How to Encourage Saving Habits

Marina Joseph – Art in Tanzania Internship

Setting money aside for savings, like so many other things in life, is a habit that must be created. You should do all you can to foster a savings habit if you want to see your savings rise. Instead of being a burden, putting money away can become a way of life. If you’re having trouble getting into the habit of saving, try the following methods or approaches to stay motivated:

saving money

Begin small: To inspire non-savers to begin saving, it is critical to question any misconceptions that might be holding them back, such as the notion that saving is too difficult or that they must make significant sacrifices to make it worthwhile. Starting small (by establishing short-term objectives and defining practical lifestyle changes) makes saving feel possible, builds trust, and feels ‘easy.’

Show progress toward a target: Having a specific and concrete goal, as well as a strategy for achieving it, gives people something to concentrate on, and research shows that as these goals are reached, savings patterns will form.

Reward yourself for completing small milestones: Depending on the duration of your target, you will reward yourself at various milestones. This allows you to monitor your progress and keeps you motivated to keep saving. These incentives should be enjoyable activities that you would not usually do but are still small and reasonable. It might be a day off (if you can take one), a picnic in the park, dinner at a nicer restaurant than normal, or some other fun activity. Only don’t spend all of your money while you’re enjoying your tiny reward.

Make it social: research from other industries shows that sharing commitment devices with friends and family will help people stick to their goals (typically via social media.) Commitment contracts go a step further, imposing a penalty if you don’t keep your word – but these strategies have yet to be proven in terms of saving behavior. Similarly, studies have shown that saving with friends and family is more motivational.

Form a habit: research shows that once savings habits are formed, they are more likely to be sustained, and that among ‘rainy-day savers,’ the savings habits they acquired as children are carried over into adulthood and become self-reinforcing.

Automate your savings: Setting up an automated system of moving your money around is one of the simplest ways to get into the habit of saving. Whether you have money from your paycheck automatically deposited into a savings account (including a retirement account) or you do an automatic transfer each month, getting your savings transferred around automatically will help you change your lifestyle to what you end up as take home pay

View saving as a game, not a chore: framing saving as a challenge makes it more appealing and counters the belief that it is too difficult or tiresome to think about. This is partly due to a lack of financial expertise in identifying practical ways to cut costs and save money.

Provide information and personalize it: information must be pitched at the appropriate level to avoid being patronizing.

People want to see simple and relevant advice: anything that ‘people like me’ can do

Composting to Improve Crops and Human Health

By Miakoda Ford – Art in Tanzania Intern


With the observable changes to weather patterns, such as shifts in rain patterns, and intensified storms, rural communities in Tanzania are struggling to maintain their agricultural way of life. Continuing to produce the crops and quantities needed is becoming gradually more challenging. It is understood and observed that rain patterns have been abnormal in recent years but the other environmental factors negatively affecting crops are far less noticeable. As most know, crops need water, sunlight, and soil to grow, and healthy crops make healthy people. Yet in reality the equation is far more complex than that. Some crops can easily be over watered or receive too much direct sunlight, and air quality affects their growth as well. However, the most important element in crop production is actually the soil. Soil is not only what holds and supports the plants, it is also what provides nutrients to the crops. Healthy soil can retain far more water than thin dusty soil, combating the issue of inconsistent watering. Healthy soil also helps to protect the plants from illness, bacteria, and underground pests. The most important aspect of healthy soil is that it gives nutrients and vitamins to the plants we eat. Continuing to grow crops in the same plot of land season after season removes all the nutrients from the soil causing the crop yield to decrease and human health to suffer. With the changes in the environment, variability of rainfall, increase in annual temperature, and prevalence of harmful plastic derived chemicals, the best way to ensure crop health does not drastically decrease is to: improve the health of the soil. Soil health can be
drastically improved with the use of natural fertilizer, and natural fertilizer can easily be made with little to no cost by composting food waste.
The widespread lack of a thorough waste management system — especially in agricultural regions, causes food waste to pile up near common living spaces or even spaces where food is prepared. This negatively affects human health in several ways. This form of waste management emits a greenhouse gas called Methane that amplifies changes in weather patterns by changing the chemistry of the atmosphere at an unnatural speed. But more importantly for the community, food waste attracts a large number of insects. Cholera is a very common and severe illness in these areas, and it is largely spread by flies. Flies feed on both human waste and rotting food, so when these materials are close to fresh food, illness occurs more frequently. With better managed food waste illness would be less frequent and far less severe.

Common waste consists of fresh fruit and vegetable peels, cooked starchy food waste, and scraps of cow, chicken, goat, and fish. All these things attract vermin and insects, but they also are all organic materials that are high in nutrients. If these materials were to be property composted human health would improve from both the improved crop yield and the reduction of illness.

Composting is the process of using food scraps and other natural materials such as grass clippings and coconut husks to create a natural nutrient rich fertilizer. Composting takes attention and effort, but it is an extremely effective way to increase water retention in soil, crop production, and crop health. If the plastics were removed from these images, all the materials could be the start of a healthy nutrient rich fertilizer. Properly combining compostable materials
initiates a thermal reaction between the materials that causes them to break down while producing nutrients. The main things needed are airflow, warmth, moisture and a three to one ratio of ‘brown’ and ‘green’ ingredients. Direct sunlight can also increase the speed of the process. Brown ingredients refer to carbon rich materials such as dry leaves, sticks, and ash.

