Relations between Tanzania and China could be central for future African ecological transition

By Alessandro Deligios – Art in Tanzania internship

In these last year’s China is exploiting her economic power to take more influence in geopolitical arena. According with the future model of geo-economic competition, China firstly seems try to become the leader State in Asia, secondly is taking more power in many areas of the word. One of the strategies to extend her influence is the Belt & Road Initiative (BRI), with which, through financing project in different word areas, China is able to deeply link the economy of various countries to her one and so create a global economic network that have Chinese economic and financial system as reference – the so-called Beijing consensus.
In particular China is focusing on East Africa and in this region Tanzania-China relationship is a key for Beijing to get a strategic economic position: in 2013 the Tanzanian ex-President Jakaya Kikwete signed an agreement for allow China to invest in the financing of Bagamoyo port project, around which it should have place a special economic zone, that expected China to have especial condition for example for water and energy provisions and the security that Tanzania wouldn’t have financing another competitor port. But in January 2016 the project has been annulled by the President John Magufuli because the agreement for him was like sell Tanzania to Chinese investors.

In climate discussion we know that African countries are the most affected by the problem brought by climate changes, especially by the global warming: the continent probably will be exposed to longer periods of drought and water provision will be always more difficult. About this we also know that China is one of the countries which release the highest levels of greenhouse gases. Despite the attempts of Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997 and started in 2005, and of Paris Agreement in 2016, emissions have not yet been limited in satisfactorily way. Developed countries have the responsibility to help the development in ecological transition and the GEF (Global Environment Facility) is a program managed by the UN and the Word Bank that give financing to the developing countries for they can get positive results related to four areas: climate changes, desertification, international water pollution and biodiversity. Good results are got in third and fourth areas, buty not in the first two.

At the start of April 2021, the First Minister Geoffrey Mwambe said that Tanzania would be ready for a new agreement about Bagamoyo port project if terms will be changed: in this Tanzania-China relations can be central for the ecological transition of all the Africa. Tanzania could advance conditions for the project according with UN 2030 Agenda sustainability goals, cooperating with others African countries for doing the same with others Chinese investments in Africa, when possible. With high chance China is so interested in extending her economic influence in Africa to get more global diplomatic weight to be disposed to accept conditions of sustainability for her projects. It could be one of the few ways to do that China – but not only, also other countries that would like investing in Africa – massively reduce her emissions. And this will be more powerful based on how many countries will collaborate: it should be a priority because fast growing economies have to develop in sustainable way and must do pressure on developed countries, especially on China in that global big player that is trying to extend own power.


  • (About climate issue and international relations)
    J. Grieco, G. J. Ikenberry, M. Mastanduno, Introduzione alle relazioni internazionali, UTET, 2017
  • (About Bagamoyo port project)
    D, Ayemba, Bagamoyo port project timeline and all you need to know, 15 April 2021, on Construction Review Online
  • P. Mittal, Tanzanian Bagamoyo Port Project Story, 16 September 2020, on Belt and Road News.
  • A. D’Amaro, Un ponte tra Cina e Africa: il porto di Bagamoyo, Tanzania, 8 September 2020, on Lo Spiegone.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Tanzania vs Canada

Jeet Patel Art in Tanzania

What is Corporate Social Responsibility? Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the act of regulating company business models that assist a company or organisation to be socially accountable to the public and itself. Organizations can be conscious on the kind of the impacts they have in all aspect of society in areas like the environment or the economy.

The International Organization of Standardization (ISO) has provided guidance on how to achieve CSR. Organizations usually start investing in CSR once they a have reached a secure place to invest in it. The ISO came up with “ISO 26000” to help clarify what social responsibility is, and aids organizations in effective practices. ISO 26000 revolves under seven core principles and core subjects. These are the guidance points the ISO has come up with to help organization maximize their corporate social responsibility.

Core Principals

  1. Accountability
  2. Transparency
  3. Ethical Behaviour
  4. Respect for stakeholder interest
  5. Respect for the rule of law
  6. Respect for international norms of behaviour
  7. Respect for the human rights

Core Subject

  1. Organization Governance
  2. Human Rights
  3. Labour Practices
  4. The Environment
  5. Fair operating Practices
  6. Consumer Issues
  7. Community Involvement and Development

CSR around the world

CSR in Canada

CSR is becoming a major driving force for organisations in Canada. One of the main driving forces is due to the Canadian public looking to support organisations that are socially involved in making the community better. The tactics have changed over the years, organisations now plan strategic, social purpose-driven, and transformational models, that can be seen in local communities. It has become an essential part of business practices.

