A GIRL CHILD IN TANZANIA DURING MENSURATION PERIOD

By Ayanna Albert – Art in Tanzania Internship

Down deep in the valleys very far away from town, were there is neither much electricity nor water to take. Down deep where a girl is also a shepherd of cattle’s as well but then thanks to education now she can attend.

Been a witness through my own campaigns as we visited these girls in the interior villages, their stories they told “where when they were on MP home they had to stay. These are girls who had same right to education and hence they would miss classes just because of the biological nature that God had created in them.”

Yes!! They are girls who can’t afford pads every month and yet some due to their biological being the piece of cloth that some use isn’t enough to carry the blood weight and hence they are forced to stay inside the whole days until the days are gone. So this basically means no school, no access to some of the things. So is now menstruation a disability to girls??(Some would ask) or is just the whole issue of poverty having and not of having.

So then further more this girl child is expected to perform well or maybe better further more than boys without including the stories of house chores, fetching water from a long distance as it was in the past and still to some.

The same girl child faces consequences when she fails to perform well in class such as forced marriage and they like.

So here is a cry to a girl child and an applaud to every movement around the world that supports such groups to purchase a reusable pads at least that they could wash again and again , back to those without water still this is still a question?

A special note to this girl child;

Dear Girl child,

You’re beautiful, you are strong, and you’re worth beyond a thousand reasons why

There is nobody in the world like you

You got to get up (no matter what)

You got get up and make a move

Because the world won’t ever see you till you do

(Some of the lyrics song by Tatiana Manaois, song name: Like you)

By; Ayanna Albert Mushi

Women’s Empowerment in Accessing Financial Services

By Marina Joseph – Art in Tanzania internship

World Bank views financial inclusion as means that individuals and businesses have access to useful and affordable financial products and services that meet their needs – transactions, payments, savings, credit, and insurance – delivered in a responsible and sustainable way. Financial inclusion expands access to efficient financial services. Achieving inclusive growth means promoting often overlooked groups of people in the society such as women and poor people as they disproportionately face access to quality financial services. Empowering such groups helps increase participation in the economy and their standard of living improves simultaneous 

Women’s World Banking (WWB) is a global network comprised of 39 leading microfinance institutions from 27 countries. The network members are diverse in geography, size, and structure but united in the firm belief that microfinance must remain committed to women as clients, innovators, and leaders. In 2009 WWB was asked to review proposals by the G-20 Financial Inclusion Expert Group which they gladly did as it was an acknowledgement that women face different or additional barriers to entry in accessing finance.

WWB offered 9 suggestions to financial institutions interested in increasing access to finance for poor and low‐income women. The following are the suggestions

  1. Time: Acknowledge constraints on women’s time and mobility
  2. Confidentiality: Give women the choice of who they want involved in financial transactions
  3. Product design: Accommodate all levels of literacy in product design and marketing
  4. Documentation and collateral requirements: Be sensitive to the fact that requirements for documentation and collateral may exclude women  
  5. Loan size: Give women access to a range of loan sizes and structures  
  6. Accounting for cultural norms: Tailor marketing strategies to reach women
  7. Branding: Create a brand position that honors women  
  8. Institutional Culture: Ensure gender positive interactions
  9. Moving beyond credit: Offer a full suite of financial products  

World Bank’s empowerment sourcebook, ‘empowerment is the expansion of assets and capabilities of poor people to participate in, negotiate with, influence, control, and hold Empowering Women through Microfinance: Evidence from Tanzania 36 accountable institutions that affect their lives’. In a developing country such as Tanzania financial inclusion for women can have transformative effects. Tanzania’s policy makers have made steps in creating an enabling environment for women’s financial inclusion. 

In 2006 Alliance for financial inclusion (AFI) mentioned efforts that Tanzania is a country is undertaking to bridge that gap. The following are some of the existing and expanding policies to achieve that

Financial inclusion data disaggregated by gender 

The Bank of Tanzania has expressed its intent to collect sex disaggregated data and is in the process of expanding its financial inclusion database collecting data similar to Findex 2014. As a country it has developed policies based on FinScope surveys in 2006, 2009 and 2013, which provide financial inclusion data broken down by gender. A new FinScope survey will be conducted in 2016 and is expected to have an even stronger influence on policy direction.

  • Development of financial infrastructure

Significant progress and development have been made by Tanzania in developing payment infrastructures that are effective alongside its regulatory framework for mobile money. These infrastructures help in building information based on women as clients so they can be better served.  

  • Women’s financial inclusion as an explicit policy objective with quantitative targets

Tanzania’s 2013 Framework gives priority to poor rural households and their enterprises, including low-income women and youth, without specifying gender targets. Following the high-level conference on women’s financial inclusion held in Yamoussoukro in August 2015 and the 7th AFI Global Policy Forum (GPF) held in Maputo in September 2015, the Bank of Tanzania decided to introduce gender targets and indicators in the revised measurement framework, with the possibility of integrating gender issues into the Financial Inclusion National Framework itself ( Alliance for Financial Inclusion, 2016). 

  • Financial consumer protection regulation

The Financial Inclusion National Council recognizes the importance of financial consumer protection which has been emphasized with the growth of digital financial services. The Bank of Tanzania sees consumer     protection as particularly important for women as they are considered to be more vulnerable to the environment. 

THE PRESENT STATUS OF MALARIA VACCINE

By Mazhar Shahen – Art in Tanzania internship

In Tanzania over 90% of the population live in areas where there is risk of malaria. In Africa, Tanzania is the third largest population at risk of malaria. Most of the victims of the disease are children, with around 80,000 death annually caused by malaria. In Tanzania, the Kagera Region on the western shore of Lake Victoria has the highest risk of contracting the disease. The Arusha Region is a lower risk area. However due to climate change and people migration caused an increase in the migration of mosquitoes and caused areas that are malaria free to be exposed to the disease. 

MALARIA

Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by the transmission through an infected female Anopheles mosquito. The infected mosquito is a carrier of Plasmodium parasite. The parasite is released into the human bloodstream through the mosquito bite. The parasite survives in tropical and subtropical climates. After the parasite enters the human bloodstream it travels to the liver to mature. Maturity of the parasite takes several days, then the parasite goes back to the bloodstream to travel to the red blood cells this time. Once the red blood cells are infected, the parasite starts multiplying withing 2-3 days, causing the infected red blood cells to burst. 

