Entrepreneurship is a multifaceted field that requires a broad range of skills, including creativity, innovation, problem-solving, and strategic thinking. Art, design, and culture are all essential components that play a crucial role in entrepreneurship. This blog post will explore the importance of art, design, and culture in entrepreneurship.
First and foremost, art, design, and culture are integral to branding and marketing. A business incorporating art and design into its branding strategy can create a unique identity and stand out from competitors. The right design can effectively convey a business’s mission and values, making it easier to connect with potential customers. Art and culture also play a significant role in advertising campaigns, as they can help create a connection with a target audience and memorably convey the message.
Secondly, art, design, and culture can inspire innovation and creativity. Artistic expressions and cultural traditions can help entrepreneurs develop new ideas and concepts to apply to their businesses. These inspirations can come in different forms, such as visual art, music, literature, and even culinary arts. By incorporating these influences into their work, entrepreneurs can develop new and innovative products and services that stand out in the market.
Furthermore, art, design, and culture can help entrepreneurs think critically and solve problems creatively. The creative process often requires thinking outside the box, and art, design, and culture can help entrepreneurs develop their critical thinking skills. In addition, by analyzing and interpreting different forms of art and culture, entrepreneurs can learn to see things from different perspectives and develop unique solutions to complex problems.
Moreover, art, design, and culture can also foster collaboration and teamwork. Entrepreneurs can work with artists, designers, and cultural experts to create new products and services that reflect the values and aesthetics of different cultures. This collaboration can lead to new ideas and innovations that benefit the business and the community.
In conclusion, art, design, and culture are essential to entrepreneurship. By incorporating these elements into their businesses, entrepreneurs can create unique branding and marketing strategies, inspire innovation and creativity, develop critical thinking skills, and foster collaboration and teamwork. These skills are crucial for any entrepreneur seeking to succeed in today’s competitive market. As an aspiring entrepreneur, it is essential to recognize the value of art, design, and culture in achieving your goals and positively impacting the world.
The importance of mental health and well-being cannot be overemphasized, especially in social and environmental issues. The environment’s state and our society can significantly affect our mental health and well-being. This blog will explore the link between mental health, social and environmental issues, and the role of NGOs in promoting mental health and well-being.
The Link between Mental Health, Social, and Environmental Issues
There is a clear link between social and environmental issues and mental health. People living in poverty, for instance, may experience stress, anxiety, and depression due to their living conditions. In addition, climate change, environmental degradation, and natural disasters can cause psychological distress and trauma. These issues threaten the basic human needs of safety, security, and social connectedness.
The Role of NGOs in Promoting Mental Health and Wellbeing
NGOs are vital in promoting mental health and well-being in communities affected by social and environmental issues. They can provide support and services to those in need, such as counselling, mental health education, and access to healthcare. In addition, NGOs can provide programs that empower individuals to take control of their mental health and well-being. For instance, programs that promote mindfulness, self-care, and positive coping mechanisms.
The Importance of Self-Care for Activists and Volunteers
NGOs rely heavily on activists and volunteers to bring about social and environmental change. However, activists and volunteers can experience burnout, anxiety, and other mental health issues due to the emotional toll of their work. It is, therefore, essential for NGOs to prioritize self-care and provide support to their volunteers and staff to prevent burnout and promote mental health and well-being.
The Benefits of Nature and Outdoor Activities
Spending time in nature and engaging in outdoor activities can positively impact mental health and well-being. Being in nature has been shown to reduce stress, improve mood, and boost overall well-being.
NGOs can promote the benefits of nature and encourage people to spend time outside to improve their mental health.
Addressing Stigma and Promoting Awareness
Mental health issues are often stigmatized, preventing people from seeking help. NGOs can promote awareness of mental health issues, address stigma, and encourage people to seek help when needed. In conclusion, mental health and well-being are essential to a healthy and sustainable society. Therefore, NGOs are crucial in promoting mental health and well-being in communities affected by social and environmental issues. By prioritizing mental health and well-being, we can create a resilient society capable of overcoming the challenges posed by social and ecological problems.
Tanzania is a country in East Africa with over 60 million people. Like many countries in the region, it faces significant challenges in providing quality education to all.
Education in Tanzania is an important issue that has received increased attention over the past few years. However, while the country has made significant progress in expanding access to education in recent decades, there are still significant challenges to ensuring that all children have access to quality education.
