By Rosemary Balyagati – Art in Tanzania internship
Menstruation (also termed period or bleeding) is the process in a woman of discharging (through the vagina) blood and other materials from the lining of the uterus at about one monthly interval, from puberty until menopause (ceasing of regular menstrual cycles), except during pregnancy. This discharging process lasts about 3-5 days.
What are the signs and symptoms of menstruation?
Beside the bleeding, other signs and symptoms of menstruation may include headache, acne, bloating, pains in the low abdomen, tiredness, mood changes, food cravings, breast soreness and diarrhea.
When does menstruation begin? When does it end?
The menstrual cycle is a hormonal driven cycle; day 1 is the first day of your period (bleeding) while day 14 is the approximate day you ovulate, if an egg is not fertilized hormone levels eventually drop and at about day 25 the egg begins to dissolve, and the cycle begins again with the period at about day 30. Menstruation begins day 1 and normally ends days 3-5 of the menstrual cycle.
The average age for a girl to get her first period in the range of age is about 8 to 15 years old. Women usually have periods until about ages 45 to 55.
So at this average age of her first period is the time for menstrual hygienic education has to be given to girls.
Importance of menstrual hygienic education at adolescences stage.
Menstruation is a basic right for women and girls around the world, in many countries there are huge barriers to Menstrual Hygienic education for girls living in poverty. Menstrual hygienic education is essential in ensuring girls get the support they need on their periods and to able to ask questions about menstrual challenges. Menstrual hygienic education is a step towards removing shame from talking about periods for many girls in countries like Tanzania.
Menstruation is seen as taboo in Tanzania; therefore girls feel uncomfortable talking to family, peers and teachers, let alone attending school during their cycle. Most girls during their menstrual period experience stigmatization, this excludes girls from learning about their own bodies and from opportunities to learn about hygiene and use of sanitary products.
Lack of sexual education in schools, particularly in Tanzania, means that boys add to the stigma around periods. Girls are embarrassed by comments made by boys who do not understand menstruation. Menstrual hygienic Education is the key for both male and female students to aid in eradicating period poverty.
Menstrual hygienic education breaks down the barriers faced by girls in Tanzania and many other developing countries. Cultural barriers often stand in the way of providing girls with knowledge and ability to manage their periods, therefore menstrual education provides an open space to break down taboos. By normalizing menstrual education schools will become better equipped with period-friendly toilets and sexual education classes that will benefit all students.
By James Mathew Mgaya – Art in Tanzania internship
The movement of microfinance is started since 19th centaury in the time of European Union and the creation of modern microfinance in Bangladeshi social entrepreneur Muhammad Yunus in 1983, microfinance was simultaneously created. In 1983, Yunus established Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. The goal of Grameen Bank was to initially provide small loans to entrepreneurs. Microfinance is all about financing low-income earner like food venders (mama lishe), farmers, poor communities, micro- enterprises.
We call them low-income earner to financial service providers, but the nature of this industry is too slow and small in fact they misunderstood it with banking services, but they are so different aspect. Moreover, Microfinance is likely to be called micro-credit or micro-loan which most users are low-income earner while apparently women in Tanzania perspective. In rural areas, they are usually small farmers and others who are engaged in small income-generating activities such as an anti-poverty tool for the people living in rural areas. It claims to assisting communities of the economically excluded to achieve greater level of asset creation and income security to eradicate poverty in Tanzania at the household and community level which is not achieved as it initially aimed.
Many microfinance institutions currently operating in urban areas than rural areas. Microfinance are known to Its reputation of helping low-income households to stabilize their income flows and save for future needs; observing facts are too slow build up existence of Microfinance institutions to rural areas are yet to focus to rural areas while remain with poverty and these kinds of financial services remain unknown to other rural and remote areas. Furthermore, microfinance may help families, farms, and small businesses to prosper, and at times of crisis it can help them cope and rebuild rural communities if introduced and operated in these remote areas.
It is must to be regulated by central bank in Tanzania and have mandate to any financial services provider especially Microfinance is well regulated under BoT but also their National Microfinance policy and other supervisory framework. The emphasis on them is too low as for presence of commercial banks with their innovative product which interfered Microfinance financial services. It’s not bad notion since it is competitive and commercial era, but it seizes to suppress these micro capital institutions to its existence. In good formality must learn to co- exist as alpha be alpha (BoT) and beta doing beta thing (commercial banks) and let omega enjoy the fruits of being omega (Microfinance institution); this interruption redirects the main purpose of microfinance and it main objective in Tanzania.