Malaria is an acute febrile disease, which means it shows signs of fever when infected. Symptoms appear in a non-immune person 10-15 days after the infection has occurred. Early symptoms are mild fever, chills, and headache. Since it is mild, it makes the malaria disease harder to detect early on. If not treated the plasmodium parasite can progress to severe illness, usually leading to death.

Severe malaria in children could lead to severe anaemia, respiratory distress, and/or cerebral malaria. Adults are at risk of multi-organ failure. 

In 2019 the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that half of the world’s population is at risk of malaria. With most of the cases and deaths are in the sub-Saharan Africa. This indicates that African community is in need of a malaria vaccine as soon as possible. Malaria control has been better, with the number of cases dropping significantly over the last decade, with the number of children dying from malaria being halved. 

MALARIA VACCINE

Vaccines are a hot topic in the world we live in. Vaccines help us strengthen our immune system against specific disease which protects us from that illness. Vaccines are usually needle injections but can also be given by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

WHO claims that the malaria vaccine is capable of reducing malaria cases by 75% and put us on goal of the eradication of the illness. Malaria is responsible for 219 million cases each year with an estimated 660,000 deaths of the illness.

Tanzania has the third largest population that is at risk of the illness in Africa, with 90% of the population at risk of contracting malaria. Tanzania has 10 to 12 million cases of malaria annually, with most of them being children. The number of cases has been controlled a lot better of the decade leading to significant decrease, and number of children dying from malaria halved. However, due to climate change and the migration of people malaria cases are rising in areas that were considered low risk in the past. This is complicating the fight against malaria. 

Vaccine RTS,S acts on Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly malaria parasite in the world and specifically in Africa. The vaccine is the first and only successful vaccine for malaria, which helped in reduction of children death in Africa. This vaccination is part of the Malaria Vaccine Implementation Progamme (MVIP), this program is established by WHO to deliver the vaccine in selected areas of Africa with the help of each country’s governments. The 3 African countries that are currently in pilot introduction are Ghana, Malawi and Kenya. The goal is to supply the whole region by 2023. Vaccine RTS,S is considered a safe vaccine, and no proven direct side effects are there. The pharmaceutical giant GSK will be conducting a number of Phase 4 studies in the 3 African countries chosen for pilot. 

In 1987 the discovery of a synthetic peptide polymer (SPf66) in Columbia enabled the development of the first vaccine candidate. Tanzania was the second country after Columbia to participate the clinical trials of SPf66. This indicates that historically Tanzania has an advantage as researchers will have a deeper pool of information in Tanzania compared to other African countries. Researcher George M Bwire states in his article that the inclusion of Tanzania in the Malaria Vaccine Implementation Program for the current RTS, S vaccine is crucial.

REFERENCES

  1. Agnandji, S. T., Agnandji, S. T., Asante, K. P., Lyimo, J., Vekemans, J., Soulanoudjingar, S. S., . . . Abdulla, S. (2010). Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of the RTS,S/AS01E Malaria Candidate Vaccine When Integrated in the Expanded Program of Immunization. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 202(7), 1076-1087. Retrieved 2 11, 2021, from https://academic.oup.com/jid/article-abstract/202/7/1076/837083
  2. Bwire, George & Sanga, Anna. (2019). Malaria control in Tanzania: Current status and future prospects. 2664-8490..
  3. Dimala, C. A., Kika, B. T., Kadia, B. M., & Blencowe, H. (2018). Current challenges and proposed solutions to the effective implementation of the RTS, S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine Program in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review. PLOS ONE, 13(12). Retrieved 2 11, 2021, from https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30596732
  4. Galactionova, K., Tediosi, F., Camponovo, F., Smith, T., Gething, P. W., & Penny, M. A. (2017). Country specific predictions of the cost-effectiveness of malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01 in endemic Africa. Vaccine, 35(1), 53-60. Retrieved 2 11, 2021, from https://sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s0264410x16311033
  5. Malaria vaccine implementation PROGRAMME (MVIP). (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2021, from https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/malaria-vaccine-implementation-programme
  6. Malaria in Tanzania. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2021, from https://malariaspot.org/en/eduspot/malaria-in-tanzania/
  7. White, N. J. (2011). A vaccine for malaria. The New England Journal of Medicine, 365(20), 1926-1927. Retrieved 2 11, 2021, from https://nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejme1111777

TANZANIA FOOTBALL STARS PLAYING OVERSEAS

By Sylivery Manyama – Art in Tanzania Internship Programs

Tanzania is one of the countries with the most talented young people especially in the game of football. In east African countries the most influential football league is the Tanzania league known as Vodacom Premier League. The oldest clubs in Tanzania and the ones that are doing well are Simba and Yanga and many players dream of playing for those clubs than over sea.

Tanzanian football philosophy aims to have players who are hungry for success, teachable and willing to learn. Most of our players are satisfied quickly with little success in our football. Many are satisfied when they are selected to play on a big team like Simba and Yanga and are not coached. Many players are not ready to learn and feel that they know the ball and forget that football is a science that changes every day.

The dream of many players in Tanzania is to play football abroad/ over sea, for example, there are players who have successfully played football abroad who are Mbwana Samata at Fernabace , Himidi Mao, Saimon Msuva at Whydad Cassablanca and many others. Playing football abroad requires the patience of the players and dedication. many of them have been failing due to various reasons. Examples of players who failed to play abroad successfully are Mrisho Ngassa, Farid Mussa, Abdallah Shaibu and many others who returned to play in the domestic league.

Mbwana Samatta

Mbwana Ally Samatta (born 23 December 1992) is a Tanzanian professional footballer who plays as a striker for Turkish club Fenerbahçe on loan from Premier league Aston Villa. He played also at Belgium league Genk also before playing at Genk he was a player of Tp Mazembe from Congo. He started his career at Simba sports club.

Simon Msuva (born 3 december 1993) is a Tanzanian professional football player who plays for Wydad Casablanca and the Tanzanian national football Team. He also played as a winger in the Al Jadida team from Morocco before shifted to whydad. Msuva was a top scorer of the Vodacom Tanzania Mainland Premier League for the 2014-2015 season at Yanga football club.