One of the critical challenges facing Tanzania’s education system is the shortage of qualified teachers, particularly in rural areas. The lack of teachers has led to a situation where many children are taught by untrained or underqualified teachers, which can significantly impact the quality of education they receive. The government has been working to address this issue by increasing the number of trained teachers and providing incentives for teachers to work in rural areas.
Another challenge facing the education system in Tanzania is the lack of resources, particularly in rural areas. Many schools do not have adequate facilities, such as classrooms, textbooks, and other learning materials, making it difficult for children to learn effectively. The government has been working to address this issue by investing in infrastructure and providing resources to schools in rural areas.
Despite these challenges, Tanzania has made significant progress in expanding access to education in recent years. The country has achieved near-universal primary school enrollment, and the number of children enrolled in secondary school has also increased significantly. The government has also been working to improve the quality of education by introducing new curricula and assessments designed to better prepare students for the workforce.
Several non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are also working to improve education in Tanzania. These organizations are focused on a range of issues, from improving access to education to providing resources and training to teachers. In addition, some NGOs are also working to address broader issues, such as poverty and gender inequality, which can significantly impact children’s ability to access and benefit from education.
In conclusion, education in Tanzania is a complex issue that requires a multifaceted approach. While the country has made significant progress in expanding access to education, there are still significant challenges to ensuring that all children have access to quality education. Therefore, the government, NGOs, and other stakeholders must continue to work together to address these challenges and ensure that all children have the opportunity to reach their full potential.
Coulson, A. (2013). Tanzania: A Political Economy (Second edition, Vol.). Oxford University Press.
Ito, K., Madeni, F. E., & Shimpuku, Y. (2022). Secondary school students and peer educators’ perceptions of adolescent education in rural Tanzania: A qualitative study. Reproductive Health, 19(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-022-01418-6
Lugalla, L. P., & Ngwaru, M. (2019). Education in Tanzania in the Era of Globalization: Challenges and Opportunities. Mkuki Na Nyota Publishers.
Eastern Africa is a region of the African continent experiencing significant economic growth and development. Comprising of countries such as Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Uganda, this region is home to over 300 million people. In this blog post, we will explore the economic future of Eastern Africa, including the factors contributing to its growth and the challenges that lie ahead.
One of the key factors contributing to the economic growth of Eastern Africa is the region’s rich natural resources. These resources include minerals such as gold, diamonds, and copper and agricultural products such as coffee, tea, and flowers. In addition, the region is also home to significant oil and gas reserves, with important discoveries made in recent years.
Another critical driver of economic growth in Eastern Africa is the region’s strategic location. Eastern Africa is at the intersection of crucial trade routes, including those linking the Middle East, Asia, and Europe. This location provides opportunities for the region to serve as a hub for trade and investment, contributing to its economic development.
The region has also experienced significant investment in infrastructure, including the construction of ports, airports, and highways. These investments aim to improve connectivity within the region and the rest of the world, promoting economic growth and development.
Despite these positive developments, Eastern Africa still faces several challenges that could affect its economic future. One of the primary challenges is the need for more significant investment in human capital. The region has a young and growing population, and it is essential to invest in education, health, and other social services to ensure that this population can contribute to economic growth in the long term.
Another significant challenge facing the region is political instability. Some countries in the region, such as Somalia and South Sudan, continue to experience conflict and instability, which can negatively impact economic development. Therefore, it is vital for the region’s leaders to address these challenges and work towards building stable and peaceful societies.
Climate change is another significant challenge that could affect the economic future of Eastern Africa. The region is already experiencing the effects of climate change, including droughts, floods, and other extreme weather events. These events can significantly impact agricultural productivity, a crucial driver of economic growth in the region.
In conclusion, the economic future of Eastern Africa is bright, with rich natural resources, a strategic location, and investments in infrastructure driving economic growth and development. However, challenges like the need for more significant investment in human capital, political instability, and climate change could impact the region’s economic future. Therefore, the region’s leaders must address these challenges and work towards building a more prosperous and sustainable future for the people of Eastern Africa.
“Africa could play a vital role in the future of climate change if aid is promised.” – William Ruto, President of Kenya
In response to the climate crisis, people worldwide have been paying attention to Africa as a continent that can provide clean energy and leverage as a driving force for growth. Among them, one notable resource is solar energy.
North African countries intend to use their best solar energy capabilities.