While green ingredients are nitrogen rich materials like food waste, manure, and fresh grass clippings. The reaction that causes composting to be successful is dependent on the interaction between carbon and nitrogen rich materials, so it is very important to pay attention to what you are putting into your compost. Composting can be done on a small scale in trash cans or buckets, but it is important to put small holes in whatever container you use so heat and air can flow through. It is also important to use a lid. Thin layers are best because the ‘brown’ and ‘green’ materials need to be touching. Whenever you have food waste put it in your compost container and cover with a ‘brown’ layer, then put on the lid. The smaller the food scraps are the faster the fertilizer will form, so tear and grind materials when able. It is important to keep the compost moist — but not wet– so you should only add water as needed. If the compost appears slimy or smelly add extra ‘brown’ materials or even some dirt. Mixing or stirring the layers every three or four days speeds up the process. If you are using a bucket you can simply roll it gently with the lid on. It is very important to make sure no plastic contaminates the process. Only the materials listed below should be incorporated.


If you would like to compost on a larger scale to suit your level of crop production and food waste, outdoor compost piles are easy to start and maintain. The simplest way to start an outdoor compost pile is to place a pole or branch in the ground and create layers of materials around it. The first layer should be of larger ‘brown’ materials like tree clippings and hay, then you can add a thin layer of food waste, and more ‘brown’ materials on top. You can collect the
food waste in any closed container, just be sure that no other unnatural trash contaminates it.

Several households can contribute their waste to the same pile. So, when you need to empty your jar of rotting food scraps, take it to the outdoor pile and create another layer. Whenever you add the ‘green’ ingredients add a ‘brown’ layer on top to ensure the reaction will occur. Covering the food waste with dry leaves and other materials also helps to prevent pests from disturbing the pile. When your pile has formed you can remove the pole in the center which the layers were formed around, this will allow heat and air to flow efficiently throughout the pile and it will increase the speed of the process. When the pile is first formed you should cover it with a tarp or rice sacks weighed down by a few rocks, this insures that it does not become too moist and it traps all the materials, forcing the reaction to occur. A few days after food waste has been added you can stir the pile to help the layers mix and breakdown. When your compost appears to be dark thick dirt the process is complete, and you can utilize the fertilizer wherever your crops are growing.
Continuing the process will gradually yet significantly improve your garden or field of crops. The more fertilizer added, the better your crops will be. Improving your soil improves your health, making plentiful and vitamin rich foods.

Obesity

By : Moureen Thangavelu


Obesity or overweight is defined as having abnormal or excessive fats that may impair health. 63% of Australian adults are overweight and 18.04% of Australian children have reported overweight in 2012 obesity is also steadily rising since the 90’s. Behavioral risk facts include excessive alcohol and inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables. Women are usually more likely to become more obese as adults but as children males have higher risks. This is due to the number of exercises a person does and their diet.
Adolescents who are overweight or obese are more vulnerable to risk behavior and are more likely to engage in maladaptive coping.


Overweight/obese teens are more likely than their normal weight counterparts to have disrupted social interactions, stigma, and weight prejudice. These stressful life experiences, combined with the normative challenges of adolescence and the burden of maintaining an unhealthy weight, can predispose adolescents to participate in health-risk behaviors.
Overweight and obese children are often taller for their age and gender, and they grow faster than slim children. Increased leptin and sex hormone levels in obese children with excess adiposity can be linked to rapid pubertal development and epiphyseal growth plate maturation.


According to study, blaming parents for their children’s weight gain can be irrational.
It has been proposed that the eating habits of parents play a significant role in whether an infant is underweight or overweight.


Changes in diet. Obesity can be overcome by reducing calories and adopting healthy dietary habits. While you can lose weight easily at first, long-term weight loss is considered the easiest way to lose weight and the best way to hold it off forever.

CHALLENGES IN THE ACCESIBILITY OF PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION IN TANZANIA

By Dickson Straitony – Art in Tanzania internship

Introduction

 Pre-school education involves education and care Early childhood period is the crucial and sensitive time for children development holistically including social, physical, emotional and cognitive development. The child need positive with the environment as they are very active to learn everything they interact with by imitation and experience. Child’s learning and development occurs in multiple contexts from home to school context that should be well prepared, stimulating and supportive for learning and development holistically (Sestini, 1985). Play is the best method of learning for children in this age group. All activities must be arranged on the basis of play and all activities should be planed and organized based on the interest of the child where the process of learning should start from what the child know that is bottom-up approach.  

Preschool education considers the needs of children and individual differences, should support the psychomotor, social-emotional, linguistic and cognitive development of the child, build in self-care skills and prepare the child for school continuity as it should impart in children self-respect, self-confidence and self-control.

 To respond to the needs of children, preschool education institutions should provide education environments in compliance with an understanding of democratic education. 

 The process of education should start from what children already know and provide a room for learning by trying and experimenting. Education given in preschool phase should be contributory to the development of children in terms of affection, respect, cooperation, responsibility, tolerance, solidarity and sharing. 