According to “mondaq.com ” The Bank of Tanzania (the BoT) exercising its powers under section 60(1) and (2) of the Microfinance Act of 2018 (the Act) has published the Microfinance (Non-Deposit Taking Microfinance Service Providers) Regulations of 2019 (the Regulations) among other regulations.” According to Finandlaw.co.tz which said The Central Bank of Tanzania (Bank of Tanzania) has finally issued the regulations governing Microfinance Business in Tanzania. The regulations come in trio containing, Microfinance (Non-Deposit Taking Microfinance Service Providers) Regulations 2019 (GN No. 679 of 2019), Microfinance (Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies) Regulations 2019 (GN No. 675 of 2019), The Microfinance (Community Microfinance Groups) Regulations 2019 GN No. 678 of 2019.Government view microfinance as powerful allied to combat poverty in Tanzania so they establish it regulate it , supervise it and governed it through Bank of Tanzania, some supervisory frameworks and policies.
Microfinance institutions in Tanzania appeared with three faces: first is Non- Governmental Organisation (NGO’s) which include PRIDE, FINCA, Vision Fund, SEDA, PTF etc. Another, banking services which offer similar range of micro- credit and some are large banks like NMB, CRDB, ACB, and most of regional banks and community banks are also providing these kinds of services like Kilimanjaro cooperative bank, Dar es salaam community bank, Mfindi community bank etc. Finally, cooperative based institutions here we are talking about SACCOS, SACCAS, AMCOS, VIKOBA etc. But not only them provide financial services that predominately as saving based and these are not regulated BoT these don’t work directly as financial institution as agency for poverty eradication includes SIDO, YOSEFO, SELFINA, and Poverty Africa and Zanzibar based Women Development Trust Fund.
Recent years their existence of e-banking or mobile banking institution which provide micro- credit to borrowers with access of internet and some no access of internet. In fact, some are not real financial institution but provide micro- credit and micro- saving like M-pawa through M-pesa, Tigopesa, Halopesa, etc. With those include online microfinance are like TALA, Branch, Timiza, TMF, easy loan, mkopo chap chap loan finder etc.
Source of fund and Operation
Source of financing microfinance so they say is from donors, SACCOS, Government, community based and bank loans. International donors play big part to fund institutions and NGO’s and provide not only substantial financial resources but even technical assistance to them. SACCOS and Community based are mostly use internal source of fund by collective fund measure toward membership that provide equal contribution and distribution and some time the get assistance from donors, government through subsides and noninterest loans, also the use banks loan which can be accessed.
Many microfinances operate though micro borrowing, but the market is widespread nowadays when involved the big guns like bank they tend to have saving. But may borrower’s ideology is not saving is about getting micro credit which is main purpose. Since then, microfinance drift to commercial more than serving low-income earner and eradicating poverty as government intended. Microfinance suppose to deal with poor and rural areas and urban, but many operations are urban centered which the get collaterals, easy to reach them than rural areas. The interest pricing can be high because most of the local microfinance providers borrow from bank for 10% to 20% this may lead for Microfinance to charge more than bank rate. Which make borrower to use commercial banks despite of many procedure but for some they still enjoy microfinance though they are affected by it.
There many developmental challenges faced by micro credit providers in Tanzania because is substantial to the backbone to low income and unemployed to enter economic activities. And these are some challenges.
Criticisms: their propaganda involve charging low rate and oversimplification of procedures than of those commercial banks. Most of them charge low interest of 1% up to 10% mostly with no transaction cost or restriction of having saving. This approaches and techniques cannot do by banks because they can not take risk on loan but to microcredit provider can offer loan for 24 hours, with national identity cards only, that made accessing loans to be very easy than using banks.
Beneficiaries of the benefits; the aim of microfinance institution by Dr Muhammad Yunnus and other idealist like US President Bill Clinton once said, “the poor are credit worthy and that micro financing effort can be self-sustainable, create growth and widespread peace.” But do poor benefit microcredit? All of this institution focusses on commercialize services drift away from it main purpose. These institutions target civil servant’s government officials by using lawson verdict. In large percent poor and rural areas are outreached and not capable of getting these services but other groups benefit these services.