The Government of Tanzania has committed to increasing the use of renewable energy sources, including solar power, as part of its national energy mix. The country has significant potential for solar energy due to its abundant sunlight, and the government has established several initiatives and programs to promote the development and use of solar energy. For example, the government has established the Rural Energy Agency to promote renewable energy in rural areas, including solar power for lighting, cooking, and other applications.
Additionally, several private sector initiatives aimed at increasing the use of solar energy in Tanzania, such as developing solar power plants and distribution networks for households and businesses. The government is also working to improve access to financing for renewable energy projects, including solar projects, to encourage further investment and growth in the sector.
At COP27 in November 2022 (the 27th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt), United Arab Emirates global energy company Masdar said in a report that Africa could account for up to 10% of the world’s green hydrogen market by 2050. In particular, Morocco’s credit highlighted, noting that it expects to produce green hydrogen at less than $2 per kilogram in 2030 and less than $1 per kilogram in 2050. The report also said Morocco’s green hydrogen industry is expected to create nearly four million additional jobs and add $60-120 billion (about 76 trillion-152 trillion won) to the continent’s GDP by 2050.
This will be a significant achievement if it materializes, considering that Morocco’s GDP in 2021 exceeded USD 132 billion (about KRW 167.44 trillion). In September 2022, while Morocco was building its first green hydrogen production system, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) reported that Morocco is expected to produce the third cheapest green hydrogen by 2050.
Meanwhile, Tunur (TuNur: a renewable energy, storage, and transmission developer focused on Tunisia and the Mediterranean region) has committed to investing $1.5 billion (W1.9 trillion) in power plants in Tunisia. Considering that Tunisia’s gross domestic product (GDP) currently exceeds about $40 billion (about 50.74 trillion won), it is indeed a huge investment.
Like Morocco, Tunisia announced its green hydrogen strategy in 2022 and aims to pursue it by 2024. In partnership with multinational company Chariot Energy, Mauritania focused on Project Nour, which aims to make Mauritania one of Africa’s cheapest global green hydrogen exporters by leveraging its world-class wind and solar access.
Traps to Consider
Currently, many exciting projects are taking place across Africa. However, concerns about other factors, such as the bureaucracy of certain governments that could delay such projects and the risk of the investment not aiming to benefit residents, have been lingering. As a result, electricity utilization is often very low in some African countries, while electricity utilization is less than 50% in 24 countries. Therefore, governments and investors must improve their domestic infrastructure so that people across the continent can fully benefit from this energy transition.
Moreover, as the International Energy Agency IEA pointed out, Africa has 60% of the world’s best solar resources. Still, it is in the early stages of development, accounting for only 1% of the solar power capacity. The pipeline now aims to export natural gas from West and North Africa to Europe. In particular, Algeria is a natural gas supplier, particularly of fossil fuels. However, pipelines require repurposing and can be used to transport hydrogen. Critically, some observers have raised concerns about essential ‘extractionist’ projects.
Africa’s regional resources can aim to benefit global markets outside the continent at the expense of its local population. In addition, some investment projects could cause significant debt to African governments. There are undoubtedly positive aspects, and investment is essential, but whoever the initiator will be must ensure that extensive infrastructure development takes place so that ordinary civilians can also benefit, especially given the continent’s more comprehensive climate vulnerability.
If these projects are carried out ethically, the global and African economies will become more intertwined and positively contribute to the continent’s economic growth.
Climate change is significantly impacting Africa, leading to rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, increasing frequency of extreme weather events, and rising sea levels. These changes are affecting the agriculture and water resources in the region, making it harder to grow crops and access water, leading to food and water insecurity. Climate change is also affecting health, particularly in rural areas, where people are more vulnerable to diseases caused by rising temperatures and changes in the distribution of disease vectors. Climate change also exacerbates poverty and social tensions, leading to migration and conflict.
The continent will continue to face significant challenges in adapting to the impacts of a changing climate, particularly in its most vulnerable communities, unless urgent action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and support adaptation efforts.
The international community is taking several measures to assist Africa in addressing the impacts of climate change. Some of the ways the international community is providing support are:
Financial Assistance: Developed countries have committed to providing funds through mechanisms to help developing countries, including African nations, transition to a low-carbon economy and adapt to the impacts of climate change. For example, the Green
Climate Fund provides funding for projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and strengthen resilience to the impacts of climate change.
