According to a report in 2018, nearly half of the population in East Africa could not access drinking water and Tanzania caught the average with 49.2% accessible rate.
The main problem is basically investment. Installing the pipe to transport the water needs large investments and since it does not seem profitable by the investors, governments step into funding to cover expenses through supplying bonds. Nevertheless, most of the countries in Africa could not find enough amount of financing. For instance, one report in 2014 indicates that Tanzania has less than 50% of the funds needed to meet Millennium Development Goals (MDG) requirements but have a high-level capacity for investment and it makes Tanzania one of the most applicable countries in Africa.
The latest Glaas report shows that Tanzania is located in the most aided region and got 316 million USD financial aids in 2017, ranked 3rd in Sub-Saharan Africa. Also, Tanzania prepared its financial plans and these financial plans consistently using in the decision-making process. Furthermore, the country has the data for decision-making such as resource allocation, sector review and/or planning processes, national standard or regulation development, targeting surveillance activities both in water-sanitation and drinking water areas.
To reach the national goal Tanzania needs a budget of 237 million USD dollar annually and government finance 154.2 million USD which means Tanzania needs to increase its funding approximately by 35%. Financing of the investments for drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are met between 50%-75%. Tanzania also pursuing regulations and standards in order to attract investors such as on-site sanitation and drinking water standards, audited by the governmental bodies and also by independent observers. Although a sufficient budget is clearly indicated in the plan the government could only bear the implementation expenses between 50%-75% due to lack of foreign-domestic private investments.
Another problem is in the human resources sector. Because of the lack of education in maintenance, designing and construction Tanzania has only between 50%-75% of needed human resources.
Related to water sector development plan for 2018, the approved budget is 319.5 million USD and 42% of the shares are funded by foreigners while 58% of the shares belong to local funders.
As explained by the numerical data above, Tanzania has to foster investments in every area of the water supply and sanitation such as maintenance, protection of the water resources, management and development.
The type of investment might be diversified. For instance between 2018-2020, a project led by Water and Development Alliance (WADA) and its key partners in order to provide safe water access through solar power systems.
To sum up, Tanzania is getting more and more attention by years but still, the country struggles with investments and educated human resources and government seems to be the only investor but it is not enough to bear all the expenses. Although Tanzania published guidelines in WASH investment plans, due to lack of profitability it does not attract private investments. USAID defines the reason, while the legal framework is well-defined implementation is not effective at all. Also, investment should be focused on sanitation as well as a water supply but research shows that it is biased in favour of water supply. So it is important to invest in water sanitation since it has added value potential. Performance-based investment plans would run to expand sanitation services. Another reason could be collaboration intention of public agencies with private sector investments. The government enjoys from private sector contemporary technologies and provide technology transfer. Due to lack of integration of water sanitation with healthcare, nutrition and food security investments were not fully effective. For example, water sanitation ameliorates food security so it helps to reach Tanzania Development Vision 2025.
Climate encompasses the statistics of meteorological conditions, that is, temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle counts and other meteorological element in a given region over a long period of time. Climate change is attributed directly or indirectly to human activities that alert the composition of global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural variability observed over comparable time period. Variability may be due to internal natural processes within the climate system or variation in anthropogenic external forces. A national park is predominantly unaltered area of the land and/or sea characterized by exceptional and varied natural assets comprising one or several preserved and predominantly unaltered ecosystem and is primarily set aside for conservation of original natural assets.
Tanzania is the largest country in East Africa, covering the area of 945209 km2, 60000 of which is inland water. It’s shares the boundaries with eight countries such as Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Mozambique, Congo, Burundi, Rwanda and Zambia. Tanzania lies close to the equator in East coast of Africa between parallel 1 S and 12 S and meridian 30E and 40E. By being close to the equator, climate variations in temperature are not very extreme. Tanzania is among of African countries in terms of biodiversity of both flora and fauna species in its terrestrial and marine ecosystem, it has numerous vegetation cover distributed along the diverse landscape. It is a home of endemic plants and animal’s species most of which are of world importance. It has 16 national park such as Kilimanjaro, Lake Manyara, Tarangire, Mikumi, Saadani, Saa nane Island, Katavi, Gombe, and etc.
Climate trend in Tanzania
Rainfall pattern in country is subdivided into: tropical on the coast where is humid and hot (rainy season is March-May): semi-temperate in the mountains with short rains in November-December and long rains in February-May: and drier in the plateau region with considerable seasonal variation in temperature. The mean annual rainfall varies from 500 mm to 2500 mm and above, the duration of dry period is five to six months. However recent rainfall pattern has become more unpredictable with some areas receive extremely maximum and minimum rainfall per year.
Temperature in Tanzania also varies according to geographical location, relief and altitude. In the Coastal regions temperature ranging between 27℃ to 29℃, while in central, Northern and Western parties, temperature ranges between 20℃ to 30℃ and higher between month of December to March. In the Northeast and Southeast where there is mountainous and Makonde plateau, the temperature occasionally drops to 15℃ at night during months of June and July.
The following are the effects of climate change to National Parks in Tanzania.
