Climate change has a big impact on the environment and health. Africa is projected to have an increase of surface temperatures at a faster rate than the global average (Pasquini, 2020). Temperature increases have been linked to increasing mortality and morbidity, and marginalized groups, such as those who are economically disadvantaged, appear to have higher heat-related morbidity and mortality (Pasquini, 2020). Climate change also makes extreme weather more frequent and intense, which can lead to desertification of fertile land and rising sea levels (How Climate Change Drives Humanitarian Crises, 2021). Conflict also tends to increase when a drought results in food shortages, which worsens the impact of economic crises that can result from a variety of causes, such as the COVID-19 pandemic (How Climate Change Drives Humanitarian Crises, 2021). As such, mitigating the effects of climate change is vital to improving health.
Rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns also worsen the spread of vector-borne diseases, such as dengue and malaria (How Climate Change Drives Humanitarian Crises, 2021). Currently, new diseases are emerging in regions where they previously did not exist (United Nations Climate Change, 2020). A lack of access to clean water due to drought would also lead to higher incidence of diarrhea, which is a major cause of death for children under the age of five (How Climate Change Drives Humanitarian Crises, 2021). With the destruction of ecosystems, climate change could have a great impact on the occurrence of viruses like COVID-19, which emerges from animals (How Climate Change Drives Humanitarian Crises, 2021).
Climate change also negatively impacts food security, which would worsen health (United Nations Climate Change, 2020). In drought-prone sub-Saharan Africa countries, the number of undernourished people have increased by 45.65% since 2012 according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (United Nations Climate Change, 2020). As agriculture accounts for the majority of livelihoods in Africa, the impacts of drought, increased pest and disease damage as well as flooding would negatively impact livelihoods and health as a result due to decreasing food security and income (United Nations Climate Change, 2020).
Some groups are more impacted by climate change (Pasquini, 2020). Age influences sensitivity to heat, especially in groups such as the elderly and young (Pasquini, 2020). People with underlying health issues such as chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases are also more sensitive to heat (Pasquini, 2020). Water quantity also impacts sensitivity to heat, as drinking enough water is important for efficient thermoregulation (Pasquini, 2020). As mentioned previously, climate change leads to drought, and without access to water, it is plausible that already vulnerable groups would become even more sensitive to the possibility of dehydration, heat-related illnesses, and potentially water-borne diseases (Pasquini, 2020).
It is of upmost importance that the negative impact of climate change is reduced in order to improve health. Africa has made great efforts in driving the global climate agenda, with over 90% of the countries ratifying the Paris Agreement, and many African countries have committed to transitioning to green energy within a short time frame (United Nations Climate Change, 2020). Climate change has a big negative impact on health, and reducing its impact through means of clean energy and reducing poverty by promoting socioeconomic growth is vital to improving health (United Nations Climate Change, 2020).
Pasquini, L., van Aardenne, L., Godsmark, C. N., Lee, J., & Jack, C. (2020). Emerging climate change-related public health challenges in Africa: A case study of the heat-health vulnerability of informal settlement residents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The Science of the total environment, 747, 141355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141355
By James Mathew Mgaya – Art in Tanzania internship
The movement of microfinance is started since 19th centaury in the time of European Union and the creation of modern microfinance in Bangladeshi social entrepreneur Muhammad Yunus in 1983, microfinance was simultaneously created. In 1983, Yunus established Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. The goal of Grameen Bank was to initially provide small loans to entrepreneurs. Microfinance is all about financing low-income earner like food venders (mama lishe), farmers, poor communities, micro- enterprises.
We call them low-income earner to financial service providers, but the nature of this industry is too slow and small in fact they misunderstood it with banking services, but they are so different aspect. Moreover, Microfinance is likely to be called micro-credit or micro-loan which most users are low-income earner while apparently women in Tanzania perspective. In rural areas, they are usually small farmers and others who are engaged in small income-generating activities such as an anti-poverty tool for the people living in rural areas. It claims to assisting communities of the economically excluded to achieve greater level of asset creation and income security to eradicate poverty in Tanzania at the household and community level which is not achieved as it initially aimed.
Many microfinance institutions currently operating in urban areas than rural areas. Microfinance are known to Its reputation of helping low-income households to stabilize their income flows and save for future needs; observing facts are too slow build up existence of Microfinance institutions to rural areas are yet to focus to rural areas while remain with poverty and these kinds of financial services remain unknown to other rural and remote areas. Furthermore, microfinance may help families, farms, and small businesses to prosper, and at times of crisis it can help them cope and rebuild rural communities if introduced and operated in these remote areas.
It is must to be regulated by central bank in Tanzania and have mandate to any financial services provider especially Microfinance is well regulated under BoT but also their National Microfinance policy and other supervisory framework. The emphasis on them is too low as for presence of commercial banks with their innovative product which interfered Microfinance financial services. It’s not bad notion since it is competitive and commercial era, but it seizes to suppress these micro capital institutions to its existence. In good formality must learn to co- exist as alpha be alpha (BoT) and beta doing beta thing (commercial banks) and let omega enjoy the fruits of being omega (Microfinance institution); this interruption redirects the main purpose of microfinance and it main objective in Tanzania.