Technology Transfer: The transfer of clean and sustainable technologies is essential to help African countries mitigate the effects of climate change. International organizations and developed countries are working on transferring these technologies to African nations. This includes access to clean, renewable energy technologies and more efficient agricultural and industrial practices.
Capacity Building: African nations often lack the technical expertise and capacity to tackle the complex issues posed by climate change. The international community provides training, education, and capacity-building support to help African nations understand and address these challenges better.
Policy Support: The international community is providing policy support to African nations to help them develop and implement policies and regulations to mitigate the effects of climate change and promote sustainable development. The international community also works together through international climate negotiations, such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), to agree on a global response to climate change and provide support to vulnerable countries, such as those in Africa. In addition, several initiatives have been launched specifically to support Africa in addressing climate change, such as the African Adaptation Initiative, the African Development Bank’s Climate Change and Green Growth Department, and the Climate Investment Funds.
These efforts aim to address the unique challenges posed by climate change in Africa and help African nations transition to a more sustainable and resilient future, focusing on supporting the region’s most vulnerable and least developed countries.
The growth prospects for the continent are strong. However, the national governments and businesses must ensure that indigenous people have access to alternative energy sources.”
Discussions about the climate crisis have often described the continent as a victim and innocent bystander, primarily because it contributes less than 4% to total global greenhouse gas emissions. But as the world strives to find new clean energy sources, it is increasingly difficult to ignore Africa’s phenomenal potential to help the climate crisis and provide clean energy.
From Sahara’s solar energy to vast land wind levels, Africa has much potential to convert its energy resources into green hydrogen, which climate researchers believe is the key to producing cleaner energy. However, there is scepticism about whether African countries can fully exploit this energy potential to benefit their citizens and whether development projects can be essential ‘extractions’.
Green Hydrogen Case
Green hydrogen is attracting attention as a new and renewable energy that can solve the climate crisis due to its low price, ease of storage, and low pollution gas. In addition, it can double car production other than diesel, replacing coal, oil and gas in all applications and releasing only water vapour. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and is used for various purposes, such as automobile fuel, metal treatment, fertilizer production, and food processing. However, because it is not an absolute natural resource from Earth, it takes energy to separate it, wherein an electrolysis process is essential to extract the purest form of hydrogen completely. This electrolysis process sends a strong current through the water tank (H2O) and separates the molecules into two elements (hydrogen and oxygen).
When electricity comes from renewable sources such as solar heat and wind power, hydrogen production through electrolysis does not generate greenhouse gases, making green hydrogen renewable. Given Africa’s abundant solar and wind energy, the continent has the perfect natural potential to create green hydrogen. Indeed, the International Energy Agency (IEA) announced in its ‘Africa Energy Outlook 2022’ report that Africa’s abundant renewable resources are crucial to achieving this potential.
The report said that this potential allows the continent to produce 5,000 megatons of hydrogen per year at less than $2 per kilogram, equivalent to the world’s total energy supply. The IEA’s report also said Africa could produce 80 per cent of the energy needed from solar, wind, hydro and other renewable energies by 2030.
African Continental Development
Over the past decade, various projects have been underway to produce and ultimately export green hydrogen. As an evident example, Tanzania is expected to become one of the continental leaders of green hydrogen energy due to its excellent solar, wind and precious metal resources. Furthermore, in 2012, Tanzania announced its climate change strategy, aiming to enable Tanzania to adapt effectively to climate change and participate in global efforts to mitigate climate change while achieving sustainable development. After several revisions, Tanzania will implement various climate change response policies worth $750 million annually by 2030.
Tanzania’s climate change adaptation strategy is widely applied to water resources, coastal and marine environments, forestry, wildlife, agriculture and food security, human health, tourism, energy (water dams), industry, livestock and fisheries, infrastructure, human settlement and land use, and mitigation includes low-emission energy technology, livestock management and food improvement, efficiency in transport, mining, agriculture and waste management.
In February 2022, South Africa announced a pipeline of various green hydrogen initiatives worth approximately $17.8 billion (KRW 22.6 trillion) by 2030. On November 27, Cyril Ramaphosa, President of the African National Congress, hosted the Green Hydrogen Summit in Cape Town, inviting several world leaders, ambassadors and high commissioners. At the meeting, Ramaphosa said, “South Africa is determined to become a global leader in the field of green hydrogen.” At the same time, he estimated, “South Africa has the potential to produce 6 million to 13 million tons of green hydrogen and derivatives every year by 2050.