Insolvent of financial services ingredients; financial literacy, trust issues, repayment measures and access to credit. Borrowers of microcredits are client of banks which have bank accounts in consumer perspective to have MFI’s account is not easy due to misunderstanding of financial services to offer savings as product so, also some low-income earners do not have that knowledge of saving. Trust issue faced by microfinance institutions about borrowers do trust these institution because of the and repayment measures are not comfortable to consumer as it’s recovery is not smooth transaction the fact that the collateral they use are home furniture’s and some time employer’ concerned this bring fear among borrowers and also institution , targeted poorest people are not able to access credit for claims of geographical and socio economic factor for MFI’s not able to reach them at large; remoteness is fact but also repayment capacity of these projected clients like in rural areas. Inaccessibility of credits in areas and nature of competition and profit oriented with business ideology have made them urban centered mind to the point of loss of clients who uses bank services.
The developmental outreach of microfinance institutions is reasonable nowadays which can be accessed through e-banking or known as sim banking/ mobile banking, google apps, telecommunication company services even in the phones so it increases number of borrowers to the easy access to credit. Increase of digital services to borrowers reduce time consuming to loan procedures, it establishes more easily accessible micro loans and other services. Women empowerment is achieved in large number of entrepreneurs are women nowadays. Microfinance institutions boost economy as financial tool to eradicate poverty among urban areas and rural areas, low-income earner are motivated to borrow an start micro enterprises to build their individual / household provision this is baby steps to development. Competitive market goes with using of technology which open so many unemployment problem and easy access of services and availability of many and different product because of increase of Microfinance Institution and financial services providers. Reasonable and competitive pricing of interest for some MFI’s who use donors and subsidies they offer low interest that benefit customers to encourage other client to apply for credit. Innovative products which have different package like mortgages, leasing of buildings, machines, vehicles and furniture and many other uses for loan.
What should be done?
Most of MFI’s must mobilize savings to client to reduce dependence of international donors which lead to good management of savings and to use them to the loan portfolio and building stable source of fund that expanding operations base on Microfinance institution. There is financial inclusion towards Microfinance institution and borrower or low-income earner to overlook individuals and micro enterprises to access financial services according to income level that maybe useful and affordable financial products and services that meet their needs to smooth transactions, suitable payment methods and approaches, potential savings, available and accessible credit, and insurance to be delivered in a responsible and sustainable technique like online.
Return to basics of Micro finance purpose; the idea of microfinance is to provide financial services to poor households, microenterprises, women, and youth so as government to reach the goals. There notion says “Poor people need not just loans but also savings, insurance and money transfer services.”
Coping with economic and political environment; economic policies like millennium development goals and sustainable development goals these change in time with political interest of the country. Monetary policy has been accommodative to support credit and economic growth, as it was supportive to poverty eradication as goal number one and decent work and economic growth. Microfinance institutions needs to consider the political environment when creating business strategies. The entire political environment includes looking at government policies and the risk and instability of current political factors and current political party in power, the degree of politicization effectiveness and efficiency of the current government, government policies, current legal framework, the public attitude towards the economy.
Professionalism: expertise in Microfinance institution is very important that can make industry is moving very fast as India’s microfinance sector is fragmented with more than 3000 microfinance institutions in India are estimated to account for almost 74 per cent of the total loans outstanding. The work of expertise it means put right person for right job with standards, awareness, and practises in microfinance sector.
Upon the creation of microcredit by Bangladeshi social entrepreneur Muhammad Yunus in 1983, microfinance was simultaneously created. In 1983, Yunus established Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. The goal of Grameen Bank was to initially provide small loans to entrepreneurs. When the movement gain momentum globally: Tanzania 1980’s adopted Microfinance institution as the proper tool to reduce poverty, allowing poor citizens from lower socio-economical classes to participate in the building of country’s economy. Microfinance is a government strategy used to help Tanzanians to fight poverty by providing a variety of financial services to poor and low-income individuals who do not have access to banking and related services for the growth of economy to household level.