Water shortage for large mammals especially in the period of law rainfall is the main challenge to facing wildlife, the places that naturally used to dry water during dry season are no longer used to dry water and thus water dependent animals such as hippopotamus, crocodiles, buffaloes are found crowded in few remaining water ponds elephant eg in Ruaha National Park. Seriously lack of surface water led to considerably hippopotamus and buffaloes’ mortalities. Suffering from lack of water, wildlife physiological functions are impaired and they are becoming easy targets to poachers and predators. Thus, with changing climate and associated decrease in water availability due to reduced amounts and altered seasonal distribution of rainfall, the existing water related problems are likely to be compounded (Elisa at all., 2011, cf. Kangalawe, 2010).
Due to climate change, wild animals from National Park are roaming around the adjacent villages to search for pastures and water. So many events of crop raiding occur and thus cause human-wildlife conflicts. The animals commonly involved in these conflicts are hippopotamus, buffaloes and elephants and this may be aggravated with changing climatic conditions example is in Lake Manyara National Park.
Affects nature-based tourism
Tourism has close connections to environment and considered to be highly climatic sensitive sector. Climate variabilities determine the length and quality of tourism seasons, thus play a major role in the destination choice and tourist spending. Climate affect a wide range of environmental resources that are key attraction to tourism such as snow conditions over mount killimanjaro, wildlife productivity and biodiversity. Climate also has an effects on environmental conditions that can deter tourists including infectious diseases, wild fires, waterborne pest and insects.
Glacier retreat in Mount Kilimanjaro
The early retreat of glaciers on the Kilimanjaro was due to natural climatic shifts whilst the warming up of the Earth after the industrial era has led to current faster recession of the glaciers. There is no argument today regarding the retreat of Kilimanjaro glacier; the glaciers have been retreating in unprecedented scale in the recent years directly because of climate change. The retreat of the glaciers is probably the most iconic indication of climate change impacts in Tanzania (Ibid). The most recent available data shows that the glaciers were about 4.2km2 in 1976 (Hastenrath and Greischar, 1997). In 2000, the remaining glaciers were only 2.6km2 (Thompson, et al., 2002).
Climate change is altering environmental niche and cause species to species their habitat range, as they track their ecological niche. Species shifts allow species to persist but may negatively affect existing species in these areas because the shifted species may be a primarily source of food to the existing species..
Speciation is an evolutionary process by which new ecological species arise. Due to various natural processes including geographical separation and drift, some species become separated. In consequences, under changing climatic conditions and due to natural selection, new species are established. Climate change and invasive species pose ecological challenges to the world. The impact of climate change and rise in average global temperature can have a profound effect to the specie’s geographical ranges that are often set primarily by climate and the host environment. Climate changes alter destination of habitat and increase vulnerability to invasion because of resource scarcity and increased competition among native flora and fauna. Example, Argemonemexicana in Ngorongoro CA.
Strategies for climate change
Enhance resilience of wildlife Ecosystem to impacts of climate change.
This can be done through promoting wildlife management practice that increase resilience to climate change, establishing a wildlife climate change related monitoring and information management system and enhancing protection and conservation of wildlife habitats.
Ensure water quality availability and accessibility in a changing climate.
This can be achieved by protection and conservation of water catchment areas, invest and promote appropriate water management technology, invest exploration and extraction of underground water and conduct vulnerability assessment in water resources.
Undertake research on climate change impacts.
Undertake a detailed and coordinated research on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, mitigation measures and develop technology that will ensure sustainable response system for minimizing impacts and risks associated with changing in climate.
Adequate financial resources for climate change adaptation.
This can be done through effective and efficient system for planning and mobilization and management of climate change funds.
Climate, tourist attraction, wildlife habitat is closely associated to National Parks. Change in climate have directly influenced tourism seasonality and indirectly affect natural attractiveness of the parks by changing tourism flagship species and natural landscape. Decreasing rainfall and increasing temperature have led to more drier conditions and increased aridity resulting to shortage of water for wildlife.
Elisa, M., Gara, J.I., and Wolanski, E. (2011). A Review of Water Crisis in Tanzania’s protected areas with emphasis on Katuma River-Lake Rukwa Ecosystem. Journal of Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology [DOI: 10.2478/v10104-011-0001-z]
Fischlin, A., Midgley, G.F., Price, J. T., Leemans, R., Gopal, B., Turley, C., Rounsevell, M. D.A., Dube, O. P., Tarazona, J., and Velichko, A.A. (2007). Ecosystems, their properties, goods, and services. In Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F,. Palutikof, J. P., van der Linden P. J., and Hanson, C.E. (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Workin Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 211-272.
Kangalawe, R.Y.M. (2010). Mainstreaming climate change adaptation in the management of freshwater resources in the Rufi ji Basin. A consultancy report submitted to the Ruaha Water Programme. WWF-Tanzania Country Offi ce, Dar es Salaam.
United Republic of Tanzania – URT (2002). Population and Housing Census 2002. United Republic of Tanzania. National Bureau of Statistics, Dar es Salaam.
Hastenrath S, Greischar L. 1997. Glacier recession on Kilimanjaro, East Africa, 191 89. Journal of Glaciology 43: 455-459.
Thompson LG, Mosley-Thompson E, Davis ME, Henderson KA, Brecher HH, Zagorodnov VS, Mashiotta TA, Lin PN, Mikhalenko VN, Hardy DR, Beer J. 2002.Kilimanjaro ice core records: evidence of Holocene climate change in tropical Africa. Science 298: 589-593.