His announcement came after South African petrochemical giant Sasol and Luxembourg’s world’s largest steelmaker ArcelorMittal announced a project to explore green hydrogen in October, along with extraction from a hydrogen-producing hub and North Cape area in Saldanha Bay. In September of that same year, Sasol worked with the Japanese company Itochu to explore Japan’s green hydrogen export projects and supply chains. The latter promised to subsidize such projects.
The project aims to supply the European market as well. In January 2022, Rotterdam Port signed a memorandum of agreement acting as “the aggregator of demand for green hydrogen in Europe.” Other European countries, such as Germany, therefore noted cooperation with South Africa in this area. The investment will undoubtedly be significant because South Africa has said it will need approximately $250 billion (about 317.125 trillion won) by 2050 to meet its long-term hydrogen production target. Other countries, including Egypt, Nigeria, and Kenya, are also in several stages of building initiatives that will be implemented over the next decade. In 2021, Namibia and Botswana also signed a memorandum of intent with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to build a super-large solar power plant to produce green hydrogen.
Africa’s continental development, coupled with its environmental change response strategy, is expected to create the power to respond sensitively to environmental changes and serve as a springboard for new national growth that can lead to economic growth.
A marketing strategy refers to a business’s overall game plan for reaching prospective consumers and turning them into customers of their products or services. A marketing strategy contains the company’s value proposition, essential brand messaging, data on target customer demographics, and other high-level elements. A thorough marketing strategy covers “the four Ps” of marketing: product, price, place, and people.
Understanding Marketing Strategies
A clear marketing strategy should revolve around the company’s value proposition, which communicates to consumers what it stands for, how it operates, and why it deserves their business. This provides marketing teams with a template that should inform their initiatives across all of the company’s products and services.
Benefits of a Marketing Strategy
The ultimate goal of a marketing strategy is to achieve and communicate a sustainable competitive advantage over rival companies by understanding the needs and wants of its consumers. Whether it’s a print ad design, mass customisation, or a social media campaign, a marketing asset can be judged based on how effectively it communicates a company’s core value proposition. In addition, market research can help chart a given campaign’s efficacy and help identify untapped audiences to achieve bottom-line goals and increase sales.
What does a marketing strategy look like?
A marketing strategy will detail the advertising, outreach, and PR campaigns to be carried out by a firm, including how the company will measure the effect of these initiatives. They will typically follow the “four Ps”: product, price, place, and people. The functions and components of a marketing plan include
market research to support pricing decisions and new market entries
tailored messaging that targets specific demographics and geographic areas
platform selection for product and service promotion
digital, radio, Internet, trade magazines, and the mix of those platforms for each campaign metrics that measure the results of marketing efforts and their reporting timelines.
Is a marketing strategy the same as a marketing plan?
The terms marketing plan and strategy are often used interchangeably because a marketing plan is developed based on an overarching strategic framework. In some cases, the strategy and the program may be incorporated into one document, particularly for smaller companies that may only run one or two major campaigns in a year. The plan outlines marketing activities monthly, quarterly, or annual, while the marketing strategy outlines the overall value proposition.
Four types of marketing strategies
Cause marketing, also known as cause-related marketing, links a company, its products, and services to a social cause or issue.
Relationship marketing focuses on customer retention and satisfaction to enhance your relationships with existing customers to increase loyalty.
Scarcity marketing creates a perception of a shortage which aims to entice customers to purchase out of fear that they may not be able to get it in the future.
Undercover marketing, also known as stealth marketing, involves marketing to consumers in a way that they do not realise they are being marketed to.
The first two – cause and relationship marketing — are considered “positive” marketing techniques that focus on the benefits to others. The second two – scarcity and undercover marketing – are more unconventional and potentially controversial techniques.
What are the 5 P’s of Marketing?
The 5 P’s of Marketing – Product, Price, Promotion, Place, and People – are key marketing elements used to position a business strategically. The 5 P’s of Marketing, also known as the marketing mix, are variables that managers and owners control to satisfy customers in their target market, add value to their business, and help differentiate their business from competitors.
Product refers to the products and services offered by a business. Product decisions include function, packaging, appearance, warranty, quality, etc.
Customers need to understand the features, advantages, and benefits of buying goods or services. Therefore, when thinking about a product, consider the key features, benefits, and the needs and wants of customers.