Then, GOD said Let Us make man in our image according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air and over cattle, over all earth and over creeping thing that creeps on the earth. So GOD created man in His own image, in the image of GOD he created him; male and female. Then GOD blessed them, be fruitful and multiply, fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves on the earth.
Recently the world has observed human activities that contribute on environmental destruction and leads to climate change. This situation has much been contributed by a lot of factors, some to be Demographically, Politically, Economically etc. Though different initiatives are continuing embarked by government, society, multiple organizations but still the nature and living organism reported to be at high risk of being exposed to unsafe living environments
What should be a man continuing effort on earth protection?
Man efforts depends on several factors which lies behind the policies made by those in power that enforce every human being take responsibility to protect our nature as per country regulation. But also policies itself are never enough to bring change, it also demand self awareness and self initiatives of every human to support those initiatives up on nature protection wisely and meet the will of GOD.
Some efforts which can be embarked by each member of community on protection are elaborated below…
Reduce, reuse and recycle: Cut down on what you throw away. Follow the three Rs to conserve natural resources and landfill space
Volunteer: Volunteer for cleanups in your community. You can get involved in protecting your watershed too
Educate: When you further your own education, you can help others understand the importance and value of our natural resources.
Conserve water: The less water you use, the less runoff and wastewater that eventually end up in ocean
Shop wisely: Buy less plastic and bring a reusable shopping bag
Use long lasting light bulbs: Energy efficient light bulbs reduce greenhouse gas emissions, also flip the lights switch off when you leave the room
Plant trees: Trees provide food and oxygen. They help save energy, clean the air and help combat climate change
Limit industrial sewage towards water sources: sewage contain a lot of chemicals of which tend to pollute water and even kills living organisms found in water sources
Bike more drive less
Discourage fire burning into farms and forest areas, illegal pouching, deforestation etc
Photo: climbing man around the mountain forests
Tunza mazingira Yakutunze… DBE Jane Goodall Nobel Prize, Un Peace Ambassador once said.
B Nyamboge Mwema Nyawangwe – Art in Tanzania internship
As well as it is known COVID-19 is a global pandemic in the whole world today. Tanzania is among one of the many countries that has been affected in many ways and one of the major areas is in the economic sector. Since last April to May 2020 there was a huge rise of cases regarding COVID-19 which led to lockdowns including shutting down of various public places like schools. The average has reduced highly since last year since and people are no longer quarantined, despite that, the recently new president ordered for more research/investigation with regard to COVID-19 and measures to prevent it from spreading are still taken. Despite Tanzanian boarders being still open several measures are still undertaken by the government and individuals to protect against the spread of COVID19. Some of these measures include the one’s set by WHO like wearing face masks, social distancing in public places and washing hands or using hand sanitizers.
Given the fact that majority of Tanzanian’s are backward economically and can’t afford means of protections such as hand sanitizers, face masks etc., this people are forced to stay at home as to avoid crowds, hence a lot of people have failed to keep up with their daily jobs. This is especially to rural people who are self-employed hence when they don’t work means no income generated and therefore reduction of expenses reducing general revenues. Some companies also have been forced to deduct workers’ salaries and also expel some workers as to keep up with the financial flows.
Despite the rate of COVID-19 gradually falling but other countries are still highly affected by the disease which is more likely contributing to affecting Tanzania economy, currently and the future. Some of the major areas directly linked with the economy have shown this impacts.
In Public financing/ Government.
The government is facing and will continue facing problem in public budgeting and social services delivery to its people, this is because it has increased demand for public expenditure mainly in procuring tools needed due to COVID-19 such as sanitizers, medical equipment’s and so forth. The government revenues are expected to keep failing due to variety in cash flow obtained in direct and indirect taxes, levies and fees. As it is known with COVID-19 most of companies decreased workers and also most of workers payments were declined also others were forced to stop working naturally due to factors within.
In tourism sector;
One of the major sources of the government income in Tanzania is through tourism. Which has far more tattered, very few tourists are coming to the country due to restrictions set in countries hence the demand has quite declined. The government has reckoned that this year probably only few tourists will come to Tanzania for the holidays which is about a quarter of the normal rate. Places like Zanzibar has been so much affected since most of their economy depend on tourism. The chain that links from the places that tourist visited and stayed like hotels to the people working there and the suppliers of products or services their jobs have frozen due lack of tourist.