According to “mondaq.com ” The Bank of Tanzania (the BoT) exercising its powers under section 60(1) and (2) of the Microfinance Act of 2018 (the Act) has published the Microfinance (Non-Deposit Taking Microfinance Service Providers) Regulations of 2019 (the Regulations) among other regulations.” According to Finandlaw.co.tz which said The Central Bank of Tanzania (Bank of Tanzania) has finally issued the regulations governing Microfinance Business in Tanzania. The regulations come in trio containing, Microfinance (Non-Deposit Taking Microfinance Service Providers) Regulations 2019 (GN No. 679 of 2019), Microfinance (Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies) Regulations 2019 (GN No. 675 of 2019), The Microfinance (Community Microfinance Groups) Regulations 2019 GN No. 678 of 2019.Government view microfinance as powerful allied to combat poverty in Tanzania so they establish it regulate it , supervise it and governed it through Bank of Tanzania, some supervisory frameworks and policies.
Microfinance institutions in Tanzania appeared with three faces: first is Non- Governmental Organisation (NGO’s) which include PRIDE, FINCA, Vision Fund, SEDA, PTF etc. Another, banking services which offer similar range of micro- credit and some are large banks like NMB, CRDB, ACB, and most of regional banks and community banks are also providing these kinds of services like Kilimanjaro cooperative bank, Dar es salaam community bank, Mfindi community bank etc. Finally, cooperative based institutions here we are talking about SACCOS, SACCAS, AMCOS, VIKOBA etc. But not only them provide financial services that predominately as saving based and these are not regulated BoT these don’t work directly as financial institution as agency for poverty eradication includes SIDO, YOSEFO, SELFINA, and Poverty Africa and Zanzibar based Women Development Trust Fund.
Recent years their existence of e-banking or mobile banking institution which provide micro- credit to borrowers with access of internet and some no access of internet. In fact, some are not real financial institution but provide micro- credit and micro- saving like M-pawa through M-pesa, Tigopesa, Halopesa, etc. With those include online microfinance are like TALA, Branch, Timiza, TMF, easy loan, mkopo chap chap loan finder etc.
Source of fund and Operation
Source of financing microfinance so they say is from donors, SACCOS, Government, community based and bank loans. International donors play big part to fund institutions and NGO’s and provide not only substantial financial resources but even technical assistance to them. SACCOS and Community based are mostly use internal source of fund by collective fund measure toward membership that provide equal contribution and distribution and some time the get assistance from donors, government through subsides and noninterest loans, also the use banks loan which can be accessed.
Many microfinances operate though micro borrowing, but the market is widespread nowadays when involved the big guns like bank they tend to have saving. But may borrower’s ideology is not saving is about getting micro credit which is main purpose. Since then, microfinance drift to commercial more than serving low-income earner and eradicating poverty as government intended. Microfinance suppose to deal with poor and rural areas and urban, but many operations are urban centered which the get collaterals, easy to reach them than rural areas. The interest pricing can be high because most of the local microfinance providers borrow from bank for 10% to 20% this may lead for Microfinance to charge more than bank rate. Which make borrower to use commercial banks despite of many procedure but for some they still enjoy microfinance though they are affected by it.
There many developmental challenges faced by micro credit providers in Tanzania because is substantial to the backbone to low income and unemployed to enter economic activities. And these are some challenges.
Criticisms: their propaganda involve charging low rate and oversimplification of procedures than of those commercial banks. Most of them charge low interest of 1% up to 10% mostly with no transaction cost or restriction of having saving. This approaches and techniques cannot do by banks because they can not take risk on loan but to microcredit provider can offer loan for 24 hours, with national identity cards only, that made accessing loans to be very easy than using banks.
Beneficiaries of the benefits; the aim of microfinance institution by Dr Muhammad Yunnus and other idealist like US President Bill Clinton once said, “the poor are credit worthy and that micro financing effort can be self-sustainable, create growth and widespread peace.” But do poor benefit microcredit? All of this institution focusses on commercialize services drift away from it main purpose. These institutions target civil servant’s government officials by using lawson verdict. In large percent poor and rural areas are outreached and not capable of getting these services but other groups benefit these services.
Insolvent of financial services ingredients; financial literacy, trust issues, repayment measures and access to credit. Borrowers of microcredits are client of banks which have bank accounts in consumer perspective to have MFI’s account is not easy due to misunderstanding of financial services to offer savings as product so, also some low-income earners do not have that knowledge of saving. Trust issue faced by microfinance institutions about borrowers do trust these institution because of the and repayment measures are not comfortable to consumer as it’s recovery is not smooth transaction the fact that the collateral they use are home furniture’s and some time employer’ concerned this bring fear among borrowers and also institution , targeted poorest people are not able to access credit for claims of geographical and socio economic factor for MFI’s not able to reach them at large; remoteness is fact but also repayment capacity of these projected clients like in rural areas. Inaccessibility of credits in areas and nature of competition and profit oriented with business ideology have made them urban centered mind to the point of loss of clients who uses bank services.
The developmental outreach of microfinance institutions is reasonable nowadays which can be accessed through e-banking or known as sim banking/ mobile banking, google apps, telecommunication company services even in the phones so it increases number of borrowers to the easy access to credit. Increase of digital services to borrowers reduce time consuming to loan procedures, it establishes more easily accessible micro loans and other services. Women empowerment is achieved in large number of entrepreneurs are women nowadays. Microfinance institutions boost economy as financial tool to eradicate poverty among urban areas and rural areas, low-income earner are motivated to borrow an start micro enterprises to build their individual / household provision this is baby steps to development. Competitive market goes with using of technology which open so many unemployment problem and easy access of services and availability of many and different product because of increase of Microfinance Institution and financial services providers. Reasonable and competitive pricing of interest for some MFI’s who use donors and subsidies they offer low interest that benefit customers to encourage other client to apply for credit. Innovative products which have different package like mortgages, leasing of buildings, machines, vehicles and furniture and many other uses for loan.