B Nyamboge Mwema Nyawangwe – Art in Tanzania internship
As well as it is known COVID-19 is a global pandemic in the whole world today. Tanzania is among one of the many countries that has been affected in many ways and one of the major areas is in the economic sector. Since last April to May 2020 there was a huge rise of cases regarding COVID-19 which led to lockdowns including shutting down of various public places like schools. The average has reduced highly since last year since and people are no longer quarantined, despite that, the recently new president ordered for more research/investigation with regard to COVID-19 and measures to prevent it from spreading are still taken. Despite Tanzanian boarders being still open several measures are still undertaken by the government and individuals to protect against the spread of COVID19. Some of these measures include the one’s set by WHO like wearing face masks, social distancing in public places and washing hands or using hand sanitizers.
Given the fact that majority of Tanzanian’s are backward economically and can’t afford means of protections such as hand sanitizers, face masks etc., this people are forced to stay at home as to avoid crowds, hence a lot of people have failed to keep up with their daily jobs. This is especially to rural people who are self-employed hence when they don’t work means no income generated and therefore reduction of expenses reducing general revenues. Some companies also have been forced to deduct workers’ salaries and also expel some workers as to keep up with the financial flows.
Despite the rate of COVID-19 gradually falling but other countries are still highly affected by the disease which is more likely contributing to affecting Tanzania economy, currently and the future. Some of the major areas directly linked with the economy have shown this impacts.
In Public financing/ Government.
The government is facing and will continue facing problem in public budgeting and social services delivery to its people, this is because it has increased demand for public expenditure mainly in procuring tools needed due to COVID-19 such as sanitizers, medical equipment’s and so forth. The government revenues are expected to keep failing due to variety in cash flow obtained in direct and indirect taxes, levies and fees. As it is known with COVID-19 most of companies decreased workers and also most of workers payments were declined also others were forced to stop working naturally due to factors within.
In tourism sector;
One of the major sources of the government income in Tanzania is through tourism. Which has far more tattered, very few tourists are coming to the country due to restrictions set in countries hence the demand has quite declined. The government has reckoned that this year probably only few tourists will come to Tanzania for the holidays which is about a quarter of the normal rate. Places like Zanzibar has been so much affected since most of their economy depend on tourism. The chain that links from the places that tourist visited and stayed like hotels to the people working there and the suppliers of products or services their jobs have frozen due lack of tourist.
Tanzania mostly depends on exported products and very few are made within. Trade global chains are disrupted, and some factories have been shut down, most of products are running out hence sellers lack products to sell and money circulation has been declining. Most of the country boundaries have been closed not allowing products to go out or come in for some time. This has also led to rise of prices of some products causing some people not to afford them which leaves these products unsold especially those that are not basic needs or that are luxurious products. Export and import of products has been generally affected due to shutdown of some factories which has highly affected the economy.
In banks and financial institutions;
This are among major helpers of the economy that have been highly affected due to COVID-19, there has been reduction of bank deposits given all factors generated that has causes slow generation of income, Foreign financial flows have fallen due to no transactions of money from other countries due to the lockdown hence lack of foreign currency within, also there has been deterioration between the customers and bank relationships since it has been hard to establish a common ground due to operational challenges from both sides.
As for Tanzania as long as COVID 19 continues to exist despite it being within the country or outside its impact on the economy will always be valid and continue to affect the major sectors of the economy, which will keep causing decline of general income gained by individuals and the government at large. Such hard times require hard decisions on best measure as to what should be undertaken as to try and maintain the economy to avoid great depression.
Already some measures have been taken as to help overcome the economic problems generated due to COVID-19 for example in banks and financial institutions follows the Bank of Tanzania policies measures, this is by issuing relief packages towards their customers especially the small and medium enterprises which include payment holidays ranging from 3-6 months and restricting of loans to extend repayment periods.
Managing periods in Tanzania is challenging due to a lack of access to menstrual products and sanitation services. Over 50% of Tanzanians do not have access to improved sanitation and access to clean drinking water is often limited (Moloney, 2020). With a lack of access to menstrual hygiene products, information, and appropriate sanitation services, women and girls are put at risk for poor physical or reproductive health (Moloney, 2020). This also has detrimental effects, as it limits opportunities for girls and women in Tanzania (Moloney, 2020).
Water facilities are not available in 38% of Tanzanian schools, the water facilities are not operational in 46% of the cases, and 64% of school latrines do not have a place to dispose of sanitary pads (Maji Safi Group, 2020). 85% of girls are forced to use unhygienic solutions such as strips of cloth, which can spread fungi and infection due to a lack of sanitation services and menstrual products (Maji Safi Group, 2020). The severe lack of resources often forces girls to use other unsanitary options such as leaves, pieces of a mattress filling, or used cloth (Maji Safi Group, 2020). Using these options could result in infections (Maji Safi Group, 2020).
Because of misinformation, menstruation has negative connotations, girls often face stigma and are made to feel ashamed of themselves and their bodies (Moloney, 2020). Girls often isolate themselves at home during menstruation, sometimes even missing school (Maji Safi Group, 2020). According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), about one in ten African teenage girls that reside in remote areas miss school during their menstruation cycle and eventually drop out of school due to issues that surround period poverty (Maji Safi Group, 2020). According to a study by Tawasanet Menstruation and Health Management, 62% of female students miss school due to physical illness that is a result from menstruation (Maji Safi Group, 2020). As a result, these young women face negative long-term socio-economic and educational effects (Maji Safai Group, 2020).
