Breastfeeding; means one of the most ways to ensure child health and survival. However, nearly 2 out of 3 infants are not exclusively breastfed for the recommended 6months, a rate that has not improved in 2 decades…World Health Organization
Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. It’s safe clean and contains antibody which help protect against many common childhood illness. Breast milk provides all need for the first months of life and it continues to provide up to half or more of a child nutritional needs during the second half of the first year and up to one third during the year of life
Many experts, including the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, strongly recommend breastfeeding exclusively (no formula, juice or water) for 6months. After the introduction of other foods, it recommends continue to breastfeed through the baby first year of life.
How often you should breastfeed your baby depends on whether your baby prefers small, frequent meals or longer feeding. This will change as your baby grows. Newborns often want to feed every 2-3 hours. By 2months, feeding every 3-4hours is common and by 6months most babies feed every 4-5hours.
Signs that will indicate your baby is Hungry
Licking their lips or sticking out their tongue
Rooting, which is moving their jaw, mouth, or head to look for your breast
Putting their hand into their mouth
Opening their mouth, sucking on things
Benefits of Breastfeeding for the Baby
Breast milk provide ideal nutrition for infants, perfectly mix of vitamin, protein and fat everything your baby need to grow
Breast milk contains antibodies that help your baby fight off viruses and bacteria.
Breast milk lower baby risk of having asthma or allergies, eaar infections, respiratory illness, bouts of diarrhea
Breastfeeding has been linked to higher IQ scores in later childhood in some studies
Breastfeeding create a good bond between mother and her baby
Breastfed infants are more likely to gain the right amount of weight as they grow rather than become of overweight as they grow
Breastfeeding benefits to the Mother
Breastfeeding burns extra calories, so it can help you lose pregnancy weight faster, it release hormone oxytocin which help mother uterus return to its pre pregnancy size and many reduce uterine bleeding after birth.
Breastfeeding lower risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Also the osteoporosis
Breastfeeding save time and money, also provide a woman regular time to relax quietly with a newborn as she bond
ABCs of Breastfeeding
Awareness: Watch for the baby sign of hunger and breastfeed whenever your baby is hungry this is called on demand feeding. The first few weeks you may breastfeed your baby 8 to 12 times every 24 hours.
Be Patient: Breastfeed as long as your baby wants to breastfed each time. Don’t hurry your baby through feeding
Comfort: Relax while breastfeeding and your milk is more likely to let down and flow. Get yourself comfortable with pillows as needed to support your arms and footrest to support your feet and leg before you begin to breastfeed
In the globally connected world of today, disease threats can spread unpredictably quicker than ever before. Emerging diseases are a global threat to human existence. Every country is exposed to potentially emergence of infectious disease. Several factors such as changes in ecology, climate and human demographics play distinct roles in a complex mechanism contributing to the occurrence of infectious diseases. Important aspects towards control in case of outbreaks are surveillance, preparedness and prompt response.
Tanzania has not experienced a major public health threat except for HIV/AIDS. she should take opportunity of the currently present calm situation to prepare. Talking about threatening bacterial epidemic in the country, two diseases are looked at: Cholera and Tuberculosis.
Cholera is an acute diarrheal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. the disease occurs in epidemics when conditions of poor sanitation, crowding and famine are present. It attacks both children and adults all over the world, but most common in typical areas such as per-urban and slums, where basic infrastructure is not available as well as camps for internally displaced people or refugees where minimum requirements of clean water and sanitation are not met.
Clinical signs for V. cholerae infection often begins with stomach cramps and vomiting followed by diarrhea, which may progress to fluid losses of up to one litter per hour. These losses result in severe fluid volume depletion and metabolic acidosis, which may lead to circulatory collapse and death. Symptoms of cholera can vary from mild to severe, the most common being sudden onset of watery diarrhea, dehydration, rapid heart rate, dry mouth, excessive thirst, low urine output, nausea and vomiting.
Since the seventh cholera pandemic reached Tanzania in 1974, the country reports outbreaks almost every year and had notified over 250,000 cases and 13,078 deaths by 2018. according to existing literature, Dar es Salaam is one of the endemic cities experiencing cholera outbreaks. From 15 August 2015 through 7 January 2018, 33,421 cases including 542 deaths were reported across all 26 regions of the Tanzania (Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar). Tanzania mainland reported 86% of total cases in the outbreak. active cholera transmission has persisted in Tanzania mainland, with Mbeya and Songwe Regions being the most active.
Irrespective of the fact that Cholera has been a recognized disease for about 200 years, control of the deadly disease still is a challenge. several strategies are being employed to control and mitigate cholera outbreaks, most of these are focus on basic sanitary and hygiene measures such,
as treating water supplies, improving water delivery systems, sewage control, hand washing facilities, latrines and adequate hygiene in food handling. However, control activities based on the provision of safe drinking water and improved sanitation have often failed to contain the spread of cholera, and outbreaks are now common in sub-Saharan Africa. The risk factors for cholera outbreaks in Africa are also incompletely understood, and thus it’s challenging to predict outbreaks reliably.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB can be acquired by breathing contaminated air droplets coughed or sneezed by a person nearby who has active Tuberculosis. Humans can also get ill with TB by ingesting unpasteurized milk products contaminated with Mycobacterium bovis also known as Bovine Tuberculosis.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is present worldwide and typically spreads in cramped, overcrowded conditions. There is no evidence that pulmonary TB is more easily transmitted in airplanes or other forms of public transportation. Long-term travelers, those with a weakened immune system or visiting friends and relatives (VFR travelers) in areas where Tuberculosis is endemic are at risk. Humanitarian and healthcare personnel working in communities with active TB are also at increased risk. Persons with active TB should not travel.
Most persons with the illness (90% to 95%) have latent TB infection (LTBI) and do not show any symptoms. The bacteria can remain inactive for many years and the chance of developing active TB diminishes over time. Persons with active TB have symptoms which include excessive coughing (sometimes with blood), chest pain, general weakness, lack of appetite, weight loss, swollen lymph glands, fever, chills, and night sweats. It can be misdiagnosed for bronchitis or pneumonia. If untreated, active TB can fatal.
Tanzania is ranked 14th among the thirty high burden countries (HBC) that contribute 80 percent of the world’s TB burden. TB is highly endemic in Tanzania and is one of the main public health emergencies in Tanzania causing the death of 38,000 people in 2018. The WHO estimates that in the same year, 142,000 people fell ill with the disease but only 75,828 were notified meaning that 47% of all people with TB were not reached by the national health services. the burden of TB is highest in the regions where the two largest urban centers are found, Dar es Salaam and Mwanza.
ManguC. D., ManyamaC. K., MsilaH., SudiL., ChaulaG., NtinginyaN. E., SabiI., & MabokoL. (2016). Emerging viral infectious disease threat: Why Tanzania is not in a safe zone. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 18(3).https://doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v18i3.
Hounmanou, Y.M.G., Mølbak, K., Kähler, J. et al. Cholera hotspots and surveillance constraints contributing to recurrent epidemics in Tanzania. BMC Res Notes 12, 664 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4731-0