Relations between Tanzania and China could be central for future African ecological transition.

By Alessandro Deligios – Art in Tanzania internship

Bagamoyo, Tanzania

In these last years China is exploiting her economic power to take more influence in geopolitical arena. According with the future model of geo-economic competition, China firstly seems try to become the leader State in Asia, secondly is taking more power in many areas of the word. One of the strategies to extend her influence is the Belt & Road Initiative (BRI), with which, through financing project in different word areas, China is able to deeply link the economy of various countries to her one and so create a global economic network that have Chinese economic and financial system as reference – the so-called Beijing consensus.

Jakaya Kikwete and Xi Jinping

In particular China is focusing on East Africa and in this region Tanzania-China relationship is a key for Beijing to get a strategic economic position: in 2013 the Tanzanian ex President Jakaya Kikwete signed an agreement for allow China to invest in the financing of Bagamoyo port project, around which it should have place a special economic zone, that expected China to have especial condition for example for water and energy provisions and the security that Tanzania wouldn’t have financing another competitor port. But in January 2016 the project has been annulled by the President John Magufuli because the agreement for him was like sell Tanzania to Chinese investors.

In climate discussion we know that African countries are the most affected by the problem brought by climate changes, especially by the global warming: the continent probably will be exposed to longer periods of drought and water provision will be always more difficult. About this we also know that China is one of the countries which release the highest levels of greenhouse gases. Despite the attempts of Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997 and started in 2005, and of Paris Agreement in 2016, emissions have not yet been limited in satisfactorily way. Developed countries have the responsibility to help the developing ones in ecological transition and the GEF (Global Environment Facility) is a program managed by the UN and the Word Bank that give financing to the developing countries for they can get positive results related to four areas: climate changes, desertification, international water pollution and biodiversity. Good results are got in third and fourth areas, but not in the first two. At the start of April 2021 the First Minister Geoffrey Mwambe said that Tanzania would be ready for a new agreement about Bagamoyo port project if terms will be changed: in this Tanzania-China relations can be central for the ecological transition of all the Africa. Tanzania could advance conditions for the project according with UN 2030 Agenda sustainability goals, cooperating with others African countries for doing the same with others Chinese investments in Africa, when possible. With high chance China is so interested in extend her economic influence in Africa to get more global diplomatic weight to be disposed to accept conditions of sustainability for her projects. It could be one of the few ways to do that China – but not only, also other countries that would like investing in Africa – massively reduce her emissions. And this will be more powerful based on how many countries will collaborate: it should be a priority because fast growing economies have to develop in sustainable way and must do pressure on developed countries, especially on China in that global big player that is trying to extend own power.

GEF logo
UN 2030 Agenda sustainable development goals


– (About climate issue and international relations)

J. Grieco, G. J. Ikenberry, M. Mastanduno, Introduzione alle relazioni internazionali, UTET, 2017

– (About Bagamoyo port project)

D, Ayemba, Bagamoyo port project timeline and all you need to know, 15 April 2021, on Construction Review Online,

P. Mittal, Tanzanian Bagamoyo Port Project Story, 16 September 2020, on Belt and Road News,

A. D’Amaro, Un ponte tra Cina e Africa: il porto di Bagamoyo, Tanzania, 8 September 2020, on Lo Spiegone, .


B Nyamboge Mwema Nyawangwe – Art in Tanzania internship

As well as it is known COVID-19 is a global pandemic in the whole world today. Tanzania is among one of the many countries that has been affected in many ways and one of the major areas is in the economic sector. Since last April to May 2020 there was a huge rise of cases regarding COVID-19 which led to lockdowns including shutting down of various public places like schools. The average has reduced highly since last year since and people are no longer quarantined, despite that, the recently new president ordered for more research/investigation with regard to COVID-19 and measures to prevent it from spreading are still taken. Despite Tanzanian boarders being still open several measures are still undertaken by the government and individuals to protect against the spread of COVID19. Some of these measures include the one’s set by WHO like wearing face masks, social distancing in public places and washing hands or using hand sanitizers.