Pads and menstrual products are also often expensive—for example, sanitary products costs a typical Tanzanian woman 3.4% of her monthly salary, compared to 0.15% for the average American woman (Kottasová, 2018). For some women in rural communities, it can cost even more—even as much as 10% of a woman’s salary (Kottasová, 2018). Period poverty also negatively impacts the economy, as female workers may have to miss several days of work a month when menstruating (Kottasová, 2018). The Tanzanian government reports that 60% of women live in “absolute poverty”, and due to period poverty, women who are already economically disadvantaged to begin with face greater economic hurdles due to factors such as missing and dropping out of school and missing days of work due to being unable to afford menstrual and sanitary products (Kottasová, 2018).
Increasing education on menstrual and reproductive health is essential in combating period poverty in Tanzania (Moloney, 2020). Many organizations are dedicated to ending gender-based discrimination and destigmatize female hygiene, such as the Maji Safi Group, which uses a comprehensive approach which includes community outreach, providing learning materials, after school programs and employing Tanzanian women as community health educators (Moloney, 2020).
Ginger is grown in Kilimanjaro, Kigoma,Ruvuma, Morogoro, Kagera and Mbeya region.
Currently, Ginger in Kilimanjaro is widely grown in Same District, particularly on the slopes of Usambara Mountains the ancient range in northeast Tanzania, which is part of the Eastern Arc.
Ginger is a versatile botanical plant that has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. Drinking ginger tea can provide you with many health benefits. Not everyone can benefit from ginger tea. However, you should check with your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, using blood thinners, have bleeding disorders, heart disease or high blood pressure before using ginger or its products, according to the Physicians’ Desktop Reference.
Apart from enhancing flavor in cooking as spice condiments ginger also has been used by Humans for medical purposes
Ginger root contains gingerol, which increases the motility of the gastrointestinal tract, according to Nutrition. Gingerol also contains anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.
Nausea and vomiting relief
According to the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC), ginger has been a treatment for upset stomach, diarrhea and nausea for more than 2,000 years. Although you can eat ginger raw, as a candy or cooked, the tea form is most common for medicinal purposes. In a study reprinted on the UMMC website, a gram of ginger daily for up to four days was shown to help relieve nausea. This relief was greater for pregnant women than for people with motion sickness or nausea from a surgical operation.
Increase Vitamin C Level
Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that the body cannot produce or store; you must take it daily to avoid vitamin C deficiency. The lemon in ginger and lemon tea contains vitamin C, although the amount varies according to how much you add to the tea. Vitamin C is a factor in preventing certain cancers, such as mouth, stomach and breast. This vitamin is also an antioxidant that helps protect the cells against free radical damage, harmful molecules that form in the body due to anything from cigarette smoke to chemicals in foods.
Cold and Flu relief
Ginger and lemon are both known for their vitamin C content. When you have a cold or flu, stock up on these antioxidants to help boost your immune system and recover quickly. Ginger with honey can relieve coughing, sore throat and runny nose, according to Organic Facts. Lemon is also a traditional remedy for colds and sore throat. Brew lemon and ginger tea and add honey for a cold remedy.
Ginger tea may offer antiviral properties, Balch writes. Fresh ginger root may help destroy virus cells that cause common colds, influenza, cold sores and genital herpes. It may also help fight the spread of established viruses, speeding recovery from colds and flu, and reducing the frequency and severity of herpes outbreaks.
The chemicals in fresh ginger tea may help shrink cancerous tumors, according to Castleman. This may help prevent the spread of cancer and may increase your chances of cancer remission. However, scientific studies have only been conducted on animals, so the anti-cancer benefits of ginger tea for humans are unclear.
Fresh ginger tea may help reduce inflammation of muscles and connective tissues. This may help ease pain and stiffness associated with arthritis. However, ginger tea cannot prevent the degradation of muscle and bone cells associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
Lemon ginger tea may benefit your digestive health and function. A compound found in ginger root called gingerol, may stimulate mobility in your intestines, relieving constipation. Gingerol may also have anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, which helps keep your gastrointestinal tract healthy. Ginger may also alleviate some of the symptoms of gastrointestinal distress, such as an upset stomach, nausea, and diarrhea. Ginger root extracts, including those in lemon ginger tea, have been used during pregnancy and after surgery for the treatment of acute nausea.
With the observable changes to weather patterns, such as shifts in rain patterns, and intensified storms, rural communities in Tanzania are struggling to maintain their agricultural way of life. Continuing to produce the crops and quantities needed is becoming gradually more challenging. It is understood and observed that rain patterns have been abnormal in recent years but the other environmental factors negatively affecting crops are far less noticeable. As most know, crops need water, sunlight, and soil to grow, and healthy crops make healthy people. Yet in reality the equation is far more complex than that. Some crops can easily be over watered or receive too much direct sunlight, and air quality affects their growth as well. However, the most important element in crop production is actually the soil. Soil is not only what holds and supports the plants, it is also what provides nutrients to the crops. Healthy soil can retain far more water than thin dusty soil, combating the issue of inconsistent watering. Healthy soil also helps to protect the plants from illness, bacteria, and underground pests. The most important aspect of healthy soil is that it gives nutrients and vitamins to the plants we eat. Continuing to grow crops in the same plot of land season after season removes all the nutrients from the soil causing the crop yield to decrease and human health to suffer. With the changes in the environment, variability of rainfall, increase in annual temperature, and prevalence of harmful plastic derived chemicals, the best way to ensure crop health does not drastically decrease is to: improve the health of the soil. Soil health can be drastically improved with the use of natural fertilizer, and natural fertilizer can easily be made with little to no cost by composting food waste. The widespread lack of a thorough waste management system — especially in agricultural regions, causes food waste to pile up near common living spaces or even spaces where food is prepared. This negatively affects human health in several ways. This form of waste management emits a greenhouse gas called Methane that amplifies changes in weather patterns by changing the chemistry of the atmosphere at an unnatural speed. But more importantly for the community, food waste attracts a large number of insects. Cholera is a very common and severe illness in these areas, and it is largely spread by flies. Flies feed on both human waste and rotting food, so when these materials are close to fresh food, illness occurs more frequently. With better managed food waste illness would be less frequent and far less severe.
