MARKETING STRATEGY

By Mariam Msangi – Art in Tanzania internship

A marketing strategy refers to a business’s overall game plan for reaching prospective consumers and turning them into customers of their products or services.  A marketing strategy contains the company’s value proposition, key brand messaging, data on target customer demographics, and other high-level elements. A thorough marketing strategy covers “the four Ps” of marketing which are product, price, place, and people.

Understanding Marketing Strategies

A clear marketing strategy should revolve around the company’s value proposition, which communicates to consumers what the company stands for, how it operates, and why it deserves their business. This provides marketing teams with a template that should inform their initiatives across all of the company’s products and services.

Benefits of a Marketing Strategy

The ultimate goal of a marketing strategy is to achieve and communicate a sustainable competitive advantage over rival companies by understanding the needs and wants of its consumers. Whether it’s a print ad design, mass customization, or a social media campaign, a marketing asset can be judged based on how effectively it communicates a company’s core value proposition. Market research can help chart the efficacy of a given campaign and can help identify untapped audiences to achieve bottom-line goals and increase sales.

What does a marketing strategy look like?

A marketing strategy will detail the advertising, outreach, and PR campaigns to be carried out by a firm, including how the company will measure the effect of these initiatives. They will typically follow the “four P’s” that is product, price, place, and people The functions and components of a marketing plan include market research to support pricing decisions and new market entries, tailored messaging that targets certain demographics and geographic areas, platform selection for product and service promotion—digital, radio, Internet, trade magazines, and the mix of those platforms for each campaign, and metrics that measure the results of marketing efforts and their reporting timelines

Is a marketing strategy the same as a marketing plan?

The terms marketing plan and marketing strategy are often used interchangeably because a marketing plan is developed based on an overarching strategic framework. In some cases, the strategy and the plan may be incorporated into one document, particularly for smaller companies that may only run one or two major campaigns in a year. The plan outlines marketing activities on a monthly, quarterly, or annual basis while the marketing strategy outlines the overall value proposition.

Four types of marketing strategies

Cause Marketing

Cause marketing, also known as cause-related marketing, links a company, its products, and services to a social cause or issue.

Relationship Marketing

Relationship marketing focuses on customer retention and satisfaction in order to enhance your relationships with existing customers to increase loyalty.

Scarcity Marketing

Scarcity marketing creates a perception of a shortage which aims to entice customers to purchase out of fear that they may not be able to get it in the future.

Undercover Marketing

Undercover marketing, also known as stealth marketing, involves marketing to consumers in a way that they do not realize they are being marketed to.

The first two – cause and relationship marketing — are considered “positive” marketing techniques that focus on the benefits to others. The second two – scarcity and undercover marketing – are more unconventional and potentially controversial techniques.

What are the 5 P’s of Marketing?

The 5 P’s of Marketing – Product, Price, Promotion, Place, and People – are key marketing elements used to position a business strategically. The 5 P’s of Marketing, also known as the marketing mix, are variables that managers and owners control to satisfy customers in their target market, add value to their business, and help differentiate their business from competitors.

Product

Product refers to the products and services offered by a business. Product decisions include function, packaging, appearance, warranty, quality, etc.

Customers need to understand the features, advantages, and benefits that can be enjoyed by buying goods or services. When thinking about a product, consider the key features, benefits, and the needs and wants of customers.

Price

Price refers to the pricing strategy for products and services and how it will affect customers. Pricing decisions do not include just the selling price, but also discounts, payment arrangements, credit terms, and any price-matching services offered.

When determining a pricing strategy, it is important to consider the business’s position in the current marketplace. For example, if the business is advertised as a high-quality provider of mechanical equipment, the product pricing should reflect that.

Promotion

Promotion refers to the activities that make the business more known to consumers. It includes items such as sponsorships, advertising, and public relations activities.

Since promotion costs can be substantial, it is essential to conduct a break-even analysis when making promotion decisions. It is important to understand the value of a customer and whether it is worth conducting promotions to acquire them.

Place

Place refers to where the product/service of the business is seen, made, sold, or distributed. In essence, place decisions are associated with distribution channels and ways of getting the product to targeted key customers.

It is important to consider how accessible the product or service is and ensure that customers can easily find you. The product or service must be available to customers at the right time, at the right place, and in the right quantity.

For example, a business may want to provide their products over an e-commerce site, at a retail store, or through a third-party distributor.

People

People refer to the staff, salespeople, and those who work for the business. People decisions are usually centered around customer service – how do you want your employees to be perceived by customers?

CONCLUSION: Through marketing strategy it gives the company an opportunity to oversee from far how it will be moving from the current situation to its desired position.

LEGAL AID

By Mariam Msangi – Art in Tanzania internship

Legal aid is the provision of assistance to people who are unable to afford legal representation and access to the court system. Legal aid is regarded as central in providing access to justice by ensuring equality. Before the law, the right to counsel and the right to a fair trial.  Aid provided by an organizations established specially to serve the legal needs of the poor.