Himid Mao Mkami (born 5 November 1992) is a Tanzanian footballer who currently plays as a midfielder for ENPPI SC. He was a player of Azam sport club

The challenges facing players to achieve their dreams of playing overseas

• Cultural diversity. Many players have found themselves unable to play outside due to the nature of the practice and the environment at home and abroad being different.
• Language problem. Many players have been challenged to know the languages that are used overseas thus becoming unhappy and misunderstood by the coaches and leading to a return.
• The problem of football agents in Tanzania. Many players do not have official agents to manage them thus leading many players to manage themselves. Thus, leading players to enter into bad contracts and fail to protect their interests.
• poor preparation of players from early age. Many Tanzanian players do not have the basics of football, which makes it difficult for them to play football abroad due to the lack of real football bases from an early age.

Despite this in order to have more players over sea, we need to have more registered agents to help players go and play abroad through those agents, as well as believing in young blood and looking for teams to play abroad as most Tanzanian players go abroad at an older age lead to play for short period.

BANKING IN TANZANIA

By BEN K GWAMAKA – Art in Tanzania Internship

gwamakaben25@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION

–Banking, The provision of deposit and loan products normally distinguishes banks from other types of financial firms. Deposit products pay out money on demand or after some notice. Deposits are liabilities for banks, which must be managed if the bank is to maximize profit. Likewise, they manage the assets created by lending. –

Banks, are Institutions that match up savers and borrowers help ensure that economies function smoothly. Although banks do many things, their primary role is to take in funds called deposits from those with money, pool them, and lend them to those who need funds. Banks are intermediaries between depositors (who lend money to the bank) and borrowers (to whom the bank lends money).–The amount banks pay for deposits and the income they receive on their loans are both called interest.

TYPES OF BANKS

1. Central Banks:

Over and above the various types of banks mentioned above, there exists in almost all countries today a Central Bank. It is usually controlled and quite often owned by the government of the country.

2. Agricultural or Co-operative Banks:

The main business of agricultural banks is to provide funds to farmers. They are worked on the co-operative principle. Long-term capital is provided by land mortgage banks, nowadays called land-development banks, while short-term loans are given by co-operative societies and co-operative banks. Long-term loans are needed by the farmers for purchasing land or for permanent improvements on land, while short-period loans help them in purchasing implements, fertilizers and seeds. 

3. Commercial Banks:

These banks play the most important role in modern economic organization. Their business mainly consists of receiving deposits, giving loans and financing the trade of a country. They provide short-term credit, i.e., lend money for short periods. This is their special feature.

4. Savings Banks:

These banks (perform the useful service of collecting small savings. Commercial banks too run “savings departments” to mobilize the savings of men of small means. The idea is to encourage thrift and discourage hoarding.

5. Industrial Banks:

There are a few industrial banks in India. But in some other countries, notably Germany and Japan, these banks perform the function of advancing loans to industrial undertakings. Industries require capital for a long period for buying machinery and equipment. 

6.  Utility of Banks:

An efficient banking system is absolutely necessary for a country, if it is to progress economically. The services that an efficient banking system can render a country are indeed very valuable. Undeveloped banking system is not only an index of economic backwardness of a country, it is also an important cause of it. The banking system can be useful in the following ways, in addition to what has been mentioned in the functions of banks.

7. Exchange Banks

Exchange banks finance mostly the foreign trade of a country. Their main function is to discount, accept and collect foreign bills of exchange. They also buy and sell foreign currencies and help businessmen to convert their money into any foreign money they need. Their share in the internal trade of a country is usually small. In addition, they carry on ordinary banking business too.

TYPES OF BANKING

1. Unit Banking:

• In unit banking, all the operations are performed from a single branch.

• It is a limited way of banking where banks operate only from a single branch or a few branches in the same area taking care of the local population of that area.

• The size of the unit banks is small as compared to branch banking. 

• Due to the small size of the Unit Banks, decision making is very fast as the management enjoys more autonomy and discretionary powers at their disposal. 

• Due to the single unit of the Bank, the risks are not diversified. 

• A customer having an account in a specified branch must undergo all banking activities through that branch. 

2. Mixed Banking: 

• Mixed Banking is the system in which banks undertake activities of commercial and investment banking together.

• It can also be described as the dual functioning of investment banking and commercial banking.

• These banks give short-term and long-term loans to industrial concerns. Industries don’t have to run to different places for differential financial needs. Mixed Banking thus promote rapid industrialization. 

• Mixed Banking may however pose a grave threat to liquidity of a bank and lead to bad debts. 

3. Universal Banking: 

• Universal banking is a system of banking under which big banks undertake a variety of banking services like commercial banking, insurance, investment banking, merchant banking, mutual funds etc.

 • It involves providing all the above services to the customers under one roof by financial experts who can handle multiple financial products. 

• This makes the banking operations economical and boosts investor confidence. However, if these kinds of banks fail, it costs huge losses as well as causes a huge dip in consumer confidence.

4. Narrow Banking: 

• The system of narrow banking involves mobilizing the funds towards risk-free investments mostly government securities. 

• It can be considered the opposite of Universal Banking.

5. Relationship Banking: 

 • In Relationship Banking, the customer needs are understood by the banks and then appropriate banking services are offered to the customers according to their needs.

• This type of Banking helps banks to gather important information about the borrowers which in turn helps them to determine the creditworthiness of the customers.

6. Branch Banking:

 • Branch banking is engaging in banking activities such as accepting deposits or extending loans at facilities or locations away from a bank’s home office or headquarter.

 • Branch banking allows a financial institution to expand its services to an area outside of the home location, functioning as an extension of the home location. It can be a more cost-effective approach because not all the locations are required to offer the same levels of services as the home location, allowing smaller offices to provide key services while larger locations provide additional services.

THE IMPACTS OF COVID 19 ON TANZANIA’S BANKING AND FINANCIAL SECTOR

–We assess the impact COVID-19 has had on the banking and financial services sector in Tanzania and what policy measures have been introduced through the Ministry of Finance and the Bank of Tanzania to maintain financial stability. These measures include the ease of requirements on Statutory Minimum Reserves, discount rates, haircuts on government securities, regulatory flexibility on restructuring loans, transaction limits plus daily balance amounts for mobile money operators.

1. Recent profits–

Despite the COVID-19 situation, some major commercial banks in Tanzania have reported an increase of net profits during the quarter ending June 2020 in comparison to the same period in 2019. It remains to be seen whether a continuation of the strong financial performance will be reflected in the quarterly reports for the period ending September 2020.

2.  Measures implemented by banks and financial institutions–

Banks and financial institutions in Tanzania have taken advantage of the BOT policy measures to implement various relief measures to ease the effects of COVID-19. –Most banks have implemented relief packages for their customers especially small and medium enterprises in an effort to offer financial reprieve from the effects of COVID-19. The relief packages include payment holidays (moratoriums) ranging from 3 – 6 months and restructuring of loans to extend repayment periods.

