially. In order to have a sustainable operation it is important to establish infrastructure within the locations that the solar panels will be used. In order to cut costs, it is viable to use already
existing modes of transportation to deliver the product. Various solar panel companies have installed trackers in their products, ensuring that the panels reach their destination while traveling through third party delivery systems such as trains, city buses, and local delivery people.

Maintenance must be upheld through the education of local employees. While training local people on the installation and upkeep of the solar panels, awareness of the product would also expand. This would in turn create more jobs and boost local Tanzanian economies. Overall, when the solar panel companies work with local citizens they not only save money, but help the development of the country.

There are many new innovations with regards to anti theft lock devices for solar panels. These lock devices can be bought separately, or included in the initial solar panel purchase, and often consist of bolts or locks to secure each individual solar panel. Through the expansion of more secure solar panels, the reduction in stolen products will be significant, and the security of investments greatly improved.

small-solarThe final problem is managing parts of the solar panels after they are no longer functional. The biggest issue is recycling old GEL-type, lead type, and smaller lithium type batteries. Dar es Salaam City alone produces around 3,000 tons of waste per day. With this in mind, recycling old products is important to the environmental sustainability of installing solar panels.

The Recycler, Tanzania’s main source of recycling, is able to collect and store electronic waste. Getting a local organisation such as this would be a convenient option. In addition to this, there are a few international organisations that do work on recycling unusable products of solar panels. Companies such as PV Cycle are operating on a non-profit business model worldwide. They often establish global markets, and may prove to be useful in recycling solar panel batteries in Tanzania.

Furthermore, the implementation of solar panels and their usage of batteries could open a new market in Tanzania, one focused on the recycling of solar panel products. This market could be very profitable, as well as extremely environmentally conscious, because around 90% of the material recovered from solar panels and their batteries can be recycled into useful products.

Current Funding

Most solar panel organisations have received funding from a variety of sources. The Rural Energy Agency of Tanzania, operating under the Ministry of Energy and Minerals, works to promote access to modern energy in rural locations throughout the country. They provide resources for grants, technical assistance, and financial assistance in the form of investments for different renewable energy projects. This agency spends approximately $400million a year on supporting various clean energy sources.

International donors also help offset the cost of development and installation of solar panels throughout Tanzania. Organisations such as the World Bank, Overseas Private Investment Corporation, USAID Development Innovation Ventures Program, and The International Finance Corporation have made major investments in this growing industry. The IFC has so far provided $7 million in order to reach over 100,000 households in Tanzania. Private international investors all around the world are beginning to see the profits in investing in solar panel technology. In 2014 more than $45 million was invested by private investment companies in the off-grid solar sector, and that number has continued to grow.

As a result of the numerous ways in which solar panels will help with the development of Tanzania, and in line with the ever growing globalization of our world, it is clear that investing and supporting off-grid solar panels is a profitable and worthy venture.

Text: Stephanie Gray
Environmental Sustainability Intern, Art in Tanzania

Photos: Marjut Valtanen

Sources:

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tz.html

https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/global/assessing.html

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/tz.html

http://blogs.worldbank.org/africacan/only-14-of-tanzanians-have-electricity-what-can-be-done

Click to access Brief-Digitally-Financed-Energy-Mar-2016.pdf

http://www.pvcycle.org/services/global/

http://phys.org/news/2014-08-recycling-batteries-solar-cells.html

http://rea.go.tz/Projects/TheRuralEnergyFund/tabid/150/Default.aspx

http://fortune.com/2015/12/22/off-grid-solar-africa-booming/

Donations to An-Nabawiya Nursery School

school2 SebastienBeunA small nursery in the village of Fuoni, pronounced An – na – Ba – wee –yah, built in 2012 by Ms Asia Issa Jecha and Mr Hassan Mwinyi kombo as part of a women’s project.

The school is run by 6 local teachers who devote their time from 07:30 in the morning to 12:00pm, five days a week, in order to help educate the young local children. The school initially had 93 students and now have at least 100 local children who attend the nursery for free. The nursery building is also used from 19:00 to 20:00 for private tuition classes; these are held by different teachers.

teaching3-SebastienBeunThe children learn English, Maths, Science, Swahili, Arabic, Art and Religious Studies. Art in Tanzania have been involved with the nursery since 2014 and have provided a total number of 10 volunteers who have helped teach the children and also assisted the local teachers, by, for example, providing them with one to one English lessons.

The first day we visited the nursery was to deliver four benches that were kindly donated by a former Swedish volunteer; altogether there are four classrooms, however, all four of the benches were placed in one classroom. The aim is to fill all four classrooms with these little benches so that all of the children can benefit and enjoy learning in a comfortable environment. All the children wanted to sit on them and were extremely excited and happy with the generous donation.