Given the fact that majority of Tanzanian’s are backward economically and can’t afford means of protections such as hand sanitizers, face masks etc., this people are forced to stay at home as to avoid crowds, hence a lot of people have failed to keep up with their daily jobs. This is especially to rural people who are self-employed hence when they don’t work means no income generated and therefore reduction of expenses reducing general revenues. Some companies also have been forced to deduct  workers’ salaries and also expel some workers as to keep up with the financial flows.

Despite the rate of COVID-19 gradually falling but other countries are still highly affected by the disease which is more likely contributing to affecting Tanzania economy, currently and the future. Some of the major areas directly linked with the economy have shown this impacts.

In Public financing/ Government.

The government is facing and will continue facing problem in public budgeting and social services delivery to its people, this is because it has increased demand for public expenditure mainly in procuring tools needed due to COVID-19 such as sanitizers, medical equipment’s and so forth. The government revenues are expected to keep failing due to variety in cash flow obtained in direct and indirect taxes, levies and fees. As it is known with COVID-19 most of companies decreased workers and also most of workers payments were declined also others were forced to stop working naturally due to factors within.

In tourism sector; 

One of the major sources of the government income in Tanzania is through tourism. Which has far more tattered, very few tourists are coming to the country due to restrictions set in countries hence the demand has quite declined. The government has reckoned that this year probably only few tourists will come to Tanzania for the holidays which is about a quarter of the normal rate. Places like Zanzibar has been so much affected since most of their economy depend on tourism. The chain that links from the places that tourist visited and stayed like hotels to the people working there and the suppliers of products or services their jobs have frozen due lack of tourist.  



Tanzania mostly depends on exported products and very few are made within. Trade global chains are disrupted, and some factories have been shut down, most of products are running out hence sellers lack products to sell and money circulation has been declining. Most of the country boundaries have been closed not allowing products to go out or come in for some time. This has also led to rise of prices of some products causing some people not to afford them which leaves these products unsold especially those that are not basic needs or that are luxurious products. Export and import of products has been generally affected due to shutdown of some factories which has highly affected the economy.

In banks and financial institutions;

This are among major helpers of the economy that have been highly affected due to COVID-19,  there has been reduction of bank deposits given all factors generated that has causes slow generation of income, Foreign financial flows have fallen due to no transactions of money from other countries due to the lockdown hence lack of foreign currency within, also there has been deterioration between the customers and bank relationships since it has been hard  to establish a common ground due to operational challenges from both sides.


As for Tanzania as long as COVID 19 continues to exist despite it being within the country or outside its impact on the economy will always be valid and continue to affect the major sectors of the economy, which will keep causing decline of general income gained by individuals and the government at large. Such hard times require hard decisions on best measure as to what should be undertaken as to try and maintain the economy to avoid great depression.

Already some measures have been taken as to help overcome the economic problems generated due to COVID-19 for example in banks and financial institutions follows the Bank of Tanzania policies measures, this is by issuing relief packages towards their customers especially the small and medium enterprises which include payment holidays ranging from 3-6 months and restricting of loans to extend repayment periods.

Environmental Disaster Management in Tanzania

By Baraka Mwampalile – Art in Tanzania internship


Definition of key terms

Disaster- we can define as the serious disruptions occurring over a short period of time that cause widespread human, material, economic and environmental loss which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.

It can be as natural or man-made disasters such as drought, floods, earthquakes, cyclones, eruption of diseases, bomb explosions and accidents both on land, air and water.

Disaster management

As the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspect of emergencies in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters. It includes all procedure, processes, agencies and institutional framework which are inter-linkage each other to manage hazards.

General overview of Disaster Management in Tanzania

Tanzania mainland is exposed of many hazard including floods, drought, cyclones, volcanic eruptions, tsunami and earthquakes, all of which have potential of disrupting the community in term of social economic services, ecological, environmental and health. Similar, Tanzania under the prime minister identifying that, major disasters in our country are floods, drought and earthquakes which causing casualties and damaging or destroying the public or private property.

Similar, Tanzania government since independence introducing The disaster Management Department (DMD) under the prime minister office which has the main work on identifying and anticipating hazards and preparations of plans, programs against disasters impacts so as to save lives and protect property.