3. UNDP impact assessment–

In April 2020, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) issued a Rapid Social-Economic Impact Assessment of COVID-19 in Tanzania (the UNDP Impact Assessment). It took note of key stakeholders in the finance sector, including over 40 corporate banks including 30 commercial, 6 community and 2 development banks. Microfinance institutions and mobile money operators were also acknowledged as financial players in the country.

4. BOT statements and bulletins–

The BOT published a Monetary Policy Statement of 2020/2021 in June 2020 and an Economic Bulletin for the Quarter Ending June 2020 (the June 2020 Bulletin).– According to the Monetary Policy Statement, the banking sector was stable as banks had enough capital reserves to withstand financial hurdles.

The recorded ratio of core capital to total risk weighted assets and off-balance sheet exposure as at April 2020 was 17.4% whereas the minimum regulatory benchmark is 10.0%. Furthermore, banks remained liquid as the ratio of liquid assets to demand liabilities was around 32.7% whereas the minimum regulatory requirement is 20.0%.–

However, the ratio of NPLs to gross loans rose to 11% in April 2020 compared to 10.7% in June 2019, hence a deterioration of the quality of banks’ assets. This was largely caused by the slowdown of business due to COVID-19.–In the June 2020 Bulletin, it was reported that the BOT sustained an accommodative monetary policy and enhanced liquidity easing measures to shield the economy from the effects of COVID-19. 

5. Noticeable impacts–

NPLs: Under Tanzanian law, loans are declared NPLs when the obligation for repayment is past due for more than 90 days, or when the loan is classified as substandard, doubtful or a loss.–

Business engaged in import and export, transportation, tourism and accommodation have been heavily hit by measures of countering COVID-19. Following the BOTs policy measures to tackle the effects of COVID-19, banks have restructured loans to their customers by reducing interest rates, instalment amounts and extension of the return period. Banks have also issued moratoriums to the extent of giving relief to their customers. However, the issue of NPLs persisted and most businesses are still recovering from the impacts of COVID-19.–

Deterioration of customer and bank relationship: this is relative to the issue of NPLs as customers and banks failed to establish a common ground due to operational challenges for both sides.

PROBLEMS FACING BANKING IN TANZANIA

1. Raising expectations

–Today’s clients are savvier, smarter, and more informed. They expect a high degree of convenience and personalization out of their financial service experience. Altering client demographics plays a vital role in these heightened expectations. Each new generation of financial service clients is having a better understanding of technology. As a result, there is an elevated expectation of digitalized prospects.

2. Raised competition–

The financial industry is facing threats that target the most crucial areas of the service. These threats have forced many financial organizations to go after partnerships as a stop-gap precaution. To sustain a competitive edge, credit unions and traditional banks need to devise substantial measures that will counter threats to their service.

3. Consistent innovation–

Substantial success in a business entails agility, insight, continuous innovation, and stable client relationships. Benchmarking useful practices across the whole industry can offer valuable insight, assisting credit unions and banks to remain competitive. Benchmarking is not enough, it only enables the institutions to maintain the pace, and it doesn’t lead to any innovation. Businesses ought to do benchmarking but remain innovative if they wish to thrive.

4. Altering Business models–

The cost that is linked with compliance management is among the numerous financial service challenges forcing banking institutions to alter the manner they conduct business. The elevated cost of capital integrated with unrelenting low-interest rates, decreased proprietary trading, and decreasing return on equity are all pressurizing traditional source’s financial profitability. But the shareholder prospects remain unwavering.

5. Regulatory compliance–

This is among the most vital financial industry challenges. The dramatic increase in regulatory fees has steered this. Compliance with various set regulations can significantly strain financial institutions as they gather resources.

6. A Cultural shift–

From thermostats that allow you to heat the surrounding to artificial intelligence-enabled wearables that monitor the user’s health is the technology that has been embedded in our culture. The same has extended to the banking industry.– This cultural transition towards an innovative-first attitude is a reflection of the greater industry-broad acceptance of digital transformation.

7. Customer retention–

Financial services clients expect meaningful and personalized experiences through intuitive and straightforward interfaces on any device, anywhere, and at any time. While customer experience can be tricky to quantify, client turnover is substantial, and client loyalty is rapidly becoming an endangered idea.

Client loyalty is a product born through sturdy relationships that start by comprehending the client and their expectations.–Understanding the client and engaging with them appropriately can result in client satisfaction, therefore, decreasing customer churn. Financial institutions can also use Bots, which is an effective and efficient technology for delivering superior client services. Bots can assist in increasing client engagement without incurring costs.

CHALLANGES HINDERING FINANCIAL INCLUSIONS IN TANZANIA

a) Lack of education 

In this, it was established that, lack of sufficient education or knowledge concerning with access to various financial services is a problem to majority of Tanzanians which in turn affects the overall people’s access to finances. Basically, it was realized that majority of people within the country lacks information on various services particularly loans in terms of access and repayments. 

Also, other seems to lack the important knowledge on the requirements for securing such loans. Hence, due to this, one of the basic ways that can be used to improve people’s access to financial services is the provision of education to the public, so as to remove the wrong long-stuck mentality on various services to the public. 

b) Low technology (ICT)

 In this part the major problem was realized to be the low information communication technology infrastructure which causes uneven distribution of information between the financial institutions and the people utilizing the financial services. In this, banks need to make significant improvements in various areas such as Management Information System. The improvements of technology will assist in uniting many people in different geographical locations. 

c) High costs associated with the important financial services 

Another challenge that was highlighted was the costs that are associated with the consumption of financial services. In this various charge such as the interest rates and service charges on using ATMs were sought to exert pressure on the customers which in turn affects their general usage of the services. Basically, in this, it was realized that the charges that are put on various services are in most cases destructive to the overall mood of the respondents to utilize the services of the financial institution. In order to curb this, there is a need to harmonize the overall charges so that the users can be comfortable in paying them without any problem.

d) Regulatory requirements

Regulatory requirements such as know your customers rules that have been introduced to prevent money laundering can also make it difficult for poor people to open even a bank account as they may not have the necessary documentation. It has also been observed that many people do not have collateral or credit record due to the lack of proper credit bureau.