Tanzania mostly depends on exported products and very few are made within. Trade global chains are disrupted, and some factories have been shut down, most of products are running out hence sellers lack products to sell and money circulation has been declining. Most of the country boundaries have been closed not allowing products to go out or come in for some time. This has also led to rise of prices of some products causing some people not to afford them which leaves these products unsold especially those that are not basic needs or that are luxurious products. Export and import of products has been generally affected due to shutdown of some factories which has highly affected the economy.
In banks and financial institutions;
This are among major helpers of the economy that have been highly affected due to COVID-19, there has been reduction of bank deposits given all factors generated that has causes slow generation of income, Foreign financial flows have fallen due to no transactions of money from other countries due to the lockdown hence lack of foreign currency within, also there has been deterioration between the customers and bank relationships since it has been hard to establish a common ground due to operational challenges from both sides.
As for Tanzania as long as COVID 19 continues to exist despite it being within the country or outside its impact on the economy will always be valid and continue to affect the major sectors of the economy, which will keep causing decline of general income gained by individuals and the government at large. Such hard times require hard decisions on best measure as to what should be undertaken as to try and maintain the economy to avoid great depression.
Already some measures have been taken as to help overcome the economic problems generated due to COVID-19 for example in banks and financial institutions follows the Bank of Tanzania policies measures, this is by issuing relief packages towards their customers especially the small and medium enterprises which include payment holidays ranging from 3-6 months and restricting of loans to extend repayment periods.
Managing periods in Tanzania is challenging due to a lack of access to menstrual products and sanitation services. Over 50% of Tanzanians do not have access to improved sanitation and access to clean drinking water is often limited (Moloney, 2020). With a lack of access to menstrual hygiene products, information, and appropriate sanitation services, women and girls are put at risk for poor physical or reproductive health (Moloney, 2020). This also has detrimental effects, as it limits opportunities for girls and women in Tanzania (Moloney, 2020).
Water facilities are not available in 38% of Tanzanian schools, the water facilities are not operational in 46% of the cases, and 64% of school latrines do not have a place to dispose of sanitary pads (Maji Safi Group, 2020). 85% of girls are forced to use unhygienic solutions such as strips of cloth, which can spread fungi and infection due to a lack of sanitation services and menstrual products (Maji Safi Group, 2020). The severe lack of resources often forces girls to use other unsanitary options such as leaves, pieces of a mattress filling, or used cloth (Maji Safi Group, 2020). Using these options could result in infections (Maji Safi Group, 2020).
Because of misinformation, menstruation has negative connotations, girls often face stigma and are made to feel ashamed of themselves and their bodies (Moloney, 2020). Girls often isolate themselves at home during menstruation, sometimes even missing school (Maji Safi Group, 2020). According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), about one in ten African teenage girls that reside in remote areas miss school during their menstruation cycle and eventually drop out of school due to issues that surround period poverty (Maji Safi Group, 2020). According to a study by Tawasanet Menstruation and Health Management, 62% of female students miss school due to physical illness that is a result from menstruation (Maji Safi Group, 2020). As a result, these young women face negative long-term socio-economic and educational effects (Maji Safai Group, 2020).
Pads and menstrual products are also often expensive—for example, sanitary products costs a typical Tanzanian woman 3.4% of her monthly salary, compared to 0.15% for the average American woman (Kottasová, 2018). For some women in rural communities, it can cost even more—even as much as 10% of a woman’s salary (Kottasová, 2018). Period poverty also negatively impacts the economy, as female workers may have to miss several days of work a month when menstruating (Kottasová, 2018). The Tanzanian government reports that 60% of women live in “absolute poverty”, and due to period poverty, women who are already economically disadvantaged to begin with face greater economic hurdles due to factors such as missing and dropping out of school and missing days of work due to being unable to afford menstrual and sanitary products (Kottasová, 2018).
Increasing education on menstrual and reproductive health is essential in combating period poverty in Tanzania (Moloney, 2020). Many organizations are dedicated to ending gender-based discrimination and destigmatize female hygiene, such as the Maji Safi Group, which uses a comprehensive approach which includes community outreach, providing learning materials, after school programs and employing Tanzanian women as community health educators (Moloney, 2020).