Common waste consists of fresh fruit and vegetable peels, cooked starchy food waste, and scraps of cow, chicken, goat, and fish. All these things attract vermin and insects, but they also are all organic materials that are high in nutrients. If these materials were to be property composted human health would improve from both the improved crop yield and the reduction of illness.
Composting is the process of using food scraps and other natural materials such as grass clippings and coconut husks to create a natural nutrient rich fertilizer. Composting takes attention and effort, but it is an extremely effective way to increase water retention in soil, crop production, and crop health. If the plastics were removed from these images, all the materials could be the start of a healthy nutrient rich fertilizer. Properly combining compostable materials initiates a thermal reaction between the materials that causes them to break down while producing nutrients. The main things needed are airflow, warmth, moisture and a three to one ratio of ‘brown’ and ‘green’ ingredients. Direct sunlight can also increase the speed of the process. Brown ingredients refer to carbon rich materials such as dry leaves, sticks, and ash.
While green ingredients are nitrogen rich materials like food waste, manure, and fresh grass clippings. The reaction that causes composting to be successful is dependent on the interaction between carbon and nitrogen rich materials, so it is very important to pay attention to what you are putting into your compost. Composting can be done on a small scale in trash cans or buckets, but it is important to put small holes in whatever container you use so heat and air can flow through. It is also important to use a lid. Thin layers are best because the ‘brown’ and ‘green’ materials need to be touching. Whenever you have food waste put it in your compost container and cover with a ‘brown’ layer, then put on the lid. The smaller the food scraps are the faster the fertilizer will form, so tear and grind materials when able. It is important to keep the compost moist — but not wet– so you should only add water as needed. If the compost appears slimy or smelly add extra ‘brown’ materials or even some dirt. Mixing or stirring the layers every three or four days speeds up the process. If you are using a bucket you can simply roll it gently with the lid on. It is very important to make sure no plastic contaminates the process. Only the materials listed below should be incorporated.
If you would like to compost on a larger scale to suit your level of crop production and food waste, outdoor compost piles are easy to start and maintain. The simplest way to start an outdoor compost pile is to place a pole or branch in the ground and create layers of materials around it. The first layer should be of larger ‘brown’ materials like tree clippings and hay, then you can add a thin layer of food waste, and more ‘brown’ materials on top. You can collect the food waste in any closed container, just be sure that no other unnatural trash contaminates it.
Several households can contribute their waste to the same pile. So, when you need to empty your jar of rotting food scraps, take it to the outdoor pile and create another layer. Whenever you add the ‘green’ ingredients add a ‘brown’ layer on top to ensure the reaction will occur. Covering the food waste with dry leaves and other materials also helps to prevent pests from disturbing the pile. When your pile has formed you can remove the pole in the center which the layers were formed around, this will allow heat and air to flow efficiently throughout the pile and it will increase the speed of the process. When the pile is first formed you should cover it with a tarp or rice sacks weighed down by a few rocks, this insures that it does not become too moist and it traps all the materials, forcing the reaction to occur. A few days after food waste has been added you can stir the pile to help the layers mix and breakdown. When your compost appears to be dark thick dirt the process is complete, and you can utilize the fertilizer wherever your crops are growing. Continuing the process will gradually yet significantly improve your garden or field of crops. The more fertilizer added, the better your crops will be. Improving your soil improves your health, making plentiful and vitamin rich foods.
Indoor air pollution is when the condition of air surrounding building settings both inside and out is detrimental to the health of living beings. It is especially dangerous in comparison to outdoor air pollution because of how confined the space is within a building as opposed to the space outside.
Some of the causes of indoor air pollution are a result of the materials used to construct the building, practices followed in and around the building, and natural contaminants. Asbestos can be found in roofing panels and shingles, insulation materials, water supply lines, and cement pipes. Formaldehyde can be found in wood products, press fabrics, glues, paints, pesticides, cosmetics, and detergents. Radon gas can be found within the ground beneath homes and slip in through any cracks or openings in the home. Tobacco smoke can accumulate if smoking is done around or within the home. Biological pollutants such as bacteria, mold and animal dander can enter the home from outside. Appliances such as stoves and heaters can release carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide.
Asbestos is a material that is harmful to health and has been made illegal to use as a building material in many countries. Formaldehyde will gather within a home if there is no proper ventilation. Radon gas can leak into homes if the gas in the ground is not removed or reduced. Tobacco smoke will increase if continued smoking is done inside or around the home. Biological pollutants grow if the environment in the home has damp or humid areas. Appliances that are used without proper ventilation can cause more harmful gases to reside within the home.
What are other household pollutants?