What should be done?
Most of MFI’s must mobilize savings to client to reduce dependence of international donors which lead to good management of savings and to use them to the loan portfolio and building stable source of fund that expanding operations base on Microfinance institution. There is financial inclusion towards Microfinance institution and borrower or low-income earner to overlook individuals and micro enterprises to access financial services according to income level that maybe useful and affordable financial products and services that meet their needs to smooth transactions, suitable payment methods and approaches, potential savings, available and accessible credit, and insurance to be delivered in a responsible and sustainable technique like online.
Return to basics of Micro finance purpose; the idea of microfinance is to provide financial services to poor households, microenterprises, women, and youth so as government to reach the goals. There notion says “Poor people need not just loans but also savings, insurance and money transfer services.”
Coping with economic and political environment; economic policies like millennium development goals and sustainable development goals these change in time with political interest of the country. Monetary policy has been accommodative to support credit and economic growth, as it was supportive to poverty eradication as goal number one and decent work and economic growth. Microfinance institutions needs to consider the political environment when creating business strategies. The entire political environment includes looking at government policies and the risk and instability of current political factors and current political party in power, the degree of politicization effectiveness and efficiency of the current government, government policies, current legal framework, the public attitude towards the economy.
Professionalism: expertise in Microfinance institution is very important that can make industry is moving very fast as India’s microfinance sector is fragmented with more than 3000 microfinance institutions in India are estimated to account for almost 74 per cent of the total loans outstanding. The work of expertise it means put right person for right job with standards, awareness, and practises in microfinance sector.
Upon the creation of microcredit by Bangladeshi social entrepreneur Muhammad Yunus in 1983, microfinance was simultaneously created. In 1983, Yunus established Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. The goal of Grameen Bank was to initially provide small loans to entrepreneurs. When the movement gain momentum globally: Tanzania 1980’s adopted Microfinance institution as the proper tool to reduce poverty, allowing poor citizens from lower socio-economical classes to participate in the building of country’s economy. Microfinance is a government strategy used to help Tanzanians to fight poverty by providing a variety of financial services to poor and low-income individuals who do not have access to banking and related services for the growth of economy to household level.
Climate encompasses the statistics of meteorological conditions, that is, temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle counts and other meteorological element in a given region over a long period of time. Climate change is attributed directly or indirectly to human activities that alert the composition of global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural variability observed over comparable time period. Variability may be due to internal natural processes within the climate system or variation in anthropogenic external forces. A national park is predominantly unaltered area of the land and/or sea characterized by exceptional and varied natural assets comprising one or several preserved and predominantly unaltered ecosystem and is primarily set aside for conservation of original natural assets.
Tanzania is the largest country in East Africa, covering the area of 945209 km2, 60000 of which is inland water. It’s shares the boundaries with eight countries such as Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Mozambique, Congo, Burundi, Rwanda and Zambia. Tanzania lies close to the equator in East coast of Africa between parallel 1 S and 12 S and meridian 30E and 40E. By being close to the equator, climate variations in temperature are not very extreme. Tanzania is among of African countries in terms of biodiversity of both flora and fauna species in its terrestrial and marine ecosystem, it has numerous vegetation cover distributed along the diverse landscape. It is a home of endemic plants and animal’s species most of which are of world importance. It has 16 national park such as Kilimanjaro, Lake Manyara, Tarangire, Mikumi, Saadani, Saa nane Island, Katavi, Gombe, and etc.
Climate trend in Tanzania
Rainfall pattern in country is subdivided into: tropical on the coast where is humid and hot (rainy season is March-May): semi-temperate in the mountains with short rains in November-December and long rains in February-May: and drier in the plateau region with considerable seasonal variation in temperature. The mean annual rainfall varies from 500 mm to 2500 mm and above, the duration of dry period is five to six months. However recent rainfall pattern has become more unpredictable with some areas receive extremely maximum and minimum rainfall per year.
Temperature in Tanzania also varies according to geographical location, relief and altitude. In the Coastal regions temperature ranging between 27℃ to 29℃, while in central, Northern and Western parties, temperature ranges between 20℃ to 30℃ and higher between month of December to March. In the Northeast and Southeast where there is mountainous and Makonde plateau, the temperature occasionally drops to 15℃ at night during months of June and July.
The following are the effects of climate change to National Parks in Tanzania.
Water shortage for large mammals especially in the period of law rainfall is the main challenge to facing wildlife, the places that naturally used to dry water during dry season are no longer used to dry water and thus water dependent animals such as hippopotamus, crocodiles, buffaloes are found crowded in few remaining water ponds elephant eg in Ruaha National Park. Seriously lack of surface water led to considerably hippopotamus and buffaloes’ mortalities. Suffering from lack of water, wildlife physiological functions are impaired and they are becoming easy targets to poachers and predators. Thus, with changing climate and associated decrease in water availability due to reduced amounts and altered seasonal distribution of rainfall, the existing water related problems are likely to be compounded (Elisa at all., 2011, cf. Kangalawe, 2010).
Due to climate change, wild animals from National Park are roaming around the adjacent villages to search for pastures and water. So many events of crop raiding occur and thus cause human-wildlife conflicts. The animals commonly involved in these conflicts are hippopotamus, buffaloes and elephants and this may be aggravated with changing climatic conditions example is in Lake Manyara National Park.