Background

Tanzania is the country found in East Africa in Sub-saharan Africa with 59.7 Million number of population where 77% of population lives in rural area and only 23% lives in urban with the area of about 945,087 km2. According to UNESCO (2015), Tanzania has an adult literacy rate of 77.8% where the male literacy rate is 83.2% and for females is 73.09%.   

According to Education for All (EFA) of 1990 as an international initiative for making education to benefits every citizen in every society the first goal out of six is to “Expand and improve comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for most vulnerable and disadvantaged children”. Tanzania adopted Pre-primary Education Policy in 1995 as the part of Education and Training Policy where all primary schools where established pre-primary education program as the part of formal education program for two years that included children with age from five to six are enrolled before join to primary school but not mandatory to that age where it depends the parents.  According to Mtahabwa and Rao (2009), currently young children in Tanzania attend programmes in child care centre nursery schools, Montessori or other preschools and pre-primary classes which are affiliated to primary schools. Children attend different programs that are nursery, Day care, Kindergarten, Montessori and pre-primary school. Pre-school educational program is considered as the preparation for primary education and it is the period of transition from home to school environment where parents and teachers a have to prepare the transition environments for child school readiness.

Total Enrolment in Pre-Primary Education has increased by 46.1% from 1,069,823 in 2015 to 1,562,770 in 2016. The increase is a result of community sensitization as well as a prevailing strong partnership of the government and parents, faith-based organizations (FBOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) in providing Pre-Primary Education. (URT 2016) Pre-primary, Primary and Secondary Education Statistics in brief. In 2019 Prep-primary school enrolment was reported at 41.59%, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators and this indicated the drop of number of enrolment from 46.1% in 2016 to 41.59% in 2019. Different private sectors provide education and care for children below five years as the part of preschool program.

Volunteer and intern in nursery school in Tanzania in Africa, työharjoittelu koulut afrikka, vapaaehtoisena koulussa afrikassa

  Problems facing the accessibility of preschool education in Tanzania

The success of the Early Childhood program has been the effort of both public and private sectors linking together although not all Tanzanians have been able to access it.

Low social-economic status of parents. This is the challenge poor families faces in access to education, the charging fees in private schools is not affordable to many parents in that case they fail to send their children to preschool centers  where they opt  to remain them at home helping different domestic works as the number of household are involving in agricultural activities and they become street children.

Education quality and resources constraints in public schools. (UNICEF Tanzania, 2018).  Compared to private schools in Tanzania the government has not invested much to make sure there is quality early childhood education where mostly children who attend to public preschools they do not achieve satisfactorily basic learning skills for school continuity. The challenge of resources for teaching and learning to public preschools like stimulating learning materials and supportive environment but also we found that preschool and primary schools they share the same classes learning by shifts.

 Low parents’ awareness towards early childhood education. In Tanzania there is existing of large number of parents who are not aware of the need and the importance of early childhood education to their children specifically in villages and remote areas. The value of education still low in Tanzania villages where other they don’t send them to school totally neither preschool nor primary school and they believe in workforce (Pambas, 2010).. So children from this group of parents get affected and if they get enrolled at primary school they have limited fundamental learning skills.  

Public preschools are located far away from home environment. In some regions children have to walk for a miles to school no passenger vehicles and if they are available some parents may fail to afford daily fare with other expenses. Parents fear the security of their children hence they do not enroll them to preschools.

Inadequate of preschool teachers has become a challenge to public primary and secondary schools but also preschools. Primary school teachers they take the role of teaching due to lack of professional preschool teachers at the same time they teach primary schools as a result they had a heavy workload that reduce efficiency of work and sometimes volunteers nonprofessional teacher they teacher those preschool children in private centers. They don’t have professional knowledge and skill about teaching and learning to those preschool children and leads to poor quality education and those are qualified they don’t get in-service training as the apart of professional development (Kitta, 2004).   

Traditional norms, cultural values and gender discrimination. Gender inequalities due to discriminatory norm has the negative effect to children access to education from early childhood education and above  as the families cannot afford to fully educate all children girls they are not given much importance and treated inferior to boys children especially in rural areas within Tanzania (Mligo 2018).  In some societies with norms around marriageability norms related to gender division of labour all these affect girls’ education. Children with disabilities also the face challenges in access to education due to negative perception on their ability to learn.

 Possible solutions      

Involving Parents and community as active participants in early childhood education and care intervention program. The involvement of these two actors to children educational experience as the parents they participate to children’s education by actively supporting, encouraging, and providing supportive home learning environment, when parents are involved in they become an expert to their child and reinforce the development of preschool program The child and his/her family should actively take part in the process of education as it is urged that when parents are involved in child education the possibility of that child to school achievements is higher     

Provision of fund from government to preschools. Due to preschool settings being not conducive and supportive for children the government should provide funds from different sources can be internal or external sources thereafter preschool education should have its own budget for better investment and improvement in the provision and aces of quality education and for all. Enough preschool classes with supportive infrastructures for both children including disadvantaged children 

 The government has to increase the number of preschool center. In some area of Tanzania the number of children is over the school facilities as the results the indoor activities are all done outside. But also the limited number of preschools results to long distance from home to school and few are able to attend hence dropouts and truancy increase

Conclusion

Tanzania as the among of developing countries  investing in early childhood education is the crucial step towards development that will ensure public provision of high quality early childhood education by establishing clear policy, and work to ensure the increase in enrolment, registration and curriculum development as well as producing large number of quality early childhood teachers. The government should work more on sensitizing community and parents the value of preschool education and set the suitable environment to raise their social-economic status.   