Charcoal is often used for cooking and heating because of its availability and modest price. Without proper ventilation smoke from charcoal that stays trapped in the homes causes harm to the residents in the building. Organic waste and poor sewage treatment are more biological pollutants that are often improperly left within and around the homes releasing many harmful gases into the air. Along with a lack of practical toilets, the buildup of waste makes the increase of indoor air pollution more potent.
What does it affect?
The main complications that arise from indoor air pollution is the effect it has on human health as those areas inside and outside the buildings become a very unsafe environment to live in. Both short term and long-term illnesses can develop due to indoor air pollutants. Eye, nose and throat irritation, headaches, dizziness, and fatigue are some of the more milder health issues. Long-term illnesses include respiratory diseases such as asthma, allergies and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart conditions such as angina, arrythmia, heart attacks, heart failure and hypertension, and cancer. Pneumonia, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer can become fatal health risks.
The ones most affected are usually women and young children who spend more time in and around their homes. Older adults, people with existing heart conditions, and those with breathing/lung problems and illnesses are also at risk.
Different instruments for cooking, heating, and lighting are powered using kerosene, biomass, coal, and charcoal. To collect some of these materials, it exhausts a lot of time especially for women and children. This takes away time that could be spent to work or attend school. Individuals can become injured from gathering the fuel and can develop musculoskeletal damage. Safety can become a big issue as kerosene can be accidently consumed and often results in childhood poisoning. Severe burns can also occur. A lot of the black carbon and methane released from these instruments can contribute to climate change pollutants.
What are some solutions?
Eco-friendly stoves are one way to reduce emissions of gases if alternative methods to burning wood or charcoal are applied. Solar power and other natural fuel sources like biomass, volcanic rocks and briquettes can be used. These energy sources are sustainable as they last for a long time and do not emit the harmful gases that contribute to air pollution. Solar panels can be installed and hooked up to the stove to supply energy. Solar energy is a large potential power source as the geographical location increases the amount of sunlight that can be captured. Volcanic rocks can be heated up and then used. These rocks can be reused for up to two years. Briquettes are made from dried pruned branches that are then carbonized and combined with a natural binder. The briquettes produce low carbon emissions.
Heating is usually done with traditional fireplaces that typically require coal, charcoal, or wood. A more ecofriendly alternative that will not emit those harmful pollutants is an electric fireplace. Smoke which contains carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, two very harmful gases, will no longer be released. These fireplaces are more effective at heating up the home as chimneys and specialized vents aren’t needed. The heat cannot escape from the homes through those spots, which normally occurs in traditional fireplaces. LED bulbs are used which drains less electricity comparatively to standard bulbs and can last up to 50,000 hours. These fireplaces can be positioned in any room in the house and demands little maintenance.
Proper ventilation and air circulation allow gas buildup to leave the home and biological pollutants to not accumulate. Many household gases can be harmful as appliances that require the burning of materials to run release a lot of gases. Some of the chemicals in the house from the framework and structure of the building also release gases that do not leave the home. With proper ventilation using ducts, pipes and placing items within the home in certain locations, reduces the stockpiling of gases. Interior doors should be left open, and furniture should be kept away from outside walls. Humidity and dampness can also lessen as this limits the creation of a habitat for more biological pollutants to grow.
Composting organic waste is one way to prevent harmful gases from transpiring in your home. Dry composting toilets take human waste and turns it into compost. This eliminates the need to have a sewage system as proper or lack thereof of such systems has greatly minimized appropriate sanitation methods and organic waste disposable. Other organic waste such as food scraps can also be composted in green bins.
What will be impacted?
Shrinking and possibly eliminating indoor air pollution with these potential solutions means that the risks will no longer be present. The health of the residents is severely impacted and if the pollution were to decrease, the improvement in their health will allow them to live much more comfortable and longer lives. They will be able to pursue education and work to further enhance their futures.
By Greenford R Chinjeru – Art in Tanzania internship
COVID-19 is an infection disease that spread by virus and it dangerous and deadly. It has killed many people and affected the global economy. The disease has affected movement of people and goods from one county to another. Many countries people and their movement has been restricted. This has affected the world economy including the banking business.
The following are the effects of the COVID-19 in banking business in Tanzania
Reduction of deposits, in banking business bank use their customers deposits to provide loans and credit to other so as when their return their return with interest and the get profit through it. But due to the COVID-19 the number of people who deposit their money has decreased. This is because people has been advised to stay at their homes so in order for them to survive they have to use their saving and that include stopping deposits and just to use their cash in hand savings.
Increase of expenses, due to the spread of the disease, the banks as the places where many people came and go, has been taking measures to prevent the spread of the disease between the customers and their employees. These measures costs weren’t in the budget in the first place but for the safety of the people it had to be implemented.
Interference of banker and customer contract. There are contractual agreements between customer and banker but and due to the COVID-19 some of those agreed clauses have been hard to implement to the safeguard the health of all parties. There have been times that a customer has had an obligation to return the loan to the bank when the time required but the customer has failed because of getting sick and being forced to quarantine and the bank can’t sue him for it that because that is global problem.
All in all, COVID-9 has affected our county in so many ways especial in economy as during times of quarantine the government had to use their revenue to help people who were infected and purchase medical machine to ensure the safety of the people and the country.
Environment is a famous word in current days, as it used to refer to different settings, ranging from local to international ones. The origin of term environment is from the French word “environed “which means surroundings, so people may use environment to refer to everything found in a certain location.