Price refers to the pricing strategy for products and services and how it will affect customers. Pricing decisions do not include just the selling price but also discounts, payment arrangements, credit terms, and any price-matching services offered.
When determining a pricing strategy, it is essential to consider the business’s position in the current marketplace. For example, if the company is advertised as a high-quality provider of mechanical equipment, the product pricing should reflect that.
Promotion refers to the activities that make the business more known to consumers. It includes items such as sponsorships, advertising, and public relations activities.
Since promotion costs can be substantial, it is essential to conduct a break-even analysis when making promotion decisions. It is necessary to understand the value of a customer and whether it is worth running promotions to acquire them.
Place refers to where the product/service of the business is seen, made, sold, or distributed. In essence, place decisions are associated with distribution channels and getting the product to targeted vital customers.
It is essential to consider how accessible the product or service is and ensure that customers can easily find you. The product or service must be available to customers at the right time, place, and quantity.
For example, a business may want to provide their products over an e-commerce site, retail store, or third-party distributor.
People refer to the staff, salespeople, and those who work for the business. People’s decisions are usually centred around customer service – how do you want your employees to be perceived by customers?
CONCLUSION: Through marketing strategy, it allows the company to oversee from far how it will be moving from the current situation to its desired position.
Lightning is the brilliant electric spark discharge in the atmosphere occurring within a thunderstorm, between the clouds. The flashing of light produced by a discharge of atmospheric electricity and a flashing of light is the result of discharge of atmosphere electricity within a thunderstorm cloud way up into the sky. Many small bits of ice frozen raindrop bump into each other as they move around in the air. All of these collisions create an electric charge and usually occurs to the areas that are mostly concentrated with metals.
Lightning can occur during anytime of the year but lightning casualties are highest during summer. July is generally the month with the most lightning and the strikes mostly occur in the afternoon. In fact, two thirds of all lightning casualties occur between noon and 6pm.
Examples of places or countries that are affected with lightning are the all regions of USA, Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Missouri and North Carolina. Florida is considered as the lightning capital of the country with more than 2000 lightning injuries over the past 50 years.
According to the U.S department of health and human services, they have reported some categories which are:
Males are, five times more, likely than females to be struck by lightning. Around 85% of lightning fatalities are men
People aged 15-34 years account for almost half of all lightning strike victims (41%). The majority (89%) of lightning deaths occurs among Caucasians.
About one third (32%) of lightning injuries occur indoors.
Lightning is the results of thunderstorm from a charge in the normal electrical field between the surface and the atmosphere, in fair weather the surface is negatively charged, and atmosphere is positively charged. Owning to intense friction of air within the Cumulonimbus cloud, higher charges are built up with positive charges in upper portion and negative charge in lower portion. When the potential difference becomes more pronounced, discharges [lighting] occur from the cloud to the ground, from cloud to cloud or within the same cloud.
The occurrence of lighting involves different process as explained bellow;
The sky is filled with electric charge. In calm skies they are positive + and negative[-]charged
Inside a thunderstorm the electric charge is spread out differently.
A thunderstorm is made up of ice crystal and hailstone.
The ice crystal have positive charge (+) and the hailstone have a negative charge (-).
The hailstone is pushed to the bottom of the thunderstorms by its downdraft.
During the thunderstorm the Earth surface has a positive charge. Because the positive charge attract the negative charge at the bottom of the thunder clouds wants to link up with the positive charge of the earth surface.
Once the negative charge at the bottom of the cloud gets the large enough, a flow of negative charge rushes towards the earth surface. This is Known as the “stepped leader,”
The positive charge of the earth surface is attracted to this stepped leader so as a flow of positive charge moves into the air. When the stepped leader and the positive charge from the earth meet a storm.
Refers to violent convective storm accompanied by thunder and lightning usually localized and lived. Vertical air motion, considerable humidity, and instability combine to create towering cumulonimbus clouds. Frequently occur in conjunction with other kinds of storms like hurricanes, tornadoes, fronts especially cold fronts in mid latitude cyclones and orographic lifting
Types of Thunderstorm
Orographic thunderstorms – caused by air that is forced up by a mountain or hillside.
Air mass thunderstorms – is the result of localized convection in an unstable air mass.
Frontal thunderstorms – occur along the boundaries of weather fronts (e.g. cold front).