Reference

Kitta S. (2004).  Enhancing mathematics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge and skills in   Tanzania. Enschede: University of Twente. 

Mligo I. (2018). Enhancing Young Childrens Acces to Early Childhood Education and Care in      Tanzania. Contemprary perspective on Child Psychology and Education,          

Pambas, T. (2010). Stakeholders’ conception of young children’s readiness for primary    schooling in Tanzania.Unpublished M.A Thesis, University of Dodoma.   

Sestini, E. (1985). Preschool Education: Recent Developments in Preschool Policies and Provision in Developing Countries and in the UK. In Lillis, K. M. (Ed.). School, and          Community in Less Developed Countries. Biddles Limited, Guiford King’s Lynn,             Greatain

UNICEF Tanzania. 2018. Education :The Situation 

            http://www.unicef.org/tanzania/education.html

THE HISTORY OF THE TWO GREATEST FOOTBALL CLUBS IN TANZANIA

By Jofrey – Art in Tanzania internship

SIMBA

Simba sport club is one of the biggest club in Tanzania which commence and established in 1936 Dar es salaam, Tanzania. Simba when was founded in 1936 they were named Queens, then later on named Eagles but that name does not last much longer it changed to Sunderland until 1971 when official they named and recognized as SIMBA (“Lion” in English).

Owner of Simba SC Mr. Mo Dewji

Simba reside at Kariakoo Dar es salaam and their cross-city rival is Young Africans (YANGA). Simba nicknamed as “The King” or “Wekundu wa Msimbazi” (The Reds of Msimbazi).

CEO Ms. Barbara Gonzalez

Simba has won 21 league titles and five domestic cups, also simba participated in the CAF champions league multiple times. Their home playground is Mkapa stadium also known as “National stadium “.

Simba is owned by wanachama (citizens) by 51% and Mo Dewji by 49% where by Mo Dewji invest to simba sports club the total amount of USD 8,700,000 (Tsh 20 Billion)

Simba Squad
Head Coach Mr. Didier Da Rosa

Simba Fans Celebrate
Simba Player Benard Morrison (BMW)

YANGA FC

Yanga Sports club is one of the biggest club in Tanzania which was founded in 1935 but the history of Yanga is traced back to 1910 when they were known as Jangwani boys then later on in 1930 they change the name to “new youngs”

Yanga Head Coach Investor Mr. Said Gharib Mohamed

In 1935 misunderstanding and conflicts appear between the members of new youngs which led to the disintegration of the club, some members remain with new youngs and start afresh and official they call their club as “Yanga” in the same year 1935, while other member left and form their new club called “Queens ” which currently known as “Simba”

Yanga nicknamed as “Wananchi” (Citizens) or (Young Boys). Young Africans reside at Jangwani Dar es salaam and their cross-city rivals Simba, the club play their home games at Mkapa stadium and Uhuru stadium. 

The club has won 22 league titles  and four domestic cups, and have participated in multiple CAF Champions league. They also have won the CECAFA Club Championship five times.

Yanga Squad
Yanga Head Coach Mr. Cedric Kaze
Yanga Fans Celebrate

EFFECT OF GROBAL COVID-19 PANDEMIC TO PERSONAL BANKING AND FINANCE IN TANZANIA

By Greenford R Chinjeru – Art in Tanzania internship

COVID-19 is an infection disease that spread by virus and it dangerous and deadly.   It has killed many people and affected the global economy. The disease has affected movement of people and goods from one county to another. Many countries people and their movement has been restricted. This has affected the world economy including the banking business.

The following are the effects of the COVID-19 in banking business in Tanzania 

Reduction of deposits, in banking business bank use their customers deposits to provide loans and credit to other so as when their return their return with interest and the get profit through it. But due to the COVID-19 the number of people who deposit their money has decreased. This is because people has been advised to stay at their homes so in order for them to survive they have to use their saving and that include stopping deposits and just to use their cash in hand savings. 

Increase of expenses, due to the spread of the disease, the banks as the places where many people came and go, has been taking measures to prevent the spread of the disease between the customers and their employees. These measures costs weren’t in the budget in the first place but for the safety of the people it had to be implemented.

Interference of banker and customer contract. There are contractual agreements between customer and banker but and due to the COVID-19 some of those agreed clauses have been hard to implement to the safeguard the health of all parties. There have been times that a customer has had an obligation to return the loan to the bank when the time required but the customer has failed because of getting sick and being forced to quarantine and the bank can’t sue him for it that because that is global problem.

All in all, COVID-9 has affected our county in so many ways especial in economy as during times of quarantine the government had to use their revenue to help people who were infected and purchase medical machine to ensure the safety of the people and the country.

How Financial services providers responded to Covid-19 in Kenya

By Marian Joseph – Art in Tanzania internship

The Covid-19 pandemic has carried the world into unchartered territory that has been straining to every sector of the economy. The financial industry not being the exception has been facing several challenges in managing effective ways to serve their customers in such times. In this post we look closely at how Kenya’s financial sector as a country responded to the Covid-19 pandemic.  A report by Bowmans (2020) kept track of how the government responded to the gradual outbreak of Covid-19. 