Legal aid is the provision of assistance to people who are unable to afford legal representation and access to the court system. Legal aid is regarded as central in providing access to justice by ensuring equality before the law, the right to counsel and the right to a fair trial.

Importance of legal aid

-Legal aid may be taken to mean free legal assistance to the low-income people in any judicial proceedings before the Court, Tribunals, or any authority. It intends to provide free legal assistance to the low-income people who are not able to enforce the rights given to them by law.

-For those that cannot afford a lawyer, access to legal advice and assistance can not only empower a person to resolve their legal problem, but also to prevent that problem from negatively impacting the other aspects of their life.

-An advantage of using Legal Aid, if you do qualify, is that it normally protects you from having to pay the other side’s costs if you lose the case. However with Legal Aid you do have to make a contribution to your own legal costs. Is legal aid important?

-Legal aid is the provision of assistance to people who are unable to afford legal representation and access to the court system. Legal aid is regarded as central in providing access to justice by ensuring equality before the law, the right to counsel, and the right to a fair trial.

Types;

There are two types of legal aid: for civil and for criminal cases. All applications for legal aid for criminal cases are means tested. But some applications for legal aid for civil cases are not means tested, for example care cases and Mental Health Tribunal cases.

Below is a summary of the types of free legal services that may be available in your state.

Public Defenders

If you have been arrested and charged with a crime, you may be dreading heading to court, especially if you do not have the resources to afford a lawyer. You may be entitled to obtain legal services without charge. However under the United States Constitution, you have the right to free legal services for your criminal trial if you cannot afford an attorney of your own. Often, these attorneys are appointed by a judge from a public defender’s office when you are formally charged with criminal counts. This attorney will be assigned to your case for the duration of your criminal trial, as well as your first appeal if you lose the initial criminal case. To find out more, you can contact your local public defender’s office.

Legal Aid Clinics

If you think that you need to file a lawsuit to protect your interests but are unable to afford a private lawyer, you may be able to qualify for legal aid, often called legal services. Legal aid organizations and attorneys often receive funds from the government and are normally tasked with taking on cases concerning the poor and the low-income. Because of their limited funding, however, legal aid societies and lawyers can usually only take on a select few cases. The lawsuits that legal aid attorneys normally litigate are ones involving denial of unemployment benefits, social security benefits, consumer credit issues, and eviction and other landlord tenant lawsuits.

Before you begin looking to obtain services from a legal aid organization, make sure you are eligible. Often times, legal aid organizations only take cases from those who make less than a certain amount of money each year. You can look in the phone book or contact a local bar association in order to get in touch with a legal aid society to see if you may qualify for free legal services. Government funding to these organizations is usually limited, and because of this, they may not be able to take your case, or you may be in for a long wait.

Personal Injury Attorneys on Contingency

Many personal injury attorneys take cases on a contingency fee basis, which means that you do not pay anything to the attorney up front and the lawyer only gets paid if you get paid. Contingency fee arrangements are great for those who have winning cases but no real means of paying an hourly fee to an attorney.

The way a contingency fee basis works is that you and your attorney will decide on a percentage amount of the reward that the attorney will get upon a successful lawsuit or settlement. This percentage is often in the neighborhood of 30-40%, but can vary depending upon your state and the laws governing these arrangements where you live. Keep in mind that this percentage does not cover the costs incurred by an attorney, such as filing and court fees. If your case does go to trial, however, and you are successful in your lawsuit, judges often award the costs of the lawsuit in addition to the judgment amount for your injury.

Pro Bono Services

Attorneys working in private practice and in firms often set aside a portion of their time to work on pro bono cases. As with community legal aid clinics, pro bono services typically are offered to individuals whose combined household income is less than 125 percent of the federal poverty level. There are some exceptions to these income limits, which you would need to learn about from each pro bono program.

Social Justice Organizations

Often times you may find an attorney willing to provide free legal services if your case involves some issue of social justice. Social justice issues are easy to spot as they will have implications that extend well beyond the scope of your case and include things like sexual harassment in the workplace or freedom of speech. For example, if you are attempting to sue your landlord for racially discriminating against you, you may be able to find an attorney willing to work for you on a pro bono basis as this case may have a broader influence on the community than just your specific problem.

Law School Legal Clinics

You can find free legal services at many law schools’ legal clinics that provide free legal services to low-income clients by law students under the supervision of an attorney (usually a clinical professor). Generally, this type of pro bono work is offered in one or more particular areas, including family law, elder law, landlord-tenant issues, health care law, and financial assistance. Moreover, law students can provide a range of legal services including, but not limited to, research and writing, drafting legal documents, client interviews, negotiation, and court preparation.

How can I get legal aid
A person in need of free legal services can approach the concerned authority or committee through an application which could either be made by sending in written form, or by filling up the forms prepared by the said authorities stating in brief the reason for seeking legal aid or can be made orally.