-Also, in geography some words like nature, habitat, domain and surrounding are used as synonym of the term environment.
Meaning of environment
Our environment is the set of complex physical, chemical and biological elements, conditions and factors that affects an organism and determines its form of survival. It is comprising of all surroundings in which an organism lives and interacts with living things and non-living materials like water and air.
-The environment is dynamic depending on interaction of living organisms with non-living materials. Also, the environment is regarded as the sum of total conditions surrounded human beings at a certain time and space.
Natural resources are derived from the environment, So the interaction between human beings and other living organisms has more to do with the environment(which can be good or bad for the sustainability of the environment)
N.B The interaction on the earth is what creates the environment, and environmental interactions are continuous. See the diagram below:
Components of the environment
From above explanation you can see that everything surrounding human beings in a particular time and space is a component of our environment. But geographers have tried to categorize all these environmental components into three, which are;
(a) Physical components, includes all naturally occurring environmental elements like air, water, mountains etc.
(b) Biological components i.e., abiotic and biotic components, including all living and non-living things. See diagram below;
( c) Cultural components, includes all man-made parts of the environment such as buildings, population, farms etc.
Diagram shows the three environment components;
IMPORTANCE OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Our environment has a vital role to our daily survival. The environment plays an important role in the survival of all living things by:
(a) Supporting agriculture for food production•Climate and soil are essential during farming
(b) Temperature modification and climatic change control•The presence of trees and water bodies are essential for temperature regulation, also good agricultural practices have a lot to do with controlling climatic change.
(c) Natural resources are derived from the environment.•Resources like medicine, air, water and minerals are essential human needs obtained from natural resources derived by the environment.
(d) Minimize and or prevent disasters•swamps and marshes act as reservoirs of more water which may lead to flood, also air and plants absorb much gases emitted from human activities which will have more contribution to global warming.
(e) Absorption of our pollutants•Environmental components like air, land and water absorb pollutants, such as poisons, radiations and chemicals which effects our healthy survival.
(f) Food web and food chain advantage•All food is obtained from environmental components, so without the environment there is no potential for life.
(g) Disease preventionEnvironmental components like air, water and minerals are required by the human body for proper growth and rescue our bodies from different diseases. E.g., the use of table salt decreases the chances for disease like goitre.
So, We can conclude by saying, the environment gives us life.
See the diagram as it shows how living organisms interact with environmental components.
It shows the mutual benefit in the ecosystem.
The environment of Tanzania includes its’ land and marine surfaces which covers approximately kilometer squares 947.303. That also includes its’ natural resources endowment found in Tanzania mainland and Tanzanian Islands.
As our discussion focuses on the environment in Tanzania, we need also to get insights about different things which form the whole environment of Tanzania.
Below are major components of Tanzania’s environment including its’ natural resources:
(a) Population, which is approximated at 56. 3 million by 2018
(b) Water bodies, which covers 6.49% of whole Tanzania land. These water bodies include;
(i) Some part of Indian ocean
(ii) More than 20 lakes include Victoria, Tanganyika, Nyasa, Rukwa and Natron among others.
(iii) More than 75 rivers include Kagera, Malagalasi;Pangani, Wami, Rufiji, Ruvuma, Tarangire and Songwe
(iv) Natural ponds and artificial lakes
(c) Seven World Heritage Sites (as per UNESCO) which are: Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Serengeti National Park, Kondoa Rock Art Site, Stone Town of Zanzibar, kilimanjaro National Park, Selous Game Reserve and Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara
(d) Sixteen National Parks including lake ManyaraNational park, Ruaha National Park and Serengeti National Park
(e) Seven Historical Sites includes Kilwa Kisiwani, Mbozimeteorite and Olduvai Gorge & Laetoli among others
(f) Islands includes Saanane island National Park, Zanzibar island, Pangani town and Ukerewe island
(g) Marine Parks and Reserves like Chumbe island Marine Sanctuary, Dar es Salaam Marine Reserves and Tanga Coelacanth Marine Park among others
(h) Wildlife Management Areas which includes IpoleWMA, Mbomipa WMA and Buninge WMA among others
(i) Cave, Gorges and Rocks like Amboni cave, Kalambofalls, Nyombe region, Nyumba Nitu Natural forests and Kaporogwe falls
(j)Twelve Tanzania Forest Reserves
(k)Thirty two Game Reserves
(l)More than two thousand mountains and highlands includes mount Meru and Kilimanjaro among others
(m)More than twenty mines includes Geita Gold Mine(GGM-Geita), Bulyakulu & Mwadui (Shinyanga) and Kabanga Nickel(Kagera)
(n) More than five famous and important Cities and Towns includes Mwanza( Rock City), Arusha (Tourist City), Mbeya(Green City) and Dar es Salaam (island City) among others
(o)Biological diversity includes more than 75 endemic species like Kihansi Tod and horned chameleon
(p) Agricultural land and rangelands
From above it seen how Tanzania’s environment is endowed with ample valuable natural and man-made resources.
Tanzania’s environment is engine for sustainable development for Tanzania and the World at large. While Tanzania is blessed with more natural and man-maderesources that are distributed throughout the Country, the friendly and sustainability exploitation of these resources can be advantageous to Tanzanians.
Furthermore, We are born to create a better future. We need to use our environment and its’ God given resources for sustainable development.