The following were the responses taken by the different branches of government, regulators, and governmental agencies

1. Loan Availability. 

 On 18 March 2020, the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) announced emergency measures arrived through consensus with commercial banks, applicable to borrowers whose loan repayments were up to date as at 2 March 2020.

Cropped shot of a businesswoman using a calculator at her desk in a modern office

 · Banks to provide relief to borrowers on their personal loans based on their individual circumstances arising from the pandemic.

 · To provide relief on personal loans, banks will review requests from borrowers for extension of their loan for a period of up to one year and borrowers should contact their respective banks. 

· Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and corporate borrowers to contact their banks for assessment and restructuring of their loans based on their respective circumstances arising from the pandemic. 

· Banks to meet all the costs related to the extension and restructuring of loans. 

· To facilitate increased use of mobile digital platforms, banks to waive all charges for balance inquiry. In addition, the CBK had earlier announced that all charges for transfers between mobile money wallets and bank accounts would be eliminated.  (Bowmans, 2020)

2. Credit Availability 

On 24 March 2020, the Central Bank of Kenya announced additional measures to facilitate lending by banks to borrowers adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. 

· The lowering of the Central Bank Rate (CBR) to 7.25 percent. 

· The lowering of the Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) to 4.25 percent to provide additional liquidity of KES 35.2 billion to commercial banks. CBK to avail this liquidity to banks based on their demonstrated requirement to directly support borrowers that are distressed as a result of COVID19. 

· To provide flexibility on liquidity management facilities provided to banks by CBK, the maximum tenor of Repurchase Agreements (REPOs) was extended from 28 to 91 days. 

Dad and daughter saving money to piggy bank

· CBK to provide flexibility to banks with regard to requirements for loan classification and provisioning for loans that were performing on 2 March 2020 and whose repayment period was extended or were restructured due to the pandemic. (Bowmans, 2020)

3. Individual and Business Relief Package 

On 25 March 2020, the President announced individual and business relief measures to be undertaken by the government: 

· Reduction of Personal Income Tax top rate (PAYE) from 30% to 25% of the gross amount.

 · 100 % Tax Relief for persons earning up to KES 24,000 per month.

 · Reduction of the Resident Corporate Income Tax rate from 30% to 25% of profits.

· Reduction of the Turnover Tax rate for SMEs from 3% to 1% of the gross revenue. 

· Immediate reduction of VAT rate from 16% to 14%. 

· Temporary Suspension of all listing for all persons including companies, whose loan account fall overdue or is in arrears, by the Credit Reference Bureau (CRB) – effective 1 April 2020. 

· Ministries and Departments to cause the payment of at least KES 13 billion of the verified pending Bills, within three weeks from the announcement.

 · Appropriation of KES 1 billion from the Universal Health Coverage towards the recruitment of additional health workers to support the management of the spread of the COVID-19. 

· KRA to expedite payment of VAT Refunds by allocating an additional KES 10 billion within 3 weeks or in the alternative, to allow for offsetting of withholding VAT. 

.

· Appropriation of KES 10 billion to the elderly, orphans, and other vulnerable members of our society through cash-transfers by the Ministry of Labour and Social protection, to cushion them from the adverse economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. 

· Government to set up a fund to which players in the Public and Private Sector will contribute in support of Government efforts. (Bowmans 2020)

REFERENCES 

Bowmans the value of Knowing (November 2020). COVID-19: TRACKING GOVERNMENT RESPONSE IN KENYA

Impact of domestic tourism as a strategy to the recovery of tourism activities from COVID-19

Written by Daniel Christopher Mkilanya – Art in Tanzania internship

One year into the COVID-19 pandemic there isn’t one industry unaffected, and tourism is no exception. From canceled weddings and festivals to less dining out, the world has taken a hit from the large decline in tourism. The U.S. alone has seen more than $297 billion in losses from the decrease in travel since the beginning of March 2020.

However, as the summer months push on and people look for any excuse to leave their houses, tourism is making a comeback – for better or worse. The tourism industry is undoubtedly changing, but people still want to travel. And tourism research is seeing that wanderlust desire. We need to remain mindful of the millions of people who work in the tourism industry and understand that changes in the industry directly affect individuals who depend on tourism.” For us to understand the impact of COVID-19 on the tourism industry first we have to know what the coronavirus is and how is it spreads from one person to another

Flu coronavirus pandemic virus infection, travel and health concept. Medical stethoscope and travel documents on wood background. 3d illustration

1. What is a corona virus?

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered type of coronavirus.

Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illnesses. The best way to prevent andslow down transmission is to be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes,and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol-based rub frequently and not touching your face.

The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow).

2. How coronavirus has affected the tourism industry

Failure of tourism business

It is often that tourism companies suffer in times of hardship, The independent travel agent in Arusha, the street seller in Zanzibar, the taxi driver in our airports. If there are no tourists, there is no business.

I have met many local workers on my travels during the Coronavirus outbreak. The effect of Coronavirus on tourism is most certainly evident in Tanzania. Many tourists have paid half the usual price for hotels and also many tourist attractions are without the crowds.