Status of Disaster Management in Tanzania

Through different scholars and disaster personnel making researchers on the trend of disaster since independence up to current. The united republic of Tanzania government trying take an efforts on to lessen up the impacts of disasters like earthquakes, drought and floods by making policies (Disaster Management Policy of 2004), Disaster Act, of 2015, programs like N’gorongoro community base disaster management, introduction of institutions providing expertise dealing with disaster and environmental for example The university of Dar es salaam and The university of Dodoma and supervising coordination among the institutions on time of hazard occurrence like fire department, health sector, policy force and other ministries agencies on reducing the directed impacts to the community. Although those efforts but still now our country suffer from disrupting of natural disaster.

The possible challenges are poor implementation of policies and acts whereby on paperwork comprises of all measures and actions on preparedness, response and recovery but still on reality based on response stages where government allocates their resources effectively compared to other stages. Also, we challenged with shortage of disaster expertise which are more potential in all sectors through on making and implementation of policies, acts, preparations of programs and plans, provision of awareness to the community. Furthermore, educational institutions are very few which provide each year’s personnel such as Ardhi University and The University of Dodoma.

Table: Disasters current trend

Types of DisasterPlaceYearsImpacts
FloodsDar es Salaam27-05-2019total number  of people affected with flood (2-death)
DroughtAgro-ecological zones2011-2016Reductions crops-yields 7.
EarhquakesKagera20161170-total number of people affected with earthquakes(UNCEF)
  • Why developing countries, it is commonly lack of funds, equipment and educated people to manage the Disaster situations.

Lack of funds. Most of political ruling systems in developing countries invaded with political issues which trigger management of disaster. Every ruling system comes with their political ideology which based on other sectors than directions of enough resources on disaster management. For example, in 2015 the late president Dr. Joseph John Pombe Magufuli came up with investment on industrial economy whereby a lot of funds invested on industries compared to disaster department. Also, there is no proper coordination on resources ownership among stakeholders, agencies and ministries. In addition, most developing countries depend on donor countries which create an environment to depend all the time on international donors during disaster strike for example Tanzania on disasters project depend on much world banks which sponsor constructions and repairing infrastructures affected with floods.

  • Equipment

We have low technological advancement in term of innovations which are most important to produce equipment used on weather forecasting, early warning systems and transportation equipment services like cars, airplane. Although current some developing countries taking actions on creation of weather forecasting satellite which are used on provisions of cyclones information  (SADC, 4IR satellite launching on 27-10-2020).

Figure: SADC, 4IR satellite louching 2020


Allocation of enough budget in disaster management. Tanzania government current they should increases more budgets which will help to minimize the impacts of disaster in social-economic and environment. Also they should creating proper economic diversification where sectors are more priorities to acquire enough capital they should contribute to disaster department which will help to access more equipment like weather forecasting equipment, warning systems and rescue equipment which will bring benefits to our country specifically in rural areas community will access easily warning Information and educations on how to conserve environment (land, water and air).

Similar, Tanzania government they should increases number of institutions on provision of disasters education for aiming of increasing number of disaster experts, provision of education on practical rather than theoretical and provisions of disaster experts in all sectors on provision of educations and preparations of plans and programs. Furthermore, government should make sure policies and Acts are well implemented not remaining on paperwork.

In addition, technology should be improved at all levels so as to create better conditions for making sustainably country on technological innovations. Both local technologies and modern technologies should be emphasized so as to reduce the impacts of disasters from national up to local levels, for example using insects, animals on weather forecasting and prediction, food storage facilities (modern and local) which will bring positive impacts on environment and social-economic aspects against disaster impacts.

Ebola in Africa

Tiffany Lo-Art in Tanzania Internship

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), most commonly known as just Ebola, is a rare and deadly disease in people and nonhuman primates (CDC, 2021). The viruses that cause the disease are located mainly in sub-Saharan Africa (CDC, 2021). People can become infected with the disease through direct contact with an infected animal (bat or nonhuman primate) or a sick or dead person that was infected with the Ebola virus. (CDC, 2021).  