Characteristics of thunderstorms
Thunderstorm last for a short duration, seldom two hours
It consist of down and updraft of air with electric charges and thunder.
It is associated with heavy precipitation or hail.
It is usually destructive in nature as, it can kill people, animals, and destroy property.
Condition leading to the formation of thunderstorms
There should be prevalence of atmospheric instability such that air updraft can set off.
There should be availability of ample supply of atmosphere moisture for condensation to take place and maintain a storm.
There should be some agent to start convection as uplift over a hill or mountain.
STAGES OF THUNDERSTORM
The thunderstorm has three main stages which are cumulus stage, the mature stage, and dissipating stage.
The cumulus stage; this is the first stage of the thunderstorm .its dominated by updrafts that create the cloud formations which are cumulonimbus cloud necessary. The continuous strong updrafts prevent precipitation from falling .This occur where super cooled water droplets and ice crystal coalesce, then fall initiated a downdraft.
The mature stage; this once the storm has developed it will enter the mature stage. This stage is dominated by both updrafts and downdrafts and is the most dangerous stage. Falling precipitation is indicator that the storm has reached the mature stage. Lighting severe turbulence and hail can all be encountered during this time. It is also most active at this time.
The dissipating stage; this is the last stage once the updrafts begin to die out the storm is dominated by downdrafts and enters the dissipating stage. This signals that the thunderstorm is dying out. In this stage it is where downdrafts dominate and turbulence cease.
The action of warm air rising and cool air sinking plays a key role in the formation of severe thunderstorm, if the warm surface air is forced to rise because is less dense than the surrounding air. This occur when the cold air and warm air meet each other whereby the warm air is forced to rise due to be that it is less denser and the cold air sinks, so the warm air in the atmosphere will settle and condense slowly.
Two of the most important ingredients for thunderstorm formation is instability and moisture Normally in the atmosphere, there is unstable air that causes the disturbance in the atmosphere and also the moisture that is caused by the cooling of warm air in the atmosphere might result to the occurrence of precipitation, even the presence of moisture and unstable air results to the thunderstorm formation
Thunderstorms are formed by uplifting of warm and humid air, the air that is formed is forced to move upwards due to it being denser normally it becomes cooler and mixes humid air clouds and water droplets that lead to precipitation or rain.
When humid air is lifted , it will be cooled and the moisture in the air will condense to form cloud. So, after the warm air rises upward to the atmosphere, it normally meets the moist air or moisture that forces it to cool and become humid, this situation leads to the formation of the clouds known as cumulonimbus. Normally these clouds are formed after the cooking of warm air containing the cloud within positive charges and negative charges and negative charges that once come into contact leads to the occurrence of thunderstorm.
Upon further uplifting, the clouds will extend higher water droplets in the clouds continue to grow in size as the clouds extends further upwards ice crystals may form because of low temperature. This means that due to the denser air rising upwards higher in the atmosphere forces and causes the clouds known as cumulonimbus to be formed higher away in the atmosphere and also due to the cool temperature in the higher atmosphere forced the water droplets became pieces of ice crystals so this becomes very essential for the clouds formation.
Finally thunderstorms are produced by the cumulonimbus cloud normally the cumulonimbus clouds contain two different charges that is positive charge known as crystal and the negative known as hail so once these come across they produce a steeper light known as lightning that comes with a heavy and huge sound known as thunderstorm.
What should we do during lightning and thunderstorm period?
Weeks have gone by, my national exams were nigh, since Mr. Martin Saning’o had passed away from COVID-19. I had a dream. In the dream, Mr. Martin said to me, in Swahili, with rough translation to english as, “Dare to dream big, never give up and always have a spirit big enough to achieve your dreams. Never give up my son and remember I love you!”. I woke up emotional that day but I also had a thought. He has done great works that most don’t know of. I wouldn’t want his works to go unnoticed – I would want people to know of the works that he did and the benefits he has brought to the Maasai community in Terrat, Simanjiro. This is his story.
Martin was born in the early 1960’s in the Simanjiro district of northern Tanzania. This is in the Maasai heartland – the high arid plains south of Arusha. In common with many Maasai of his generation, Martin and his family cannot be sure exactly when he was born. But Martin believed it to be born in 1960 or 1961.