Affects nature-based tourism
Tourism has close connections to environment and considered to be highly climatic sensitive sector. Climate variabilities determine the length and quality of tourism seasons, thus play a major role in the destination choice and tourist spending. Climate affect a wide range of environmental resources that are key attraction to tourism such as snow conditions over mount killimanjaro, wildlife productivity and biodiversity. Climate also has an effects on environmental conditions that can deter tourists including infectious diseases, wild fires, waterborne pest and insects.
Glacier retreat in Mount Kilimanjaro
The early retreat of glaciers on the Kilimanjaro was due to natural climatic shifts whilst the warming up of the Earth after the industrial era has led to current faster recession of the glaciers. There is no argument today regarding the retreat of Kilimanjaro glacier; the glaciers have been retreating in unprecedented scale in the recent years directly because of climate change. The retreat of the glaciers is probably the most iconic indication of climate change impacts in Tanzania (Ibid). The most recent available data shows that the glaciers were about 4.2km2 in 1976 (Hastenrath and Greischar, 1997). In 2000, the remaining glaciers were only 2.6km2 (Thompson, et al., 2002).
Climate change is altering environmental niche and cause species to species their habitat range, as they track their ecological niche. Species shifts allow species to persist but may negatively affect existing species in these areas because the shifted species may be a primarily source of food to the existing species..
Speciation is an evolutionary process by which new ecological species arise. Due to various natural processes including geographical separation and drift, some species become separated. In consequences, under changing climatic conditions and due to natural selection, new species are established. Climate change and invasive species pose ecological challenges to the world. The impact of climate change and rise in average global temperature can have a profound effect to the specie’s geographical ranges that are often set primarily by climate and the host environment. Climate changes alter destination of habitat and increase vulnerability to invasion because of resource scarcity and increased competition among native flora and fauna. Example, Argemonemexicana in Ngorongoro CA.
Strategies for climate change
Enhance resilience of wildlife Ecosystem to impacts of climate change.
This can be done through promoting wildlife management practice that increase resilience to climate change, establishing a wildlife climate change related monitoring and information management system and enhancing protection and conservation of wildlife habitats.
Ensure water quality availability and accessibility in a changing climate.
This can be achieved by protection and conservation of water catchment areas, invest and promote appropriate water management technology, invest exploration and extraction of underground water and conduct vulnerability assessment in water resources.
Undertake research on climate change impacts.
Undertake a detailed and coordinated research on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, mitigation measures and develop technology that will ensure sustainable response system for minimizing impacts and risks associated with changing in climate.
Adequate financial resources for climate change adaptation.
This can be done through effective and efficient system for planning and mobilization and management of climate change funds.
Climate, tourist attraction, wildlife habitat is closely associated to National Parks. Change in climate have directly influenced tourism seasonality and indirectly affect natural attractiveness of the parks by changing tourism flagship species and natural landscape. Decreasing rainfall and increasing temperature have led to more drier conditions and increased aridity resulting to shortage of water for wildlife.
Elisa, M., Gara, J.I., and Wolanski, E. (2011). A Review of Water Crisis in Tanzania’s protected areas with emphasis on Katuma River-Lake Rukwa Ecosystem. Journal of Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology [DOI: 10.2478/v10104-011-0001-z]
Fischlin, A., Midgley, G.F., Price, J. T., Leemans, R., Gopal, B., Turley, C., Rounsevell, M. D.A., Dube, O. P., Tarazona, J., and Velichko, A.A. (2007). Ecosystems, their properties, goods, and services. In Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F,. Palutikof, J. P., van der Linden P. J., and Hanson, C.E. (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Workin Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 211-272.
Kangalawe, R.Y.M. (2010). Mainstreaming climate change adaptation in the management of freshwater resources in the Rufi ji Basin. A consultancy report submitted to the Ruaha Water Programme. WWF-Tanzania Country Offi ce, Dar es Salaam.
United Republic of Tanzania – URT (2002). Population and Housing Census 2002. United Republic of Tanzania. National Bureau of Statistics, Dar es Salaam.
Hastenrath S, Greischar L. 1997. Glacier recession on Kilimanjaro, East Africa, 191 89. Journal of Glaciology 43: 455-459.
Thompson LG, Mosley-Thompson E, Davis ME, Henderson KA, Brecher HH, Zagorodnov VS, Mashiotta TA, Lin PN, Mikhalenko VN, Hardy DR, Beer J. 2002.Kilimanjaro ice core records: evidence of Holocene climate change in tropical Africa. Science 298: 589-593.
B Nyamboge Mwema Nyawangwe – Art in Tanzania internship
As well as it is known COVID-19 is a global pandemic in the whole world today. Tanzania is among one of the many countries that has been affected in many ways and one of the major areas is in the economic sector. Since last April to May 2020 there was a huge rise of cases regarding COVID-19 which led to lockdowns including shutting down of various public places like schools. The average has reduced highly since last year since and people are no longer quarantined, despite that, the recently new president ordered for more research/investigation with regard to COVID-19 and measures to prevent it from spreading are still taken. Despite Tanzanian boarders being still open several measures are still undertaken by the government and individuals to protect against the spread of COVID19. Some of these measures include the one’s set by WHO like wearing face masks, social distancing in public places and washing hands or using hand sanitizers.
Given the fact that majority of Tanzanian’s are backward economically and can’t afford means of protections such as hand sanitizers, face masks etc., this people are forced to stay at home as to avoid crowds, hence a lot of people have failed to keep up with their daily jobs. This is especially to rural people who are self-employed hence when they don’t work means no income generated and therefore reduction of expenses reducing general revenues. Some companies also have been forced to deduct workers’ salaries and also expel some workers as to keep up with the financial flows.