When we went to visit the nursery again, we spoke to the head teacher, Mrs Latifa Mahfoudh, a stunning and pleasant woman who you could see loved working with the children and had always had a passion for teaching; we sat down and had a long chat at about the nursery and what her ambitions were for the nursery and its students.

Latifa pointed out some of the improvements to the actual building that needed to be carried out; a new roof was needed as the current one leaked, new windows were needed as well as a more stable and safer wall/fence around the parameters of the school with a gate, in order to keep the children safe and protected. Two of the classrooms were not plastered so it was impossible to provide a more pleasant environment for the children to learn in, as you can see from the pictures, the classrooms were dark and unpleasant, even with the sun blazing outside. The nursery also needed to build new toilets for the little boys and girls to use.

As well as the children’s facilities, Latifa showed us her own office, which really does need some attention, it would help her to have a proper carpet that covered all of the floor, new stable chairs and shelves so that when volunteers or guests come, they too can use the office and have a pleasant and clean workspace to work in, without feeling your chair is going to giveaway any second! Latifa would also like to go on computer courses and get computer for her office to make her work easier.

Upon our return, three volunteers, Louise Proctor, Claire Manning and Elizabeth Drey flew out to Zanzibar from Ireland and brought with them a very generous donation of over £4000 for the nursery; with their help and local workers, building work has now commenced, with a new roof and plastering. The work on the wall/fence will be started next, and then the new windows will be fitted. The donations will also help to build new toilets for the little boys and girls. A further £3296 has been donated by Whitney Harris-Linton from Michigan (£77 put towards the roof), Melissa Wolsley from Findlay, Australia (donated £99 for a black board to be fitted in the classroom) £2600 and £520 have also been donated from more kind donators. The money given will be used to finish renovating the school and any money left over will be used on a new project in Madale, Dar-Es-Salam, subject to the donors consent.

kiswahili sebastienIf you would like to volunteer at the nursery or donate; your time, skills, money, toys, stationary or school equipment, do contact Edward Busungu at Art in Tanzania and get involved, it certainly is a fantastic project and the children and staff are simply delightful to be around.

If you do wish to teach at the school, we would recommend spending more than two weeks, as this will enable you to build a much better rapport with the children and staff, allowing them to put into practice what you teach and you will be able to witness the difference that your presence can make in their lives and futures.

 

Al – Quwiyyi Islamic School

A private Islamic school in the village of Fuoni, named after the founder’s, Mr Hakeem Abdullah, families tribe name in Mafia, pronounced Al Qu-wee.

The school was opened on Monday 13th January 2014 after four months of preparations. The school has 24 classes, providing nursery to secondary education to approximately 600 local students.

Art in Tanzania has been working with Al – Quwiyyi since 2015 sending volunteers to teach the children Maths, English and Science or to simply assist teachers in a range of subjects and look after the children in the classroom.

School days are Monday to Friday 07:00 to 13:00 – lunch is at 13:00. From 14:00 to 22:30 the school operates Madrassa classes for approximately 250 students. Any volunteers, who can deliver or assist in teaching Arabic, Quran, Tajweed and Fiqh will be most welcomed. The school would ideally like volunteers to stay longer than two weeks to teach, to enable the volunteers to build a great rapport with the children and staff.

If volunteers are here for a short stay or did not want to teach, they can choose to assist with cooking lunch or assist in the school’s stationary and snack shop

The founder of the school, Mr Abdullah, has an ambitious plan to build a boarding school with a Masjid, female and male hostel plus accommodation for workers in the near future, he is currently liaising with officials for a suitable plot of land. Support with this project would be welcomed from international organisations to help make his vision a reality. You can contact the school directly at alquwiyyi@hotmail.com.

If you would like to volunteer at the nursery or donate; your time, skills, money, toys, stationary or school equipment, do contact Edward Busungu at Art in Tanzania and get involved, this is a fantastic school with friendly students with great ambitions and dreams you can be a part of.

Please note that this is an Islamic school so if you do wish to volunteer be mindful of the way you dress, wearing modest clothing, by way of covering your arms, legs and your hair, would be appreciated by all the staff.

Helping the kids in Yusuf School

YusufFounded by Yusuf Kombo Juma, a father of six children, who witnessed the problems and challenges of education and set out on a mission to tackle the issue, he sold his own land and properties and got creative in raising money in order to fund his vision.