CONCLUSIONS

–The banking sector is undergoing a radical transformation. The shifts include changing business models, disruptive technologies, FinTechs, and compliance pressures. The emergence of non-bank startups, which is also referred to as FinTechs, is altering the competitive landscape in the banking industry.

It has forced traditional institutions to reorganize the way they conduct business.–The Tanzanian banking sector embarked on a plan for financial liberalization in the 90’s in order to sustain the country’s economic growth. This has been accomplished through the mobilization of financial resources as well as by increasing competition in the financial markets and by enhancing the quality and efficiency of credit allocation. As a result of the liberalization, new merchant banks, commercial banks, bureaus de change, credit bureaus and other financial institutions have entered the market.

REFERENCES

–http://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0025/113299/economic-broadband-oecd-countries.pdf

–OECD (2013), “Broadband Networks and Open Access”, OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 218, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k49qgz7crmr-en–

Finance and Economics, C50, New York University Salomon Center, Leonard N. Stern School of Business.–

Heffernan, S.A. (1996), Modern Banking in Theory and Practice, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS IN TANZANIA


 By Bazilius Emmanuel – Art in Tanzania internship

Introduction

Environment is a famous word in current days, as it used to refer to different settings, ranging from local to international ones. The origin of term environment is from the French word “environed “which means surroundings, so people may use environment to refer to everything found in a certain location.

 -Also, in geography some words like nature, habitat, domain and surrounding are used as synonym of the term environment.

Meaning of environment

Our environment is the set of complex physical, chemical and biological elements, conditions and factors that affects an organism and determines its form of survival. It is comprising of all surroundings in which an organism lives and interacts with living things and non-living materials like water and air.

 -The environment is dynamic depending on interaction of living organisms with non-living materials. Also, the environment is regarded as the sum of total conditions surrounded human beings at a certain time and space.

Natural resources are derived from the environment, So the interaction between human beings and other living organisms has more to do with the environment(which can be good or bad for the sustainability of the environment)

N.B The interaction on the earth is what creates the environment, and environmental interactions are continuous. See the diagram below:

Components of the environment

From above explanation you can see that everything surrounding human beings in a particular time and space is a component of our environment. But geographers have tried to categorize all these environmental components into three, which are;

   (a) Physical components, includes all naturally occurring environmental elements like air, water, mountains etc. 

   (b) Biological components i.e., abiotic and biotic components, including all living and non-living things. See diagram below;

    ( c) Cultural components, includes all man-made parts of the environment such as buildings, population, farms etc. 

Diagram shows the three environment components;

IMPORTANCE OF THE ENVIRONMENT

Our environment has a vital role to our daily survival. The environment plays an important role in the survival of all living things by:

  (a) Supporting agriculture for food production•Climate and soil are essential during farming

  (b) Temperature modification and climatic change control•The presence of trees and water bodies are essential for temperature regulation, also good agricultural practices have a lot to do with controlling climatic change.

    (cNatural resources are derived from the environment.•Resources like medicine, air, water and minerals are essential human needs obtained from natural resources derived by the environment.

    (d) Minimize and or prevent disasters•swamps and marshes act as reservoirs of more water which may lead to flood, also air and plants absorb much gases emitted from human activities which will have more contribution to global warming.

(e) Absorption of our pollutants•Environmental components like air, land and water absorb pollutants, such as poisons, radiations and chemicals which effects our healthy survival. 

(f) Food web and food chain advantage•All food is obtained from environmental components, so without the environment there is no potential for life. 

  (g) Disease preventionEnvironmental components like air, water and minerals are required by the human body for proper growth and rescue our bodies from different diseases. E.g., the use of table salt decreases the chances for disease like goitre.

So, We can conclude by saying, the environment gives us life. 

See the diagram as it shows how living organisms interact with environmental components.

It shows the mutual benefit in the ecosystem.

 TANZANIAN ENVIRONMENT

The environment of Tanzania includes its’ land and marine surfaces which covers approximately kilometer squares 947.303. That also includes its’ natural resources endowment found in Tanzania mainland and Tanzanian Islands.

As our discussion focuses on the environment in Tanzania,  we need also to get insights about different things which form the whole environment of Tanzania.

Below are major components of Tanzania’s environment including its’ natural resources:

(a) Population, which is approximated at 56. 3 million by 2018

(b) Water bodies, which covers 6.49% of whole Tanzania land. These water bodies include;

   (i) Some part of Indian ocean

   (ii) More than 20 lakes include Victoria, Tanganyika, Nyasa, Rukwa and Natron among others.

       (iii) More than 75 rivers include Kagera, Malagalasi;Pangani, Wami, Rufiji, Ruvuma, Tarangire and  Songwe

       (iv) Natural ponds and artificial lakes

  (c) Seven World Heritage Sites (as per UNESCO) which are: Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Serengeti National Park, Kondoa Rock Art Site, Stone Town of Zanzibar, kilimanjaro National Park, Selous Game Reserve and Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara

  (d) Sixteen National Parks including lake ManyaraNational park, Ruaha National Park and Serengeti National Park

  (e) Seven Historical Sites includes Kilwa Kisiwani, Mbozimeteorite and Olduvai Gorge & Laetoli among others

(f) Islands includes Saanane island National Park, Zanzibar island, Pangani town and Ukerewe island

  (g) Marine Parks and Reserves like Chumbe island Marine Sanctuary, Dar es Salaam Marine Reserves and Tanga Coelacanth Marine Park among others

  (h) Wildlife Management Areas which includes IpoleWMA, Mbomipa WMA and Buninge WMA among others

  (i) Cave, Gorges and Rocks like Amboni cave, Kalambofalls, Nyombe region, Nyumba Nitu Natural forests and Kaporogwe falls

  (j)Twelve Tanzania Forest Reserves 

  (k)Thirty two Game Reserves 

  (l)More than two thousand mountains and highlands includes mount Meru and Kilimanjaro among others

  (m)More than twenty mines includes Geita Gold Mine(GGM-Geita), Bulyakulu & Mwadui (Shinyanga) and Kabanga Nickel(Kagera)

(n) More than five famous and important Cities and Towns includes Mwanza( Rock City), Arusha (Tourist City), Mbeya(Green City) and Dar es Salaam (island City) among others

  (o)Biological diversity includes  more than 75 endemic species like Kihansi Tod and horned chameleon

 (p) Agricultural land and rangelands

From above it seen how Tanzania’s environment is endowed with ample valuable natural and man-made resources. 