It is caused by an infection with a group of viruses within the genus Ebolavirus:

  • Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus)
  • Sudan virus (species Sudan ebolavirus)
  • Taï Forest virus (species Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivorie ebolavirus)
  • Bundibuygo virus (species Bundibuygo ebolavirus)
  • Reston virus (species Reston ebolavirus)
  • Bombali virus (species Bombali ebolavirus)

Of these, only four (Ebola, Sudan, Taï Forest, and Bundibuygo) are known to cause disease in people (CDC, 2021). Reston virus is known to cause disease in nonhuman primates and pigs, but not in people, whereas it is currently unknown if Bombali virus causes diseases in either animals of people (CDC, 2021).

According to the World Health Organization, the average EVD case fatality rate is around 50%, although case fatality rates have varied from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks (World Health Organization, 2021).


Scientists believe that people are initially infected with Ebola virus through contact with an infected animal, such as a fruit bat or nonhuman primate (CDC, 2021). After that, the virus spreads among people (CDC, 2021).

The virus is spread through direct contact, such as through broken skin or mucous membranes in the nose, eyes, or mouth, with:

  • Blood of body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, amniotic fluid, semen) of a person who is sick with or has died from the virus
  • Objects, such as clothing, bedding, needles, and medical equipment that were contaminated with body fluids from a person who is sick with or has died from the virus
  • Semen from a man who recovered from the virus (through oral, vaginal, or anal sex). The virus can remain in certain body fluids of a patient who has recovered from the disease, even if they no longer have symptoms of severe illness. Currently, there is no evidence that Ebola can be spread through sex or other contact with vaginal fluids from a woman who had the virus

When people first become infected with the virus, they do not start showing or developing symptoms right away (CDC, 2021). A person can only spread Ebola to other people after they develop signs and symptoms of Ebola (CDC, 2021).

The virus is not known to be transmitted through food (CDC, 2021). However, through the handling and consumption of wild animal meat or wild animals infected with ebola, the virus can spread (CDC, 2021).

Symptoms and Ebola Diagnosis

Symptoms may occur anywhere from 2-21 days after contact with Ebola virus, with an average of 8-10 days (CDC, 2021). The illness typically progresses from “dry” symptoms such as fever, aches, pains, and fatigue to “wet” symptoms. Such as diarrhea and vomiting when the person becomes more ill (CDC, 2021).

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, some primary symptoms of Ebola include some or several of the following:

  • Fever
  • Aches and pains, such as a severe headache, joint and muscle pain, and stomach pain
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Diarrhea and vomiting
  • Unexplained hemorrhaging, bleeding or bruising

Some other symptoms include red eyes, skin rash, and hiccups in the late stage, and many common illnesses have the same symptoms as Ebola Virus Disease, such as influenza, malaria, or typhoid fever (CDC, 2021).

Some diagnostic methods include collecting blood samples, as Ebola virus can be detected in blood after symptoms appear, and it may take up to three days after symptoms start for the virus to reach detectable levels (CDC, 2021). Another method is Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is one of the most commonly used methods to diagnose the virus as it can detect low levels of Ebola virus (CDC, 2021). However, when the virus is no longer present in high numbers in a patient’s blood, this method becomes ineffective, and other methods, based on the detection of antibodies on EVD case produces to an infection, can then be used to confirm a patient’s exposure and infection to the virus (CDC, 2021).

While Ebola is a rare disease, it is often severe and deadly, and recovery from the disease depends on the patient’s immune response and quality of clinical care (CDC, 2021). Survivors of the infection have antibodies that can be detected in the blood up to 10 years after recovery, and it is thought that survivors have some protective immunity to the type of Ebola that infected them (CDC, 2021). Ebola survivors may experience side effects after they recover from the disease, such as tiredness, muscle aches, eye and vision problems and stomach pain (CDC, 2021).


Currently, there are two treatments that are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat Ebola Virus Disease caused by the Ebola virus, species Zaire ebolavirus, in adults and children (CDC, 2021). The first drug is Inmazeb™, which was approved in October 2020 (CDC, 2021). The second drug is Ebanga™, which was approved in December 2020 (CDC, 2021). Both of these treatments were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial during the 2018-2020 Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (CDC, 2021). Overall, the survival rate was much higher for patients that received either of the two treatments, however, neither Inmazeb™ nor Ebanga™ have been evaluated for their efficiency against other species of ebolavirus (CDC, 2021).