Despite the rate of COVID-19 gradually falling but other countries are still highly affected by the disease which is more likely contributing to affecting Tanzania economy, currently and the future. Some of the major areas directly linked with the economy have shown this impacts.
In Public financing/ Government.
The government is facing and will continue facing problem in public budgeting and social services delivery to its people, this is because it has increased demand for public expenditure mainly in procuring tools needed due to COVID-19 such as sanitizers, medical equipment’s and so forth. The government revenues are expected to keep failing due to variety in cash flow obtained in direct and indirect taxes, levies and fees. As it is known with COVID-19 most of companies decreased workers and also most of workers payments were declined also others were forced to stop working naturally due to factors within.
In tourism sector;
One of the major sources of the government income in Tanzania is through tourism. Which has far more tattered, very few tourists are coming to the country due to restrictions set in countries hence the demand has quite declined. The government has reckoned that this year probably only few tourists will come to Tanzania for the holidays which is about a quarter of the normal rate. Places like Zanzibar has been so much affected since most of their economy depend on tourism. The chain that links from the places that tourist visited and stayed like hotels to the people working there and the suppliers of products or services their jobs have frozen due lack of tourist.
Tanzania mostly depends on exported products and very few are made within. Trade global chains are disrupted, and some factories have been shut down, most of products are running out hence sellers lack products to sell and money circulation has been declining. Most of the country boundaries have been closed not allowing products to go out or come in for some time. This has also led to rise of prices of some products causing some people not to afford them which leaves these products unsold especially those that are not basic needs or that are luxurious products. Export and import of products has been generally affected due to shutdown of some factories which has highly affected the economy.
In banks and financial institutions;
This are among major helpers of the economy that have been highly affected due to COVID-19, there has been reduction of bank deposits given all factors generated that has causes slow generation of income, Foreign financial flows have fallen due to no transactions of money from other countries due to the lockdown hence lack of foreign currency within, also there has been deterioration between the customers and bank relationships since it has been hard to establish a common ground due to operational challenges from both sides.
As for Tanzania as long as COVID 19 continues to exist despite it being within the country or outside its impact on the economy will always be valid and continue to affect the major sectors of the economy, which will keep causing decline of general income gained by individuals and the government at large. Such hard times require hard decisions on best measure as to what should be undertaken as to try and maintain the economy to avoid great depression.
Already some measures have been taken as to help overcome the economic problems generated due to COVID-19 for example in banks and financial institutions follows the Bank of Tanzania policies measures, this is by issuing relief packages towards their customers especially the small and medium enterprises which include payment holidays ranging from 3-6 months and restricting of loans to extend repayment periods.
Managing periods in Tanzania is challenging due to a lack of access to menstrual products and sanitation services. Over 50% of Tanzanians do not have access to improved sanitation and access to clean drinking water is often limited (Moloney, 2020). With a lack of access to menstrual hygiene products, information, and appropriate sanitation services, women and girls are put at risk for poor physical or reproductive health (Moloney, 2020). This also has detrimental effects, as it limits opportunities for girls and women in Tanzania (Moloney, 2020).
Water facilities are not available in 38% of Tanzanian schools, the water facilities are not operational in 46% of the cases, and 64% of school latrines do not have a place to dispose of sanitary pads (Maji Safi Group, 2020). 85% of girls are forced to use unhygienic solutions such as strips of cloth, which can spread fungi and infection due to a lack of sanitation services and menstrual products (Maji Safi Group, 2020). The severe lack of resources often forces girls to use other unsanitary options such as leaves, pieces of a mattress filling, or used cloth (Maji Safi Group, 2020). Using these options could result in infections (Maji Safi Group, 2020).
Because of misinformation, menstruation has negative connotations, girls often face stigma and are made to feel ashamed of themselves and their bodies (Moloney, 2020). Girls often isolate themselves at home during menstruation, sometimes even missing school (Maji Safi Group, 2020). According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), about one in ten African teenage girls that reside in remote areas miss school during their menstruation cycle and eventually drop out of school due to issues that surround period poverty (Maji Safi Group, 2020). According to a study by Tawasanet Menstruation and Health Management, 62% of female students miss school due to physical illness that is a result from menstruation (Maji Safi Group, 2020). As a result, these young women face negative long-term socio-economic and educational effects (Maji Safai Group, 2020).
Pads and menstrual products are also often expensive—for example, sanitary products costs a typical Tanzanian woman 3.4% of her monthly salary, compared to 0.15% for the average American woman (Kottasová, 2018). For some women in rural communities, it can cost even more—even as much as 10% of a woman’s salary (Kottasová, 2018). Period poverty also negatively impacts the economy, as female workers may have to miss several days of work a month when menstruating (Kottasová, 2018). The Tanzanian government reports that 60% of women live in “absolute poverty”, and due to period poverty, women who are already economically disadvantaged to begin with face greater economic hurdles due to factors such as missing and dropping out of school and missing days of work due to being unable to afford menstrual and sanitary products (Kottasová, 2018).
Increasing education on menstrual and reproductive health is essential in combating period poverty in Tanzania (Moloney, 2020). Many organizations are dedicated to ending gender-based discrimination and destigmatize female hygiene, such as the Maji Safi Group, which uses a comprehensive approach which includes community outreach, providing learning materials, after school programs and employing Tanzanian women as community health educators (Moloney, 2020).