Tanzania’s environment is engine for sustainable development for Tanzania and the World at large. While Tanzania is blessed with more natural and man-maderesources that are distributed throughout the Country, the friendly and sustainability exploitation of these resources can be advantageous to Tanzanians.

Furthermore, We are born to create a better future. We need to use our environment and its’ God given resources for sustainable development.

See the following maps:

Tanzania Lakes and Rivers:

Locations of the major national parks

MAJOR ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ENVIRONMENT IN TANZANIA

These issues are related to unsafe exploitation of above resources. These issues include:

   (a) Illegal and unsustainable wildlife exploitation

   (b) Overgrazing and unsustainable range management

   (c) Poor agriculture practices like bush burning, vertical ploughing across steep slopes, failure to adopt crop rotation, failure to maintain adequate vegetative cover, inadequate use of organic fertilizer and lack of sufficient conservation measures

   (d) Land conflicts

(e)Poor mining techniques

(f)Climatic change includes melting of ice at mount Kilimanjaro and fall of water depth at Ruaha river

(g)Major Six environmental problems in Tanzania which are;

   (i)Land degradation

  (ii)Lack of accessible good quality water for both urban and rural inhabitants

    (iii) Environment pollution

    (iv) Deforestation

   (v) Deterioration of aquatic systems

   (vi) Loss of wildlife habitats and biological diversity

   -The joint measure is required to be taken from local,

 National and International levels to remove or reduce the above harmful issues relating to resource use for sustainable and inclusive development of Tanzania and the world at large.

REASONS FOR ENVIRONMENT CONCERN IN TANZANIA

From above circumstances it is clear how much Tanzania needs to have strong environmental concern which shall focus on eliminating the negative impacts on Tanzanians from endowed natural resources

The reasons for environment concern in Tanzania include the follow but not limited to:

    (a) Despite 55% of Tanzania’s land is potential for agriculture but only 6% of Tanzania total land is under agricultural activities. So, Tanzania and the world at large are needed to set strategies to enhance and expand agricultural activities in Tanzania. (b) With more natural and artificial resources Tanzania is still depend on agriculture, which accounts more than 40% of Tanzania GDP and employs more than 75% of Tanzania workforce

  (c) Energy use of power, although Tanzania is endowed with much fossil fuels, waterfalls and rapids, more than 90% of Tanzania depend on forest related materials as their source of energy.

  (d) Population distribution, with 47.7 kilometers squares population density, but by actual sense Tanzania population is unequal distribution where there are disparities in internal population densities  between urban and rural areas as result of rural-urban migration associated with unequal distribution of man-made resources. 

-Also, more people are living in highland areas and interacting regions like near lake Victoria, therefore government of Tanzania needs to deal with this environmental issue

  (e) Also, from the major six environmental problems affecting Tanzania, the environmental solutions are required to rescue Tanzania’s environment from other disasters that may arise as result of those six environmental problems.

Conclusions and remarks

– We are a large cause of environmental dynamism, so our actions must first assess its negative or positive impacts to our environment.

  – As part of dynamic environment, we are supposed to educate ourselves about all issues related to the environment and to take precautions toward any action that might harm our environment.

  – The Government of Tanzania is required to sharpen the implementation of environmental and natural resource related laws, policies and declarations.

How online payment can save you time and money and its meaningfulness for the rural people

By Marina Joseph – Art in Tanzania Internship

Digital payment sometimes called electronic payment refers to payments that are conducted over the internet and mobile channels and hence, any payment that is sent online or through mobile computing and internet-enabled devices can be called such. And with a number of cultural, societal, and technological worldwide trends intersecting, we’re now seeing the demand for electronic payments increase. Digital payments offer significant benefits to individuals, companies, governments, or international development organizations. The benefits of going digital include:

  • The need to handle cash is greatly reduced 
  • More hygienic
  • Transparency and security by enhancing traceability and accountability, reducing corruption and theft as a result.  
  • Financial inclusion by increasing access to a range of financial services, including savings accounts, credit, and insurance products
  • Saves time
  • Saves money

We will focus on the last two benefits for this post

  1. Saves time

Valuable time is saved as customers simply swipe or tap to pay. No more digging through wallets or purses looking for coins – and moreover sellers don’t need to count out the correct change when someone pays for a low-value item with a large note. Searching for small notes, counting out exact change, and writing checks require more time and energy. Paying via card, contactless, mobile wallet, or wearable device is almost always faster than using cash. Customers could use that time to have a conversation with your staff, enroll in your loyalty program, or give your company a good review online.

  • Saves money

There are no additional charges when accepting contactless payments once acceptance of chip and PIN is completed. You’ll simply pay the same as you would for regular card transactions. There are plenty of packages out there to cater for businesses of all sizes, budgets, and transaction volumes. While some are hesitant to switch over for fear of fees, the Visa data showed that processing digital payments was 57 percent less expensive than non-digital payments once fees and labor costs are accounted for. Expenses related to fraud also cost less with digital payment

MEANINGFULNESS OF ONLINE PAYMENT TO RURAL COMMUNITIES

Digital payments expansion to rural customers or areas has been a challenge for financial services providers in developing countries. However, such institutions are motivated and willing to go through it because of what it will mean to rural communities. This is because when such services expand to rural and remote areas there is promise for development and growth in several ways. 

The following is the meaningfulness of online payment to rural communities.

Easier Access to Economical Facilities

People from rural areas struggle to get their wages paid and get their pension. It is even harder for them to be aware of benefit schemes they are eligible for. With mobile banking speed is achieved which solves their problems. In addition, the reduced transaction and travel is another benefit.

Mobile payment with wallet app and wireless nfc technology. Man paying and shopping with smartphone application and credit card information. Digital money transfer, banking and e commerce concept.

A Boost to Rural Businesses

Mobile banking has various aspects such as e-commerce and making instant digital transaction, once the rural population gets more comfortable with it they can use the same technology to grow their businesses. This is due to the availability of better reach and convenience

Hassle-Free Bank Accounts

The location of bank branches in rural and remote areas maybe very far away, use of digital payments helps people set up bank accounts without having to visit the actual bank branch. It helps them save the time money and energy and redirect to other activities. 

Financial Inclusion

The rural population have to travel long distances to get even the simplest of financial services. Digital payments make the availability of simply using your phone to avail a wide range of financial services. 

Bioinformatics in Africa

By Goodness Njakoi – Art in Tanzania Internship

African countries have long been disproportionately burdened by the “big three” infectious diseases (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria) and neglected emerging infectious diseases such as EVD and Lassa fever. African populations maintain the world’s highest levels of genetic diversity which decline proportionately with increasing distance from Africa.