Whilst this has been good for tourists, it has been desperation for the local business people; the man who wants to sell ice cream, the lady who offers a ride home and the family-run restaurant business. Coronavirus has gone far by affecting large tourism business as a well. We have recently seen collapse of airline companies as a result of the reduction in tourism.

Restriction in traveling

Due to the increase in the number of victims, different countries have decided to impose traveling restriction as one of the ways of preventing further spread off coronavirus but also the general public is scared that they may transmit the virus to their elderly or immune- compromised friends and relatives.

As a result, many people are choosing not to travel. It’s a effective way to prevent further spread of coronavirus but for the traveling business it’s a great loss.

2. How the Domestic tourism will recover?

UN World Tourism Organization UNWTO Secretary-General Zurab Pololikashvili said: “UNWTO expects domestic tourism to return faster and stronger than international travel. Given the size of domestic tourism, this will help many destinations recover from the economic impacts of the pandemic, while at the same time safeguarding jobs, protecting livelihoods and allowing the social benefits tourism offers to also return.”

The briefing note also shows that, in most destinations, domestic tourism generates higher revenues than international tourism. In OECD nations, domestic tourism accounts for 75%of total tourism expenditure, while in the European Union, domestic tourism expenditure is 1.8 times higher than inbound tourism expenditure. Globally, the largest domestic tourism markets in terms of expenditure is the United States with nearly US$ 1 trillion, Germany with US$ 249 billion, Japan US$ 201 billion, the United Kingdom with US$ 154 billion, and Mexico with US$ 139 billion (UNWTO, 2020).

Initiatives to boost domestic tourism

Given the value of domestic tourism and current trends, increasing numbers of countries are taking steps to grow their markets, UNWTO reports. This new Briefing Note provides case studies of initiatives designed to stimulate domestic demand. These include initiativesfocused on marketing and promotion as well as financial incentives (UNWTO, 2020).Examples of countries taking targeted steps to boost domestic tourist numbers include:

In Italy, the Bonus Vacanze initiative offers families with incomes of up to EUR 40,000 contributions of up to EUR 500 to spend on domestic tourism accommodation.

Malaysia allocated US$113 million worth of travel discount vouchers as well as personal tax relief of up to US$227 for expenditure related to domestic tourism.

Costa Rica moved all holidays of 2020 and 2021 to Mondays for Costa Ricans to enjoy longweekends to travel domestically and to extend their stays.

France launched the campaign #CetÉtéJeVisiteLaFrance (‘This Summer, I visit France’) highlighting the diversity of destinations across the country.

Argentina announced the creation of an Observatory for Domestic Tourism to provide a betterprofile of Argentine tourists.

Thailand will subsidise 5 million nights of hotel accommodation at 40% of normal room rates for up to five nights.

The impact of climate change on water stocks

By Felicity Checksfield – Art in Tanzania internship

Climate change is having an instrumental impact on water stocks in Eastern Africa. This is consequently impacting many citizens’ enjoyment of their human rights. The United Nations suggests that ‘water is the primary medium through which we will feel the effects of climate change’ (United Nations, 2018). This is because higher temperatures and more extreme, less predictable, weather conditions are projected to affect the availability and distribution of rainfall and further deteriorate water quality. As of 2019, 12% of the world population drinks water from unimproved and unsafe sources and more than 30% of the world population, or 2.4 billion people, live without any form of sanitation (United Nations, 2020).

Specifically, in Eastern Africa, 75% of Africa’s population could be at risk of hunger. This is because 75 million hectares of land currently suitable for agriculture is being lost in sub-Saharan Africa due to drought. This is a matter pertaining to human rights for a number of reasons. Contaminated water and poor sanitation are linked to the transmission of diseases such as cholera, diarrhea and polio. Inadequately managed water and sanitation facilities expose individuals to health risks that would be otherwise preventable. It is predicted that approximately 842, 000 people are to die each year from diarrhea as a result of unsafe drinking-water, sanitation and hand hygiene.

This post with consider potential climate policies from a variety of time scales and their effectiveness at combating the issue of water scarcity in Eastern Africa. Some of the policies to be assessed will include the re-use of wastewater, to recover water and improved sanitation.

Population data

The current population of Eastern Africa is approximately 451, 600, 500. However, 37% of people in the world that do not have access to safe and clean water live in this region. Access to sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa is in fact declining with only 31% of people able to access a toilet (6% less than that reported in 2006). 

In Tanzania, the population is approximately 60,712,700, with 80% of people living in rural areas. These rural areas are especially sparsely population, with as low as 1 person per square kilometers. This increased to approximately 53 people per square kilometer in the water-rich mainland highlands. It is estimated that up to 80 percent of Tanzania’s rural population relies on use of natural resources to sustain a livelihood, which makes stewardship of these resources a fundamental priority for Tanzania’s continued stability and growth. However, 4 million people in Tanzania lack access to an improved source of safe water, and 30 million don’t have access to improved sanitation.

Agricultural Production Data

These statistics have instrumental implications for the production of agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania. This is because approximately 93% of water withdrawn from the Tanzanian environment is used for agriculture. It is therefore of great importance that Tanzanian communities have access to safe and clean water. Agriculture accounts for 27% of Tanzania’s gross-domestic product (GDP) and provides employment for the majority of the nation’s population. Moreover, the livestock sector contributes 7% to the country’s GDP. The sector is severely constrained by low livestock reproductive rates, high mortality and high disease prevalence.