Ginger is grown in Kilimanjaro, Kigoma,Ruvuma, Morogoro, Kagera and Mbeya region.
Currently, Ginger in Kilimanjaro is widely grown in Same District, particularly on the slopes of Usambara Mountains the ancient range in northeast Tanzania, which is part of the Eastern Arc.
Ginger is a versatile botanical plant that has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. Drinking ginger tea can provide you with many health benefits. Not everyone can benefit from ginger tea. However, you should check with your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, using blood thinners, have bleeding disorders, heart disease or high blood pressure before using ginger or its products, according to the Physicians’ Desktop Reference.
Apart from enhancing flavor in cooking as spice condiments ginger also has been used by Humans for medical purposes
Ginger root contains gingerol, which increases the motility of the gastrointestinal tract, according to Nutrition. Gingerol also contains anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.
Nausea and vomiting relief
According to the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC), ginger has been a treatment for upset stomach, diarrhea and nausea for more than 2,000 years. Although you can eat ginger raw, as a candy or cooked, the tea form is most common for medicinal purposes. In a study reprinted on the UMMC website, a gram of ginger daily for up to four days was shown to help relieve nausea. This relief was greater for pregnant women than for people with motion sickness or nausea from a surgical operation.
Increase Vitamin C Level
Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that the body cannot produce or store; you must take it daily to avoid vitamin C deficiency. The lemon in ginger and lemon tea contains vitamin C, although the amount varies according to how much you add to the tea. Vitamin C is a factor in preventing certain cancers, such as mouth, stomach and breast. This vitamin is also an antioxidant that helps protect the cells against free radical damage, harmful molecules that form in the body due to anything from cigarette smoke to chemicals in foods.
Cold and Flu relief
Ginger and lemon are both known for their vitamin C content. When you have a cold or flu, stock up on these antioxidants to help boost your immune system and recover quickly. Ginger with honey can relieve coughing, sore throat and runny nose, according to Organic Facts. Lemon is also a traditional remedy for colds and sore throat. Brew lemon and ginger tea and add honey for a cold remedy.
Ginger tea may offer antiviral properties, Balch writes. Fresh ginger root may help destroy virus cells that cause common colds, influenza, cold sores and genital herpes. It may also help fight the spread of established viruses, speeding recovery from colds and flu, and reducing the frequency and severity of herpes outbreaks.
The chemicals in fresh ginger tea may help shrink cancerous tumors, according to Castleman. This may help prevent the spread of cancer and may increase your chances of cancer remission. However, scientific studies have only been conducted on animals, so the anti-cancer benefits of ginger tea for humans are unclear.
Fresh ginger tea may help reduce inflammation of muscles and connective tissues. This may help ease pain and stiffness associated with arthritis. However, ginger tea cannot prevent the degradation of muscle and bone cells associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
Lemon ginger tea may benefit your digestive health and function. A compound found in ginger root called gingerol, may stimulate mobility in your intestines, relieving constipation. Gingerol may also have anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, which helps keep your gastrointestinal tract healthy. Ginger may also alleviate some of the symptoms of gastrointestinal distress, such as an upset stomach, nausea, and diarrhea. Ginger root extracts, including those in lemon ginger tea, have been used during pregnancy and after surgery for the treatment of acute nausea.
Setting money aside for savings, like so many other things in life, is a habit that must be created. You should do all you can to foster a savings habit if you want to see your savings rise. Instead of being a burden, putting money away can become a way of life. If you’re having trouble getting into the habit of saving, try the following methods or approaches to stay motivated:
Begin small: To inspire non-savers to begin saving, it is critical to question any misconceptions that might be holding them back, such as the notion that saving is too difficult or that they must make significant sacrifices to make it worthwhile. Starting small (by establishing short-term objectives and defining practical lifestyle changes) makes saving feel possible, builds trust, and feels ‘easy.’
Show progress toward a target: Having a specific and concrete goal, as well as a strategy for achieving it, gives people something to concentrate on, and research shows that as these goals are reached, savings patterns will form.
Reward yourself for completing small milestones: Depending on the duration of your target, you will reward yourself at various milestones. This allows you to monitor your progress and keeps you motivated to keep saving. These incentives should be enjoyable activities that you would not usually do but are still small and reasonable. It might be a day off (if you can take one), a picnic in the park, dinner at a nicer restaurant than normal, or some other fun activity. Only don’t spend all of your money while you’re enjoying your tiny reward.
Make it social: research from other industries shows that sharing commitment devices with friends and family will help people stick to their goals (typically via social media.) Commitment contracts go a step further, imposing a penalty if you don’t keep your word – but these strategies have yet to be proven in terms of saving behavior. Similarly, studies have shown that saving with friends and family is more motivational.
Form a habit: research shows that once savings habits are formed, they are more likely to be sustained, and that among ‘rainy-day savers,’ the savings habits they acquired as children are carried over into adulthood and become self-reinforcing.
Automate your savings: Setting up an automated system of moving your money around is one of the simplest ways to get into the habit of saving. Whether you have money from your paycheck automatically deposited into a savings account (including a retirement account) or you do an automatic transfer each month, getting your savings transferred around automatically will help you change your lifestyle to what you end up as take home pay
View saving as a game, not a chore: framing saving as a challenge makes it more appealing and counters the belief that it is too difficult or tiresome to think about. This is partly due to a lack of financial expertise in identifying practical ways to cut costs and save money.
Provide information and personalize it: information must be pitched at the appropriate level to avoid being patronizing.