Where we can approach for any legal help?

Where should I approach in order to seek free legal services/aid? The SupremeCourt Legal Services Committee for cases before the Hon’ble Supreme Court. Each District Legal Services Authority, High Court Legal Services Committee and State Legal Services Authority has a front office where an application can be moved.

Why is free legal aid important?

Free legal aid is provided to ensure that opportunities for justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities. Legal services includes rendering of any service in the conduct of any case or other legal proceedings before any court and giving of advice on any legal matter.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Tanzania vs Canada

Jeet Patel Art in Tanzania

What is Corporate Social Responsibility? Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the act of regulating company business models that assist a company or organisation to be socially accountable to the public and itself. Organizations can be conscious on the kind of the impacts they have in all aspect of society in areas like the environment or the economy.

The International Organization of Standardization (ISO) has provided guidance on how to achieve CSR. Organizations usually start investing in CSR once they a have reached a secure place to invest in it. The ISO came up with “ISO 26000” to help clarify what social responsibility is, and aids organizations in effective practices. ISO 26000 revolves under seven core principles and core subjects. These are the guidance points the ISO has come up with to help organization maximize their corporate social responsibility.

Core Principals

  1. Accountability
  2. Transparency
  3. Ethical Behaviour
  4. Respect for stakeholder interest
  5. Respect for the rule of law
  6. Respect for international norms of behaviour
  7. Respect for the human rights

Core Subject

  1. Organization Governance
  2. Human Rights
  3. Labour Practices
  4. The Environment
  5. Fair operating Practices
  6. Consumer Issues
  7. Community Involvement and Development

CSR around the world

CSR in Canada

CSR is becoming a major driving force for organisations in Canada. One of the main driving forces is due to the Canadian public looking to support organisations that are socially involved in making the community better. The tactics have changed over the years, organisations now plan strategic, social purpose-driven, and transformational models, that can be seen in local communities. It has become an essential part of business practices.

CSR in Tanzania

Tanzania has made huge strides in corporate social responsibility. Tanzania had enacted the Companies act in 2002 (an amendment of the Companies act of 1932) to try and keep up with global and local pressures of improving CSR. Even though this act requires audited financial reports to disclose details of the remuneration of directors and offices, there is no obligation to provide information on employee discrimination, health and safety, tax planning schemes, and pollution and environmental disruption cause by corporate activities. This  led to the enactment of Employment and Labour relations act and labour institutions act in 2004. The government has also come out with the health and safety act in 2003 and the worker’s compensation act in 2008. Tanzania’s main factors and initiatives that influence CSR in the country is due to many reasons.

Politically, the government has come with many different ways to promote CSR in the country, for example, the Presidential Award on CSR and Empowerment launched in 2012, to promote sustainable development of products, specifically in the extractive industry. The country also had the Tanzania Development Vision 2025, in an effort to reduce the country’s poverty levels. The country is also tracking towards primary education, gender equality, HIV/ AIDS, and access to sanitation.

The country is also down well in other factors and influences for CSR. Examples of this would include educating the population in different aspects through social programs in partnership with international organisations. Educating people on the importance of their natural resources and use it to their advantage through the different industries like agriculture and tourism, making sure to work with government organizations to help preserve the Tanzanian way, while sustainably providing goods and services.

President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete speaking at the launching ceremony of the presidential award on the Extractive Industry Corporate Social Responsibility and Empowerment

Local businesses and NGOs are also aided by international businesses through joint ventures and partnership in promoting good and services and finding ways to give back to the community. Even though there has been an increase in CSR in the country, there is still a long way to go. Without policies and regulations there is no way to monitor if organisations are trying to benefit their local communities. There are many barriers that could harm the further implementation of CSR. Some of these include:

  • Unreliable data on community needs
  • Misunderstand in communication between companies, organisations, and government
  • CSR used and a competition tool for business instead of being used to benefit the community
  • Lack of conscious consumers
  • Lack of recognition of good effort made

These are just some of the few barriers that can come in Tanzania’s path to have CSR businesses. However, this can be addressed by educating the public and creating policies to show data as well as meet the ISO’s standard guide on being having CSR.

Fernando, J. (2021, July 6). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/corp-social-responsibility.asp.

ISO 26000 – Social responsibility. ISO. (2020, November 30). https://www.iso.org/iso-26000-social-responsibility.html.

Johnnyspade. (2019, February 21). Corporate Social Responsibility in Canada: Trends, Barriers and Opportunities. Coro Strandberg. https://corostrandberg.com/publication/corporate-social-responsibility-in-canada-trends-barriers-and-opportunities/.

Kenton, W. (2021, May 19). International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/international-organization-for-standardization-iso.asp.

Vertigans, S., Idowu, S. O., & Schmidpeter René. (2018). Corporate Social Responsibility in Sub-Saharan Africa Sustainable Development in its Embryonic Form. Springer International Publishing.