See the following maps:
Tanzania Lakes and Rivers:
Locations of the major national parks
MAJOR ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ENVIRONMENT IN TANZANIA
These issues are related to unsafe exploitation of above resources. These issues include:
(a) Illegal and unsustainable wildlife exploitation
(b) Overgrazing and unsustainable range management
(c) Poor agriculture practices like bush burning, vertical ploughing across steep slopes, failure to adopt crop rotation, failure to maintain adequate vegetative cover, inadequate use of organic fertilizer and lack of sufficient conservation measures
(d) Land conflicts
(e)Poor mining techniques
(f)Climatic change includes melting of ice at mount Kilimanjaro and fall of water depth at Ruaha river
(g)Major Six environmental problems in Tanzania which are;
(ii)Lack of accessible good quality water for both urban and rural inhabitants
(iii) Environment pollution
(v) Deterioration of aquatic systems
(vi) Loss of wildlife habitats and biological diversity
-The joint measure is required to be taken from local,
National and International levels to remove or reduce the above harmful issues relating to resource use for sustainable and inclusive development of Tanzania and the world at large.
REASONS FOR ENVIRONMENT CONCERN IN TANZANIA
From above circumstances it is clear how much Tanzania needs to have strong environmental concern which shall focus on eliminating the negative impacts on Tanzanians from endowed natural resources
The reasons for environment concern in Tanzania include the follow but not limited to:
(a) Despite 55% of Tanzania’s land is potential for agriculture but only 6% of Tanzania total land is under agricultural activities. So, Tanzania and the world at large are needed to set strategies to enhance and expand agricultural activities in Tanzania. (b) With more natural and artificial resources Tanzania is still depend on agriculture, which accounts more than 40% of Tanzania GDP and employs more than 75% of Tanzania workforce
(c) Energy use of power, although Tanzania is endowed with much fossil fuels, waterfalls and rapids, more than 90% of Tanzania depend on forest related materials as their source of energy.
(d) Population distribution, with 47.7 kilometers squares population density, but by actual sense Tanzania population is unequal distribution where there are disparities in internal population densities between urban and rural areas as result of rural-urban migration associated with unequal distribution of man-made resources.
-Also, more people are living in highland areas and interacting regions like near lake Victoria, therefore government of Tanzania needs to deal with this environmental issue
(e) Also, from the major six environmental problems affecting Tanzania, the environmental solutions are required to rescue Tanzania’s environment from other disasters that may arise as result of those six environmental problems.
Conclusions and remarks
– We are a large cause of environmental dynamism, so our actions must first assess its negative or positive impacts to our environment.
– As part of dynamic environment, we are supposed to educate ourselves about all issues related to the environment and to take precautions toward any action that might harm our environment.
– The Government of Tanzania is required to sharpen the implementation of environmental and natural resource related laws, policies and declarations.
When wandering through the alleys and byways of Stone Town, every once in a while you’ll come up to a little square, a little breathing space. It’s at one of these that I am to meet Kasim Nyuni and Saleh, the driving forces behind an upcoming art gallery. When I get there – through the able guidance of my fellow AIT volunteer Sue Wagstaff – we find Kasim negotiating with a carpenter in rapid Swahili. The whitewashed house with the L-shaped patio will not only serve as an art gallery, but also as a cafe and Bed & Breakfast, Sue explains, so new furniture is required.
When we sit down to talk, Kasim and Saleh explain to me that this won’t be a regular art gallery. All the art for sale will be produced by recovering addicts and the proceeds will flow back to the NGO that supports their recovery. “Quitting drugs isn’t enough,” explains Kasim, “You need to change your outlook on life.” Kasim, himself a former addict, has devoted his life to helping others recover from their addictions. In the sober houses, recovering addicts can take part in various activities: English classes, computer classes, art classes. “People don’t come to us because they want to be artists, they come to us because they want to stop being addicts. But in the course of their programme, we often discover their talent and help them develop it.”
Meeting the “fundhi”, the carpenter
Sue, who worked as an AIT volunteer at the sober house last year, is back to help them set up the art gallery, as well as teaching art at the sober house. “These aren’t trained artists,” she explains, “They’ve been on the street, on the outside, their art comes from a different place entirely.”
Soft-spoken Saleh is one of the many who have been helped by Kasim. Once an addict, he is now a fashion designer and painter, who in 2013 exhibited his designs at the Zanzibar Fashion Week in front of hundreds of people. “During the show, we shared my story with the audience. It was great to feel their support. It’s important that we fight prejudice against addicts,” he says, “We want to show the community that we can change, that we can be valuable and productive members of society.”
Kasim agrees. “Addiction takes everything from you. Addicts are disconnected from their families, from the community. We help them bridge that gap.”
Through the art gallery and cafe, Kasim and Saleh want to generate some income for the organisation, so they are less dependent on donations and subsidies. Equally important, however, is that they try to involve the Stone Town community. “We want to keep the prices at the cafe as low as possible, so ordinary Zanzibari can come, have a cup of coffee and see what our recovering addicts can achieve.”
From left to right: Kasim, Sue and Saleh
“Every morning I wake up and I think ‘What can I change today?’” says Kasim. It seems to me that, slowly but surely, they are teaching the people of Zanzibar that addiction is a disease, not a sin, and that it can be overcome.
An opening date for the gallery hasn’t yet been set, but keep an eye on this blog. (Originally published on Apr 30, 2014)