People want to see simple and relevant advice: anything that ‘people like me’ can do
With the observable changes to weather patterns, such as shifts in rain patterns, and intensified storms, rural communities in Tanzania are struggling to maintain their agricultural way of life. Continuing to produce the crops and quantities needed is becoming gradually more challenging. It is understood and observed that rain patterns have been abnormal in recent years but the other environmental factors negatively affecting crops are far less noticeable. As most know, crops need water, sunlight, and soil to grow, and healthy crops make healthy people. Yet in reality the equation is far more complex than that. Some crops can easily be over watered or receive too much direct sunlight, and air quality affects their growth as well. However, the most important element in crop production is actually the soil. Soil is not only what holds and supports the plants, it is also what provides nutrients to the crops. Healthy soil can retain far more water than thin dusty soil, combating the issue of inconsistent watering. Healthy soil also helps to protect the plants from illness, bacteria, and underground pests. The most important aspect of healthy soil is that it gives nutrients and vitamins to the plants we eat. Continuing to grow crops in the same plot of land season after season removes all the nutrients from the soil causing the crop yield to decrease and human health to suffer. With the changes in the environment, variability of rainfall, increase in annual temperature, and prevalence of harmful plastic derived chemicals, the best way to ensure crop health does not drastically decrease is to: improve the health of the soil. Soil health can be drastically improved with the use of natural fertilizer, and natural fertilizer can easily be made with little to no cost by composting food waste. The widespread lack of a thorough waste management system — especially in agricultural regions, causes food waste to pile up near common living spaces or even spaces where food is prepared. This negatively affects human health in several ways. This form of waste management emits a greenhouse gas called Methane that amplifies changes in weather patterns by changing the chemistry of the atmosphere at an unnatural speed. But more importantly for the community, food waste attracts a large number of insects. Cholera is a very common and severe illness in these areas, and it is largely spread by flies. Flies feed on both human waste and rotting food, so when these materials are close to fresh food, illness occurs more frequently. With better managed food waste illness would be less frequent and far less severe.
Common waste consists of fresh fruit and vegetable peels, cooked starchy food waste, and scraps of cow, chicken, goat, and fish. All these things attract vermin and insects, but they also are all organic materials that are high in nutrients. If these materials were to be property composted human health would improve from both the improved crop yield and the reduction of illness.
Composting is the process of using food scraps and other natural materials such as grass clippings and coconut husks to create a natural nutrient rich fertilizer. Composting takes attention and effort, but it is an extremely effective way to increase water retention in soil, crop production, and crop health. If the plastics were removed from these images, all the materials could be the start of a healthy nutrient rich fertilizer. Properly combining compostable materials initiates a thermal reaction between the materials that causes them to break down while producing nutrients. The main things needed are airflow, warmth, moisture and a three to one ratio of ‘brown’ and ‘green’ ingredients. Direct sunlight can also increase the speed of the process. Brown ingredients refer to carbon rich materials such as dry leaves, sticks, and ash.
While green ingredients are nitrogen rich materials like food waste, manure, and fresh grass clippings. The reaction that causes composting to be successful is dependent on the interaction between carbon and nitrogen rich materials, so it is very important to pay attention to what you are putting into your compost. Composting can be done on a small scale in trash cans or buckets, but it is important to put small holes in whatever container you use so heat and air can flow through. It is also important to use a lid. Thin layers are best because the ‘brown’ and ‘green’ materials need to be touching. Whenever you have food waste put it in your compost container and cover with a ‘brown’ layer, then put on the lid. The smaller the food scraps are the faster the fertilizer will form, so tear and grind materials when able. It is important to keep the compost moist — but not wet– so you should only add water as needed. If the compost appears slimy or smelly add extra ‘brown’ materials or even some dirt. Mixing or stirring the layers every three or four days speeds up the process. If you are using a bucket you can simply roll it gently with the lid on. It is very important to make sure no plastic contaminates the process. Only the materials listed below should be incorporated.
If you would like to compost on a larger scale to suit your level of crop production and food waste, outdoor compost piles are easy to start and maintain. The simplest way to start an outdoor compost pile is to place a pole or branch in the ground and create layers of materials around it. The first layer should be of larger ‘brown’ materials like tree clippings and hay, then you can add a thin layer of food waste, and more ‘brown’ materials on top. You can collect the food waste in any closed container, just be sure that no other unnatural trash contaminates it.
Several households can contribute their waste to the same pile. So, when you need to empty your jar of rotting food scraps, take it to the outdoor pile and create another layer. Whenever you add the ‘green’ ingredients add a ‘brown’ layer on top to ensure the reaction will occur. Covering the food waste with dry leaves and other materials also helps to prevent pests from disturbing the pile. When your pile has formed you can remove the pole in the center which the layers were formed around, this will allow heat and air to flow efficiently throughout the pile and it will increase the speed of the process. When the pile is first formed you should cover it with a tarp or rice sacks weighed down by a few rocks, this insures that it does not become too moist and it traps all the materials, forcing the reaction to occur. A few days after food waste has been added you can stir the pile to help the layers mix and breakdown. When your compost appears to be dark thick dirt the process is complete, and you can utilize the fertilizer wherever your crops are growing. Continuing the process will gradually yet significantly improve your garden or field of crops. The more fertilizer added, the better your crops will be. Improving your soil improves your health, making plentiful and vitamin rich foods.