The development of bioinformatics as a discipline has provided biological scientists with many important insights into the functioning and composition of biological systems. Together with tools and methods developed within bioinformatics, these insights provide essential foundation.

The establishment of the South African National Bioinformatics Institute in South Africa in the 1990s heralded the development of bioinformatics on the continent. The introduction of bioinformatics to the rest of the African continent was slowed down by several challenges that included limited scope of research encompassing bioinformatics-driven goals, shortage of qualified bioinformaticians, poor access to powerful computer systems, lack of high speed internet, poor access to essential databases and software programs, and unreliable power supply.

Recent funding investments toward large-scale research projects, training, and infrastructure support are helping address the bioinformatics disparities between countries within the continent through establishment of world-class resources and training. The establishment of the African Society for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (ASBCB) during a World Health Organization Tropical Disease Research workshop in February 2004 led to a sustainable network of researchers across the continent.

A noteworthy initiative with its foundation is the Human Heredity and Health in Africa Bioinformatics Network H3ABioNet network, whose mandate is to provide bioinformatics support for the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative and to develop bioinformatics ability across Africa through funding provided by the National Institutes of Health. H3ABioNet has focused on building infrastructure and implementing tools that enable collaborations and data transfer across the resource-limited continent.

A major focus area of H3ABioNet has been to develop sustainable approaches to develop bioinformatics ability in Africa. Taking into consideration the challenges facing the continent, H3ABioNet has explored various training approaches, including long and short face-to-face training workshops, internships, and data-centered hackathons. Furthermore, H3ABioNet has developed a multiple-delivery-mode learning model comprising elements of distance learning, open educational resources (OER), and face-to-face learning for an Introduction to Bioinformatics IBT course in order to meet the need for bioinformatics training of molecular biologists- as well as individuals from other backgrounds interested in developing skills in bioinformatics- in Africa and to address the specific challenges for this setting.

State of Bioinformatics in Tanzania

Biotechnology industry in Tanzania is still very poor and hardly any bioinformatics is vividly talked about. There are several biotechnologies research works around the country, but no serious investments have been made for bioinformatics. Research groups most likely to apply bioinformatics are the Tanzania Genome Network member groups, the Genome Science Centre at Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), IFAKARA Health Institute, Tanzania Society of Human Genetics and the Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology at the University of Dar es salaam.

While the government through the National Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) understands the potential of R&D in biotechnology to the nation’s economic growth, there is a dare need for awareness campaign on the significance of bioinformatics in biotechnology. It is the role of universities and other higher learning institutions to design programs which also involves Bioinformatics in their curricula. State universities like the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) and Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) have introduced courses like Introduction to Bioinformatics, Genomics and Bioinformatics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics etc. into their curricula.

Teaching bioinformatics is made difficult by the constraints of typical university classrooms. Some areas of basic bioinformatics may be taught using such classrooms, where all that is needed is an internet connection and web browser searches at the NCBI. More in-depth teaching requires the re-creation of a bioinformatics research environment, consisting of a Linux or UNIX operating system, standard GNU utilities, specialist bioinformatics software, and sequence databases. In most cases the available computer laboratories hold few functional computers to train a class, so classes huddle around few working computers. Moreover, the nations’ energy supply would often be cut off, making teaching bioinformatics on a computer rather difficult. But also, there is a serious shortage of skilled personnel to teach bioinformatics in the country. However, even if the power supply is intermittent and the Internet connections run at dial-up speed, it is still possible to conduct bioinformatics activities. Determined bioinformaticians can start a study with just a computer and open-source software downloaded through the Internet. Alternatively, buying an US$3000 wealthy eBioKit system will make a big difference. Meanwhile, awareness campaigns should be constantly stages to appeal to the government and private sector to invest in bioinformatics.

In 2011, three TGN member institutions (MDH, MUHAS and UDSM) joined Human Heredity and Health in Africa Bioinformatics Network (H3ABioNet). The involvement with H3ABioNet is revolutionizing bioinformatics in Tanzania through knowledge transfer and infrastructure improvements. Through H3ABioNet, researchers and technical staff from MDH, MUHAS and UDSM have been attending specialized training courses with the aim that they will teach others at their home institutions.

Future Perspectives

Bioinformatics and data science research thrives on genetically diverse populations as population substructure variation contributes to the identification of true associations in complex disorders and drug response. Research on these topics within Africa supply considerable opportunities for improving health outcomes through their application in infectious disease research vaccine and drug development, and drug resistance patterns.

The completion of the Human Genome Project and technological advances have led to significant cost reductions for genomic data acquisition and also supply immense opportunities for novel insights into etiology, diagnosis and therapy

Although these large volumes of information are valuable resources for the scientific community, the extremely rapid growth in database size also brings difficulties in analyzing and deriving inferences from such data. Computational research has become essential in the post genomic era to help organize and store bioinformatics data, ensuring their retrieval and allowing further processing and analysis. This contributes towards improved understanding of the regulation and functioning of biological processes.

Any country intending to remain up to date in the biomedical, biotechnological and agricultural sectors, cannot disregard bioinformatics. In addition to this general trend, developing countries may also want to manage their own specific data on indigenous biological species, on local epidemiology and biodiversity programs. These tasks clearly require that statisticians and informatics experts become advanced users of bioinformatics software and develop a capability to solve problems locally. This process does not require large resources in it but will allow developing countries to further investigate their own biological resources. To ease this process biomathematics/bio-computing should be introduced to universities, and the establishment of small software groups and companies should be encouraged.

Conclusion

To fully benefit from advances in bioinformatics and data science research, it is imperative to train the next generation of African scientists on their use. It is important to note that the shortage of trained bioinformaticians is among the main obstacles in the development of bioinformatics in Africa. These demands call for building local university programs and infrastructure for setting up environments that are conducive for bioinformatics and data science training. Bioinformatics is known to require less infrastructural investments than other bench science initiatives, but essential resources are necessary such as powerful computer systems, reliable high-speed internet, access to databases and software programs, and reliable electricity. Research infrastructure, research funding, training programs, scientific networking, and collaborations are also important as key elements for developing bioinformatics ability. Other factors affecting the implementation of training programs include teaching laboratories, server systems, airfare cost, timeliness of visas, suitable computational infrastructure, socio-political stability, and availability of open training spots. This ability may be gained through research and training on overlapping computationally intensive topics such as data management and data capture.