Yusuf started his school with just one nursery class with 30 local children in 2010, this then grew each year and now the school has two nursery classes and five secondary classes with 95 local children attending the school for 8000 TZS per month, the eldest students are aged 13. The school runs from 07:30 to 12:00/ 12:45 for the older students. There are seven local teachers. Yusuf is hoping to build another classroom for those older than this, but will need funds to build it.

donatedArt in Tanzania has been working with this school since 2011; they helped expand the school from one class room to what it is now, through Art in Tanzania two volunteers have helped out for three months, helping the students and the teachers also, a volunteer from the UK taught the teachers ways of teaching for two weeks which the teachers found very helpful. Yusuf said that good education brings in more students so volunteers are very much welcomed to help support in whichever way they can.

girl school-SebastienBeunChildren of all faiths attend the school and learn, Maths, English, Science, Swahili, Arabic and some learn about Islam. There will be opportunities to teach the children different languages, such as French and German if volunteers wished to do so. If you don’t want to teach you can simply provide help and support for the children and teachers, you could even set up clubs or different activities for the children, there is something for everyone.

In order to expand the school, Yusuf wishes to buy the plot of land next to the school building to create three new classes for the school. For this he requires 4 million TZS (approximately £1450) to buy the land, and then 3 million TZS (approximately £1060) to build one classroom.

DSC04539Yusuf also has an ambition to build a centre for children near the Yusuf school on a plot of land he already owns, this would provide shelter and education for orphans in need. To build around five rooms Yusuf would require around 9 million TZS (approximately £3200) the centre would then need, beds and other furnishings to provide for the children living in the centre.

Yusuf spoke about how some of the children come to school in really bad conditions; these children need support in many ways, not just teaching.

If you would like to volunteer at this school, or to donate, stationary, teaching material, desks, chairs, clothes for the children, bags or office equipment you time or money, get in touch with Edward Busungu at Art in Tanzania for more information.

 

We need to think more about social issues

Bryan was experiencing Finnish countryside while his visit last year.

Bryan was experiencing Finnish countryside while his visit last year.

Bryan Mushi has just graduated from Moshi University College of Cooperative and Business Studies where he studied micro-financing and enterprise development. He visited Finland last year as part of the Finnish North-South-South Programme called SWAN that aims to improve social work and education. At the same time with Bryan one other participant from Tanzania, 2 from Kenya and 2 from Ethiopia also visited Finland for 2 months.

The six participants were visiting different cities and Universities of Applied Sciences to do their theoretical part and practical internships. Based on his studies Bryan seems an unlikely candidate for social sector exchange, but he thinks his visit to Finland was worthwhile.

– This project is very nice and we need more this kind of programs. In Tanzania we have forgotten social issues and that welfare should be first priority. I realized that I need to change from certain person to another and think more about social issues, Bryan says.

He was doing his theoretical studies in Centria on the business school side and did his practical internship in Koivuhaka family center and Finnish Red Cross second-hand shop called Kontti. He found internship at the family center challenging due to the language barrier, but he liked working in Kontti as it taught him about social business.

– In Koivuhaka there were many families from South-Sudan and they only spoke Arabic or Finnish, so it was difficult to communicate. In Kontti we were learning how to make displays and other things related to the shop-keeping. We should have similar shops here because maybe I am tired of my shirt, but someone else could like it. People could donate the things they don’t need any more to support an organization doing good for the community, he explains.

Bryan met with Helga Mutasingwa, a local volunteer, in Art in Tanzania campus in Madale. They both have recently graduated from university.

Bryan met with Helga Mutasingwa, a local volunteer, in Art in Tanzania campus in Madale. They both have recently graduated from university.

Bryan is looking back at his experience in Finland and thinking about his future in Tanzania. His biggest learnings were about different lifestyles of people and different behaviors, and this has had an impact on how he sees his future.

– I have many things in my mind now when thinking about the future: maybe I am going back to school in few years and learn First Aid and go volunteer at a refugee camp. We should continue this SWAN Programme and raise more awareness about social issues. People need to see how good social services work, Bryan tells, but he is not just thinking about serious things. – Finland is a very nice place to be from Thursday to Saturday, he laughs.

What is SWAN Programme

SWAN is Finnish North-South-South exchange programme for Social Work and Social Sciences Africa Network. The project started in June 2014 and is running to the end of 2015. During this time students and teachers from participating countries and universities have been in exchange programs in different places learning about each country’s social services at local level and social sector education.

The main goal of SWAN project is to improve social work and education of social studies and to build a network and cooperation between Higher Education Institutes, Non-governmental Organizations, local government and communities. The main focus of this project is on the welfare of the most vulnerable families and children by empowering them and providing opportunities to participate

The coordinating university is Centria University of Applied Sciencies and in Finland there are eight other Universities of Applied Sciences involved in the project (Jyväskylä, Lapland, Kymenlaakso, Lahti, Laurea, Mikkeli, Savonia and Seinäjoki). In Africa cooperative universities are Tanzanian Moshi University College of Cooperative and Business Studies, Kenyan Maseno University and Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. Art in Tanzania is an NGO participating in the project by offering coordination support and team leadership in Moshi, Tanzania. Local government is represented by Moshi Municipality, Community Development and Social Work Department.