Obesity or overweight is defined as having abnormal or excessive fats that may impair health. 63% of Australian adults are overweight and 18.04% of Australian children have reported overweight in 2012 obesity is also steadily rising since the 90’s. Behavioral risk facts include excessive alcohol and inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables. Women are usually more likely to become more obese as adults but as children males have higher risks. This is due to the number of exercises a person does and their diet. Adolescents who are overweight or obese are more vulnerable to risk behavior and are more likely to engage in maladaptive coping.
Overweight/obese teens are more likely than their normal weight counterparts to have disrupted social interactions, stigma, and weight prejudice. These stressful life experiences, combined with the normative challenges of adolescence and the burden of maintaining an unhealthy weight, can predispose adolescents to participate in health-risk behaviors. Overweight and obese children are often taller for their age and gender, and they grow faster than slim children. Increased leptin and sex hormone levels in obese children with excess adiposity can be linked to rapid pubertal development and epiphyseal growth plate maturation.
According to study, blaming parents for their children’s weight gain can be irrational. It has been proposed that the eating habits of parents play a significant role in whether an infant is underweight or overweight.
Changes in diet. Obesity can be overcome by reducing calories and adopting healthy dietary habits. While you can lose weight easily at first, long-term weight loss is considered the easiest way to lose weight and the best way to hold it off forever.
Disaster- we can define as the serious disruptions occurring over a short period of time that cause widespread human, material, economic and environmental loss which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
It can be as natural or man-made disasters such as drought, floods, earthquakes, cyclones, eruption of diseases, bomb explosions and accidents both on land, air and water.
As the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspect of emergencies in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters. It includes all procedure, processes, agencies and institutional framework which are inter-linkage each other to manage hazards.
General overview of Disaster Management in Tanzania
Tanzania mainland is exposed of many hazard including floods, drought, cyclones, volcanic eruptions, tsunami and earthquakes, all of which have potential of disrupting the community in term of social economic services, ecological, environmental and health. Similar, Tanzania under the prime minister identifying that, major disasters in our country are floods, drought and earthquakes which causing casualties and damaging or destroying the public or private property.
Similar, Tanzania government since independence introducing The disaster Management Department (DMD) under the prime minister office which has the main work on identifying and anticipating hazards and preparations of plans, programs against disasters impacts so as to save lives and protect property.
Status of Disaster Management in Tanzania
Through different scholars and disaster personnel making researchers on the trend of disaster since independence up to current. The united republic of Tanzania government trying take an efforts on to lessen up the impacts of disasters like earthquakes, drought and floods by making policies (Disaster Management Policy of 2004), Disaster Act, of 2015, programs like N’gorongoro community base disaster management, introduction of institutions providing expertise dealing with disaster and environmental for example The university of Dar es salaam and The university of Dodoma and supervising coordination among the institutions on time of hazard occurrence like fire department, health sector, policy force and other ministries agencies on reducing the directed impacts to the community. Although those efforts but still now our country suffer from disrupting of natural disaster.
The possible challenges are poor implementation of policies and acts whereby on paperwork comprises of all measures and actions on preparedness, response and recovery but still on reality based on response stages where government allocates their resources effectively compared to other stages. Also, we challenged with shortage of disaster expertise which are more potential in all sectors through on making and implementation of policies, acts, preparations of programs and plans, provision of awareness to the community. Furthermore, educational institutions are very few which provide each year’s personnel such as Ardhi University and The University of Dodoma.
Table: Disasters current trend
Types of Disaster
Dar es Salaam
total number of people affected with flood (2-death)
Reductions crops-yields 7.
1170-total number of people affected with earthquakes(UNCEF)
Why developing countries, it is commonly lack of funds, equipment and educated people to manage the Disaster situations.
Lack of funds. Most of political ruling systems in developing countries invaded with political issues which trigger management of disaster. Every ruling system comes with their political ideology which based on other sectors than directions of enough resources on disaster management. For example, in 2015 the late president Dr. Joseph John Pombe Magufuli came up with investment on industrial economy whereby a lot of funds invested on industries compared to disaster department. Also, there is no proper coordination on resources ownership among stakeholders, agencies and ministries. In addition, most developing countries depend on donor countries which create an environment to depend all the time on international donors during disaster strike for example Tanzania on disasters project depend on much world banks which sponsor constructions and repairing infrastructures affected with floods.
We have low technological advancement in term of innovations which are most important to produce equipment used on weather forecasting, early warning systems and transportation equipment services like cars, airplane. Although current some developing countries taking actions on creation of weather forecasting satellite which are used on provisions of cyclones information (SADC, 4IR satellite launching on 27-10-2020).
Allocation of enough budget in disaster management. Tanzania government current they should increases more budgets which will help to minimize the impacts of disaster in social-economic and environment. Also they should creating proper economic diversification where sectors are more priorities to acquire enough capital they should contribute to disaster department which will help to access more equipment like weather forecasting equipment, warning systems and rescue equipment which will bring benefits to our country specifically in rural areas community will access easily warning Information and educations on how to conserve environment (land, water and air).
Similar, Tanzania government they should increases number of institutions on provision of disasters education for aiming of increasing number of disaster experts, provision of education on practical rather than theoretical and provisions of disaster experts in all sectors on provision of educations and preparations of plans and programs. Furthermore, government should make sure policies and Acts are well implemented not remaining on paperwork.
In addition, technology should be improved at all levels so as to create better conditions for making sustainably country on technological innovations. Both local technologies and modern technologies should be emphasized so as to reduce the impacts of disasters from national up to local levels, for example using insects, animals on weather forecasting and prediction, food storage facilities (modern and local) which will bring positive impacts on environment and social-economic aspects against disaster impacts.