Ginger is grown in Kilimanjaro, Kigoma,Ruvuma, Morogoro, Kagera and Mbeya region.
Currently, Ginger in Kilimanjaro is widely grown in Same District, particularly on the slopes of Usambara Mountains the ancient range in northeast Tanzania, which is part of the Eastern Arc.
Ginger is a versatile botanical plant that has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. Drinking ginger tea can provide you with many health benefits. Not everyone can benefit from ginger tea. However, you should check with your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, using blood thinners, have bleeding disorders, heart disease or high blood pressure before using ginger or its products, according to the Physicians’ Desktop Reference.
Apart from enhancing flavor in cooking as spice condiments ginger also has been used by Humans for medical purposes
Ginger root contains gingerol, which increases the motility of the gastrointestinal tract, according to Nutrition. Gingerol also contains anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.
Nausea and vomiting relief
According to the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC), ginger has been a treatment for upset stomach, diarrhea and nausea for more than 2,000 years. Although you can eat ginger raw, as a candy or cooked, the tea form is most common for medicinal purposes. In a study reprinted on the UMMC website, a gram of ginger daily for up to four days was shown to help relieve nausea. This relief was greater for pregnant women than for people with motion sickness or nausea from a surgical operation.
Increase Vitamin C Level
Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that the body cannot produce or store; you must take it daily to avoid vitamin C deficiency. The lemon in ginger and lemon tea contains vitamin C, although the amount varies according to how much you add to the tea. Vitamin C is a factor in preventing certain cancers, such as mouth, stomach and breast. This vitamin is also an antioxidant that helps protect the cells against free radical damage, harmful molecules that form in the body due to anything from cigarette smoke to chemicals in foods.
Cold and Flu relief
Ginger and lemon are both known for their vitamin C content. When you have a cold or flu, stock up on these antioxidants to help boost your immune system and recover quickly. Ginger with honey can relieve coughing, sore throat and runny nose, according to Organic Facts. Lemon is also a traditional remedy for colds and sore throat. Brew lemon and ginger tea and add honey for a cold remedy.
Ginger tea may offer antiviral properties, Balch writes. Fresh ginger root may help destroy virus cells that cause common colds, influenza, cold sores and genital herpes. It may also help fight the spread of established viruses, speeding recovery from colds and flu, and reducing the frequency and severity of herpes outbreaks.
The chemicals in fresh ginger tea may help shrink cancerous tumors, according to Castleman. This may help prevent the spread of cancer and may increase your chances of cancer remission. However, scientific studies have only been conducted on animals, so the anti-cancer benefits of ginger tea for humans are unclear.
Fresh ginger tea may help reduce inflammation of muscles and connective tissues. This may help ease pain and stiffness associated with arthritis. However, ginger tea cannot prevent the degradation of muscle and bone cells associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
Lemon ginger tea may benefit your digestive health and function. A compound found in ginger root called gingerol, may stimulate mobility in your intestines, relieving constipation. Gingerol may also have anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, which helps keep your gastrointestinal tract healthy. Ginger may also alleviate some of the symptoms of gastrointestinal distress, such as an upset stomach, nausea, and diarrhea. Ginger root extracts, including those in lemon ginger tea, have been used during pregnancy and after surgery for the treatment of acute nausea.
School is important not only for it provides a place for children to study but also to inculcate values that benefit the rest of their lives. Nevertheless, In 2016, Schools in Tanzania, only 38% had an adequate number of latrines, 20% had water supply facilities, and less than 10% had functioning handwashing facilities. The Tanzania water source is unevenly distributed, lacks water purification technology, and the water supply is irregular and expensive in most areas; natural disasters are currently raging.
Children in schools cannot access safe drinking water, which creates a negative influence on the regular school operation. High disease infection rates and little supplement of sanitized latrine are lowering student attendance, leading to the schools’ poor education.
As a result, Water Purification Technology has to be improved to solve the water sanitation problem, and organizations, such as Art in Tanzania, are trying the best to get funding to help children get a better school environment.
There is not a single school in Tanzania that would have clean drinking water. Among the 36000 schools in the country, some even can’t supply water at all; they have no water, no sanitation, and no power. How does this happen? We will look into it through three leading causes.