By the 2080s, land unsuitable for agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa due to severe climate, soil or terrain constraints may increase by 30 to 60 million hectares (United Nations, 2019). It has been projected that, as a result, there will be a 4.9% decrease by 2080 in agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2020). This will have a detrimental impact on the economy of rural Tanzania that relies considerably on agriculture production and livestock to supports livelihoods. 

Human rights and vulnerable groups in rural Tanzania

Climate change, and its effects on water stocks, has a variety of impacts on individuals. Some of the factors include whether they live in rural or urban areas, whether they live in an area that receives high rainfall or whether they belong to a group that is particularly vulnerable or marginalized. 

a) Children

Children and young adults are particularly vulnerable to climate change and water scarcity. Children make up approximately 44% of the Tanzanian population and all are vulnerable to poor health, malnutrition and to the general lack of basic needs, at different levels depending on the structure and assets commanded by their families. Children under-five are mostly vulnerable to diseases, malnutrition, and inadequate care.

By 2002, 4.1 million out of 10.2 million children in Tanzania aged 5-14 years were not attending school. The often-long distances to primary school is a problem to about 30% of households. That may discourage children from attending school and receiving an education which commonly includes information about the importance of access to water and sanitation. As we shall see later on, schools are also increasingly becoming an important place for children to access clean water and sanitation facilities.

b) Women

Women are especially vulnerable to the implications of water scarcity due to their existing lack of social mobility. When this is paired with food insecurity, limited access to health, sanitation and education, the result is a low income. This perpetuates social isolation and as a result it puts powerful constraints on their capacity to make a living. Moreover, poor access to water and other household services, often results in women spending long hours and walking long distances to collect these amenities. Finally, many women experience stressful childbearing and rearing due to inadequate or poor-quality maternal health care, sanitation and a clean environment. 

c) Disabled individuals 

One of the core characteristics of persons with disabilities is their limited mobility, which reduces their opportunities for participating in income generating activities to increase their wealth. This consequently limits their access to basic needs such as food, health services and education. When this preexisting vulnerability is paired with intense water scarcity, disabled individuals can become some of the most marginalized in rural communities.

d) Individuals with a long-term illness

Finally, individuals with a long-term illness are at an acute health risk which water scarcity can perpetuate. In 2001, approximately 28% of the rural people fall into this category. In Dar es Salaam and other urban areas, the figures decreased to approximately 19%. By any means this is an enormous figure as more than a quarter of the population falls into this category. Poor nutrition and health services that weaken the health status of the members of poor households exposes them to the risks of contracting diseases and living with ill health. These individuals could be vulnerable to poverty, as they cannot work. Access to clean water is therefore instrumental in preventing the decline of their condition. 

Tanzanian Government Policies for Climate Change

There is an abundance of legal provisions that support the securing of access to clean water. Africa is particularly advanced in comparison to the rest of the world in this respect. The African Charter of Human Rights was the first broadly ratified international document which stipulated the right ‘to a general satisfactory environment’ and referred to the right as one of ‘peoples’ in a community, as opposed to individuals. This has the effect of emphasizing both the rights and duties of individuals consistent with African conceptions of human beings as integral members of a larger community.

The Tanzanian government have provided the Environmental Management Act 2004 which aims to provide the goals of this charter. Section 4(1) provides that every person living in Tanzania shall have a right to clean, safe and healthy environment and section 4(2) states that this shall include the right of access by any citizen to the various public elements or segments of the environment for recreational, educational, health, spiritual, cultural and economic purposes. 

The 2004 Act established the existence of the Tanzanian National Environment Management Council. As per section 17(1) the object and purpose for which the Council is established is to undertake enforcement, compliance, review and monitoring of environmental impact assessment. As per section 17(2) the Council shall prepare and submit to the Minister a bi-annual report concerting how it has implemented the provisions of this Act and fulfilled the objects and the purpose for which it was established. 

However, these provisions provide of no more than a broad and general right. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has suggested five policy responses to implement such a goal.

  1.  Include adaptation and mitigation measures for agricultural water management in national development plans.
  2. Promote technical and management measures to improve the flexibility of rainfed and irrigated agriculture and reduce water losses in irrigated production systems.
  3. Improve knowledge on climate change and water and share good practice among countries and regions.
  4. Promote risk management in national policies through better monitoring networks and innovative insurance products.
  5. Mobilize adaptation funds to meet the challenges of water and food security under climate change.

5.1.      School Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (SWASH) guidelines

The School Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (SWASH) guidelines provide one example of the Tanzanian government adopting some of these policy responses. The guidelines aim to increase education and awareness of the importance of access to water and sanitation. It is a toolkit with both hardware and software aspects to bring about changes in the hygiene behavior of students and, through these students, in the community at large.

They suggest a number of systems and methods to improve sanitation, water preservation and water collection.

Protected springs offer a source of water that is often free from pathogens. If the dissolved minerals are within permitted parameters, they can provide good quality drinking water. SWASH advices that at the collection point of the spring, appropriate civil construction can prevent this water from being contaminated. Moreover, the surrounding environment of the spring should not be degraded, and advices against deforestation or contamination in this area especially. 