It is also of central importance to publish literature on scientific training programs to check and evaluate progress, develop standards, and share training approaches and experiences.

References

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How Watching Movies Can Benefit Our Mental Health

By Daniel Christopher- Art in Tanzania Internships

Nowadays films occupy a significant portion of the media products consumed by people in the world, cinema is being considered as a means of individual and social transformation, which makes a contribution to the formation of the audience’s outlook, including their attitudes towards topical social issues. At the same time, the question of the effectiveness of films’ impact remains an open question in psychological science. According to theempirical orientation of our approach to the study of mass media influence.

Aside from having a few hours of fun with friends and family, watching films can also be a form of therapy. Apart from the obvious — escaping our own lives and problems for a short time, according to Birgit Wolz, PhD., MFT, who facilitates cinema therapy groups, at once said: “Cinema therapy can be a powerful catalyst for healing and growth for anybody who is open to learning how movies affect us and to watching certain films with conscious awareness. Cinema therapy allows us to use the effect of imagery, plot, music, etc. in films on our psyche for insight, inspiration, emotional release or relief and natural change”.

While cinema therapy is a “real thing” sometimes prescribed by therapists, it is often self- administered. Being aware that movies can change the way we think, feel, and ultimately deal with life’s ups and downs can make watching them invaluable, situation. For example, if you or a loved one is struggling with addiction, you might want to watch Clean and Sober or When a Man Loves a Woman. If you are coping with the serious illness or death of a loved one, one of the many movies dealing with these issues might be helpful.

THIS ARE THE WAYS ON HOW WATCHING MOVIES CAN BE HELPFUL

Watching movies encourages emotional release. Even those who often have trouble expressing their emotions might find themselves laughing or crying during a film. This release of emotions can have a cathartic effect and also make it easier for a person to become more comfortable in expressing their emotions. This can be invaluable during counseling as well as in “real life.”

Sad films can make us happier. While it might seem counter-intuitive, I think many of us can relate to this. I know that after I watch a particularly sad or distressing film, I feel thankful for my own life and my “smaller” problems in comparison. Others’ tragedies make us more appreciative of everything good in our own lives.

Watching movies can help us make sense of our own lives. For thousands of years, knowledge and wisdom have been passed down through the art of story-telling. Stories offer us different perspectives and help us understand and make sense of the world. And movies are stories.

As mentioned in the second paragraph of this post, movies give us a break from whatever is currentlybothering us. We are transported to a different time and place and can just focus on the present moment for a short time. This gives our brains a much-needed rest from “the usual.”

Movies bring us a sense of relief, even if they stress us out first. Watching something suspenseful releases cortisol (the stress hormone) in the brain, followed by dopamine, which produces feelings of pleasure.

Going out to a movie theater is not for everyone. Some of us struggle with sensory issues or being in crowds. And others just prefer to watch movies at home, on the couch and in their pajamas. The good news is it doesn’t matter if you’re watching Netflix at home or sitting in a crowded theater. The results are the same — watching movies is good for us.

Best advice for students

Baron and Byrne [10] suggests that one will feel empathy for the fictitious character as to the victim in real life.The fictitious character may be the role of a character in a film. Movies can have a positive effect on other words improving empathy is a positive thing. Film or cinema therapy is a method of using film to give a positive effect on the patient

Reference

Hampton, D. (2018, November 24). How watching movies can help your mental health [blog post]. Retrieved fromhttps://www.thebestbrainpossible.com/movie-help-mental-health-therapy/

PROBLEMS WITH HOUSEHOLD HYGIENE

By NARMY RICHARD MWANBOZI – Art in Tanzania internship

The Tanzanian economy is poor and annual household income is low.  According to the world bank The Gross Domestic Product per capita in Tanzania was recorded at 985.50 US dollars in 2019. 

The GDP per Capita in Tanzania is equivalent to 8 percent of the world’s average, many people depend on seasonal jobs such as in agriculture, which is for survival, while others are totally unemployed. Agriculture is the key activity to many people in Tanzania since about 60 percent of citizens depends on it. 

Many households in Tanzania are poorly constructed and resulting to development of unplanned settlements in the towns. For example townships like Keko, Mbagala and Manzese in Dar es Salaam and Mwanjelwa and Mbalizi in Mbeya, that are dominated by unplanned settlements and poor infrastructure and supply of social services. Infrastructure as connectivity between houses is inefficient due to poor roads, water systems including sewage systems and safe and clean water supply.

Lack of clean water for drinking and cleaning conducts results to household dirtyness and causing contamination base for illnesses.

Also, waste removal is poor especially at the areas that were constructed at the time when the population was still small, but today are highly populated but still dependent on the original basic infrastructure lacking the capacity to manage the need of water and waste management.

Towns like Keko are prone to diarrheal diseases related to hygiene such as typhoid and cholera highlighted by rainy seasons. This is because excess rains reach household and spread the supply of waste including faeces.

People living in poverty their education is low and their knowledge of health and the importance of clean household management is a problem. People believe in witchcraft not necessarily understanding the serious health problems are caused by poor hygiene and sanitation. So there is need for advocating people along with infrastructural development.

Many Tanzanians fail to build good and healthy toilets because of their small income. Visiting some villages in Mbarali, Mbeya such as Itamboleo and Mapunga and observing that toilets are sub-standard or completely missing. The Itamboleo village council come up with a plan to ensure construction of proper toilets in the village and instructing that those failing to follow-up the plan must pay sanctions. The plan did not work properly as villagers blame, they do not have enough money to construct those toilets. Also, the mentality of the leaders is that toilets with septic tanks are the only safe toilets not being factual. 

Thus, we need to educate people in villages about healthy household with affordable cost.

Water supply in the Tanzania is gradually improving in many towns, such as in Mbeya rural districts, Northern regions of Tanzania and Dar es Salaam. But water supply is still a problem in many parts resulting to poor household hygiene and sanitation in Tanzania.

Along the major issues on household hygiene and sanitation smaller issues also largely affect our health. The kitchen appearance and settings is traditionally ineffective. Many households prepare their food in the kitchen full of dirtiness and storage of charcoal, food, and various kitchen appliances in the same place, the light supply is poor, and the kitchen may act as a place for rats and rodents to live thus spreading diseases.

Our bodies hygiene and sanitation are the key factors for our everyday success and activities. It is our choice to make a call for positive changes in household hygiene.