Surprisingly, Tanzania holds many natural water resources. Yet, many citizens have minimal access to water. This is because those mighty water catchments in rivers and lakes are unevenly distributed around the country, and many arid areas are home to large populations. With no urban water pipelines, villagers in those areas need the stamina to take on a journey to get fresh water. Schools in those areas have no way to provide students with large amounts of clean water, which causes great difficulty for regular and resultful academic achievement.
Besides, the water supply in most areas is irregular and expensive; there does not exist a stable supply channel, or to be more specific, the convenient water supply is way too expensive for most people. People in those areas can only spend large amounts of money buying water if they are not capable of long-distance activity. So this also affects the stable operation for schools.
Despite the minimal amount of water supplies, little available water sanitation measurement is also a problem. The clean water supply in the whole country is exceedingly rare. The possible financial support and domestic technology can not provide a practical approach. The financial support for schools cannot support a reliable water sanitation system, and existing technology can not give answers using this amount of funding.
The water supply and sanitation are affected by the above three causes and generate great difficulty for school operation. Lack of clean water supply affects not only students’ physical health but also the school attendance and regular academic progress.
The current situation for students is that their health is severely affected by the lack of clean water. Students need to spend time to fetch water from distant places, and these workload stops students from focusing on their academic performance. They are the country’s future, and clean water should not be a first-place concern for them. More seriously, even they get natural water, unsanitized water still leads to a high infection rate of waterborne disease, such as Diarrhoea, Typhoid fever, and Escherichia Coli. These waterborne diseases are caused by the viruses and bacteria in unsanitized water. Students who drink unsanitized water or use those water to clean their hands are easily infected, with poor health conditions, they can not have a colorful school life.
In addition to this, the lack of clean water leads to little latrines supply in the school. This will lower the attendance of girls since they have requirements for sanitary latrines during their menstruation. According to the NATIONAL GUIDELINE FOR WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE FOR TANZANIA SCHOOLS, more than 70% of schools in Tanzania have fewer latrines than the national standard, “20 girls and 25 boys per drop hole”, and many of the existing ones have low sanitation and hygiene situation. The more students share one latrine, the lower the sanitization condition. Frequent absence from school leads to low academic performance and even a high drop rate, data shows that more than 50% of girls drop from primary school because of poor sanitation conditions. The schools require adequate water and sanitation resources to improve students’ attendance and produce better teaching results.
In order to achieve clean water available in the school, currently, Bore Hole Drilling and Solar Water Purification Technology are the methods Tanzania is trying to use. Bore Hole Drilling is a good tool to secure water sources when the public water source is not available. However, the pilot does not have Bore Hole Drilling option. Comparing with Bore Hole Drilling, Solar Water Purification Technology has no such flaw. The schools can install more purification units to clean the water and reduce the number of waterborne diseases, and the cost of those units are more affordable for clean water.
To help more children access with clean water, Art in Tanzania is continue working to help and assist children in the local community. With the continued effect of COVID19, the number of volunteers in Tanzania is decreasing, and we lack financial support for schools. If you would like to volunteer or make some donation, please do not hesitate to visit our website for more information: www.artintanzania.org
By Anna Kevin and Emilia Sten (Originally published on May 10, 2014)
On Thursday morning we left the house with three Danish volunteers to “One School – Primary and Nursery”. They were going to teach there, and we wanted to experience being an African pupil for one day.
It was a bit higher standard at the school. The pupils had desks, books and other school material. Everyone was wearing a school uniform in light blue.
We got a seat in the back row. The lecture started with painting pictures and writing sentences on the board. Everything have to be written down, because not all the children have a chance to get a book of their own. Instead they copied everything down in their notebooks. It took a while for the teachers to get the board ready, but we were very patient. Most of the teaching was done so that the teachers said it out loud and we repeated. The best pupil was the one screaming out the answer the loudest.
After one and a half hour of learning, the ones who wanted got a cup of porridge. This was followed by a half an hour break, and then the active learning continued. The pupils were very eager to learn, maybe that’s because not everyone gets the chance to go to school. Volunteering can give the opportunity for more children to attend school.
By volunteering you can help the Tanzania to develop. Education standard is still very poor and while the economy is growing the only way to get jobs is to get proper education. Art in Tanzania volunteers and interns help in the schools, supported by UNICEF Children Agenda program.