Shallow wells or hand dug wells are a simple method of making use of groundwater. They are only suitable for regions that have an especially high-water table and good water quality. However, SWASH provide two systems – one automatic and one manual – for the collection of water. Rainwater harvesting is another simple and yet effective way of collecting water. 

However, as SWASH highlights, the weakness in these methods often comes in the form of sanitizing the water before drinking it. It is necessary to follow the methods provided and removing any solid material and boiling the water to remove any bacteria. This reduces the chances of contracting waterborne diseases. 

With regard to sanitation, ventilation improved pit (VIP) latrines serve to provide a clean and cheap way to store human waste. A draft is passed through the collection area of the pit which means that the smell and insects cannot linger. This improves sanitation and the appeal of using the facilities. 

Finally, the guidelines significantly stress the importance of using hand washing stations. This is a simple but highly effective way in which students can reduce the likelihood of carrying diseases on their body and spreading infection. 

What next?

The SWASH guidelines provide an incredibly important educational tool for schools to implement these systems. However, a lot of the structures require advanced infrastructure in order for their long-term effectiveness. There consequently needs to be much more investment in these rural communities in order for these systems to be of the best quality they can be. For example, the VIP latrines require a high level of construction to prevent the human waste from contaminating the surrounding groundwater and soil.

Moreover, in order for the program to work as intended, its information and guidance needs to be spread beyond the school environment and implemented in rural communities. This distribution of information is arguably the most effective way of mitigating the impacts of water scarcity in these regions. The important work of Non-Governmental Organizations such as Art in Tanzania in distributing and educating local communities is an example of this. 

SMALL SCALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP FOR WOMEN

By Jestina Blazi – Art in Tanzania internship

SMALL SCALE BUSINESS is the one marked by a limited number of employees and a limited flow of finances and materials.

ENTREPRENEERSHIP is a process of undertakes the risk of starting a new business venture, a person is called an entrepreneur·, an entrepreneur creates a firm.

Entrepreneur is defined as someone who has the ability and desire to establish, administer and succeed in a startup venture along.  

Small-scale business revenue 

is generally lower than companies that operate on a larger scale. The Small Business Administration classifies small businesses as companies that bring in less than a specific amount of revenue, depending on the business type. The maximum revenue allowance for the small business designation is set at $21.5 million per year for service businesses.

Smaller Teams of Employees

Small-scale businesses employ smaller teams of employees than companies that operate on larger scales. The smallest businesses are run entirely by single individuals or small teams. A larger small-scale business can often get away with employing fewer than one hundred employees, depending on the business type.

Small Market Area

Small-scale businesses serve a much smaller area than corporations or larger private businesses. The smallest-scale businesses serve single communities, such as a convenience store in a rural township. The very definition of small-scale prevents these companies from serving areas much larger than a local area, since growing beyond that would increase the scale of a small business’s operations and push it into a new classification.

BECOMING AN ENTREPRENEUR

To be called an entrepreneur, the general career trajectory usually looks something like this:

  • Willingness and believe to start and be confident.
  • Ability to start with the small thing you poses and expands it.
  • Innovation skills for better competition.
  • Develop an idea for a unique or in-demand business.
  • Learn about and gain experience in a range of business roles, including finance and accounting, management, and marketing.
  • Make a business plan and establish a source (or sources) of funding.
  • Recruit talented workers and managers with the skills needed to develop, test, implement, support, and maintain the company’s products.
  • Devise strategies for launching the product or service, and for attracting and retaining customers.
  • Once the company is established, seek out ways to grow revenue by expanding into new areas and product lines.
  • Awareness of what you are doing without cares what others see.

As the business matures, the founder’s role is likely to include both long-term strategic planning and short-term tactical management and financial decisions. The past few years have seen an increase in entrepreneurial opportunities available to women who are looking to lead and succeed in their own businesses.

After generation more and maximize the business then you have to apply Diversification

Diversification is a risk management strategy that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio. A diversified portfolio contains a mix of products.

Most investment professionals agree that, although it does not guarantee against loss, diversification is the most important component of reaching long-range financial goals while minimizing risk. Here, we look at why this is true and how to accomplish diversification in your portfolio.

What Happens When You Diversify Your Investments? 

When you diversify your investments, you reduce the amount of risk you’re exposed to in order to maximize your returns. Although there are certain risks you can’t avoid, such as systemic risks, you can hedge against unsystematic risks like business OR financial risks.

The most common reason for diversification is the need to survive. Businesses fight for their survival in the market and are willing to expand their production lines to incorporate new products to earn bigger profits.

In cases where a business produces seasonal products that only earn revenue for a selected time of the year, diversification of products can ensure that revenue flow remains constant throughout the year.

For instance, the market demand for ice creams, juices, and soft drinks is more during summer but less in the winter season. If the companies producing these items diversify their production line to include winter apparel, they would be able to earn revenue for their business during the winter season.

Not every business needs diversification. Some use it purely to expand the grasps of their business further into every field of production. Depending on the strategies implemented and the demand for the goods produced, diversification can be a good investment or a waste of precious resources.

https://www.shopify.com/encyclopedia/entrepreneurship

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