Martin was one among the minute number of Maasai children to have received education at the time. He used his education well. He wanted to give back to society that brought him up, so in the early 1990’s he founded IOPA – Institute for Orkonerei Pastoralists Advancement. Although IOPA’s first priority was to deal with land rights, it also eyed health problems and water supply problems that the Maasai in Terrat faced.
Martin became an activist, and made critical moves to ensure that the Maasai aren’t displaced from their traditional lands – The government had been displacing the Maasai at the time from areas they claimed to be ‘National Park areas’. His moves were seen to be ‘too critical’ to some in high places, and as a result the government initially refused to register IOPA.
As impossible as it may seem, Martin sued the government for displacing the Maasai from their traditional lands. At the time, more than 6000 Maasai had already been displaced by the government form National Parks. IOPA, led by Mr. Martin, filed a number of cases against the government which later on resulted in a landmark ruling by the High Court in IOPA’s favour.
Martin recognized that education was the key to enlighten the Maasai on a number of things: land rights, their own health, their livestock, the ongoing changes in the outside world, and a number of other things. He figured that a community radio would effectively serve this purpose. He took measures to establish a community radio, the first ever in Tanzania. He worked his fingers to the bone – a lot of sleepless nights – and finally the ORS FM first broadcasted news in 2002. The radio was in fact the first ever community radio in Tanzania – or in a larger perspective East Africa. It broadcast news in Kimaasai (the Maasai native language) and also played Maasai music.
After the idea of the community radio, Martin also realised that there was a need for electricity – not only for the radio station but also for the receivers of the information they portrayed. He worked on a number of projects, in association with different international organisations, to bring electricity to the Maasai people.
Martin also worked to help women facing different challenges, most especially those in the maasai areas – they were more prone to treacherous practices – such beatings from husbands, mutilation and harassment. IOPA created a safe haven where beaten women would go to and tell their stories. It also tried to prevent female genital mutilation, FGM, child marriage, and women oppression. IOPA dedicated some of its resources to educate women and raise the status of women in the Maasai society. IOPA also sought to help women economically. IOPA established dairies in Simanjiro with a long-sighted view of enabling women to sell milk and get money, they used to acquire their needs and the needs of their families. In the maasai culture, the only resource that belongs to women is milk.
Martin had broad and liberal outlook in his work, which touched each and almost every age group and social class by the time. For children, IOPA helped establish more than 50 pre-primary and primary schools across the region.
Martin’s work didn’t go unnoticed – he was elected an Ashoka fellow in 2003 and got the attention of a Dutch philanthropist, Dini de Rijcke, and began to work with her through her foundation, Strichting Het Groene Woudt (SHGW). Through working with Ashoka and SHGW, IOPA achieved many of its objectives. The Dutch foundation provided IOPA with 5 dairy plants and generators to power them across the region, and each dairy could process up to 2000 litres of milk into yoghurt, cheese, ghee and butter per day. These products were sold throughout the country. In cooperation with these organizations, IOPA was also able to work on a number of water supply projects, that bore fruits as the people in the dry Maasai lands got water with much more ease than before.
The women’s refuge centre was expanded to also be guest houses that could accommodate visitors to the area. IOPA also added additional generators to build one of the first mini-grids in the country to supply more than 1000 people in Terrat village with electricity, since the government had considered it too expensive to connect Terrat to the national electricity grid.
The IOPA centre in Terrat with guest house, community hall and dairy
Martin was bestowed various awards for his great work such as Social Entrepreneur of the Year 2014 by the Schwab Foundation and World Economic Forum Africa, the Ford Global Community Leadership Award, and Dubai Global Innovator Award.
Martin suggested that IOPA had to try and create viable micro businesses, so that even after funders ended their collaborations, IOPA would still be able to run its activities and thrive. As of today, IOPA’s remaining running projects include ORS FM radio, a few dairy plants, the conference centre, the water business, the guest house, and education and health support project in Terrat.
In 2019, IOPA was changed to Orkonerei Maasai Social Initiatives (OMASI) – an NGO – because of government laws and regulations, and by the end of 2020 Mr. Martin had achieved most of his goals and dreams.
On March 1st, 2021, Martin passed away. I can say that he hasn’t truly died because his works still live on – he lives through his works. He has left a legacy and very big shoes to fill. This story of Martin is supposed to be a motivation to anyone with big dreams, anyone who is fighting against all odds to achieve their dreams. I hope I have done his story justice.
If you will it, it is no dream; and if you do not will it, a dream it is and a dream it will stay