Basic interventions can also greatly improve chances of survival when it is provided early, and they include:

  • Providing fluids and electrolytes (body salts) orally or through infusion into the vein
  • Using medication to support blood pressure, reduce vomiting and diarrhea, and to manage fever and pain
  • Treating other infections, if they occur


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are a number of ways to protect yourself and prevent the spread of Ebola Virus Disease:

  • avoid contact with blood and body fluids (ex: urine, feces, saliva, vomit, sweat, breast milk, amniotic fluid, semen, and vaginal fluids) of people who are sick
  • Avoid contact with items that may have come in contact with an infected person’s blood or body fluids (ex: clothes, bedding, needles, and medical equipment)
  • Avoid funeral or burial services that include touching the body of someone who died from EVD or potentially EVD
  • Avoid contact with bats, forest antelopes, and nonhuman primates (such as monkeys and chimpanzees) blood, fluids, or raw meat prepared from these or unknown animals (ex: bushmeat)

Currently, the Ervebo vaccine has been shown to be effective in protecting people from the species Zaire ebolavirus, and in December 2020, the vaccine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and prequalified by the World Health Organization for use in individuals over the age of eighteen (except for pregnant and breastfeeding women) for protection caused by the Zaire ebolavirus (World Health Organization, 2021). In May 2020, the European Medicines Agency recommended granting marketing authorization for a 2-component vaccine called Zabdeno-and-Mvabea for people over the age of one (World Health Organization, 2021). The vaccine requires two doses, where Zabdeno is first administered while the second dose, Mvabea, is given approximately eight weeks later (World Health Organization, 2021). The 2-dose regimen is thus unsuitable for an outbreak where immediate protection and response is vital (World Health Organization, 2021).

Ebola virus can also survive on dry surfaces, such as doorknobs and countertops for several hours, and cleaning and disinfection should be performed with hospital-grade disinfectant (CDC, 2021).

Outbreak Preparation

Outbreaks in nonhuman primates and antelope often precede or happen at the same time as human cases of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the same or nearby areas (CDC, 2021). An example would include that in 1994, the chimpanzee population of the area where the Taï National Forest outbreak occurred decreased by half (CDC, 2021). Typically, cases of ebola in people emerge after the handling and butchering of these infected animals, and once the virus spreads to people, it quickly spreads from person to person (CDC, 2021). As such, rapid identification of cases in vital to prevent large-scale epidemics (CDC, 2021).

However, because the early symptoms of Ebola are not specific to this disease alone, it can be hard to distinguish it from other illnesses, such as malaria, influenza, leptospirosis, yellow fever, and other viruses spread by insects, or viral or bacterial infections of the intestines, such as typhoid fever (CDC, 2021). Once a case is identified, everyone who has come in direct contact with the sick patient is found—this practice is called contact tracing (CDC, 2021). The contacts are watched for symptoms of Ebola for 21 days from the last day they came in contact with the Ebola patient and if the contact develops a fever or other symptoms, they are isolated, tested, and provided care (CDC, 2021). The cycle starts again until all new contacts are found and observed for 21 days (CDC, 2021). The World Health Organization declares an Ebola outbreak over when two incubation period (42 days) have passed without any new cases (CDC, 2021).

Ebola in Tanzania

While there are no officially confirmed cases of Ebola in Tanzania, many countries nearby are battling Ebola outbreaks, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (World Health Organization, 2019; Marchione, 2021). Due to the possibility of cross-border spread and regional risk, it is highly important to remain vigilant to prevent the spread of the disease.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 18). Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease).

Marchione, M. (2021, March 31). Man’s Ebola relapse spawned dozens of new cases in Africa

World Health Organization. (2019, October 30). Cases of Undiagnosed Febrile Illness – United Republic of Tanzania

World Health Organization. (2021, February 23). Ebola virus disease