CSR in Tanzania

Tanzania has made huge strides in corporate social responsibility. Tanzania had enacted the Companies act in 2002 (an amendment of the Companies act of 1932) to try and keep up with global and local pressures of improving CSR. Even though this act requires audited financial reports to disclose details of the remuneration of directors and offices, there is no obligation to provide information on employee discrimination, health and safety, tax planning schemes, and pollution and environmental disruption cause by corporate activities. This  led to the enactment of Employment and Labour relations act and labour institutions act in 2004. The government has also come out with the health and safety act in 2003 and the worker’s compensation act in 2008. Tanzania’s main factors and initiatives that influence CSR in the country is due to many reasons.

Politically, the government has come with many different ways to promote CSR in the country, for example, the Presidential Award on CSR and Empowerment launched in 2012, to promote sustainable development of products, specifically in the extractive industry. The country also had the Tanzania Development Vision 2025, in an effort to reduce the country’s poverty levels. The country is also tracking towards primary education, gender equality, HIV/ AIDS, and access to sanitation.

The country is also down well in other factors and influences for CSR. Examples of this would include educating the population in different aspects through social programs in partnership with international organisations. Educating people on the importance of their natural resources and use it to their advantage through the different industries like agriculture and tourism, making sure to work with government organizations to help preserve the Tanzanian way, while sustainably providing goods and services.

President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete speaking at the launching ceremony of the presidential award on the Extractive Industry Corporate Social Responsibility and Empowerment

Local businesses and NGOs are also aided by international businesses through joint ventures and partnership in promoting good and services and finding ways to give back to the community. Even though there has been an increase in CSR in the country, there is still a long way to go. Without policies and regulations there is no way to monitor if organisations are trying to benefit their local communities. There are many barriers that could harm the further implementation of CSR. Some of these include:

  • Unreliable data on community needs
  • Misunderstand in communication between companies, organisations, and government
  • CSR used and a competition tool for business instead of being used to benefit the community
  • Lack of conscious consumers
  • Lack of recognition of good effort made

These are just some of the few barriers that can come in Tanzania’s path to have CSR businesses. However, this can be addressed by educating the public and creating policies to show data as well as meet the ISO’s standard guide on being having CSR.

Fernando, J. (2021, July 6). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Investopedia.

ISO 26000 – Social responsibility. ISO. (2020, November 30).

Johnnyspade. (2019, February 21). Corporate Social Responsibility in Canada: Trends, Barriers and Opportunities. Coro Strandberg.

Kenton, W. (2021, May 19). International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Investopedia.

Vertigans, S., Idowu, S. O., & Schmidpeter René. (2018). Corporate Social Responsibility in Sub-Saharan Africa Sustainable Development in its Embryonic Form. Springer International Publishing.

Clean drinking water condition in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). General Overview

By Ekaterina Kilima – Art in Tanzania internship

According to the World Bank (2019), Ethiopia is one of the priority African countries for the Global Water Security & Sanitation Partnership (GWSP) programs. In other words, a lot of money is being invested in Ethiopia to improve its water and sanitation systems. Currently, Addis Ababa is considered a region with very safe drinking water (85 % of water is low risk) compared to other regions of Ethiopia (only 7% of water is low risk in particular places) (CSAE 2017). Access to clean drinking water is a big inequality issue as the region’s poorest people barely have access to high quality water unlike the richest group.

A recent epidemiological study conducted by Wolde et al. (2020) suggested that the clean water in Addis Ababa might be exposed to bacteria and parasites more during the wet season (January-October) due to high rainfall. The results of the study have shown that, although mostly insignificant, slight contamination was found in the water samples from public taps and reservoirs (around 6% each). Traces of fecal coliforms and total coliforms were found in those samples. The highest contamination results were observed in the water samples from springs and wells (76% and 79% contamination respectively). The number of fecal coliforms was decreasing with every week of the season while the number of total coliforms was increasing. Moreover, some samples were collected from Akaki, Gefersa, and Lege Dadi water plants but the parasitological results for them were negative. Wolde et al (2020) also note that the quality of the water might depend on the condition of the water supply reservoirs. For example, most reservoirs in Addis Ababa are well maintained. However, most springs are often exposed to heavy rain, flood, and microorganism contamination. It is important to check the serviceability of the public and private taps in a timely manner and to prevent them from being tied with cloths, ropes, and plastic tubes as it can enhance the contamination. This statement can also be proved by another study conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia in 2017. It was found that nearly 95% of households that receive low-risk water, get it from improved high-quality sources. The most common source of clean drinking water was the piped water on premises while the most dangerous was unprotected springs and surface water (CSAE 2017).

Some key lessons to remember are that the highest quality water is usually consumed in urban areas rather than rural and this water comes from secured and improved sources such as public pipes or kiosks. Bottled water is also a good source of high-quality water but is not consumed by many people. It is important to maintain the quality of the water reservoirs and make necessary repairments to ensure that people get good quality water. One of the biggest social issues regarding water supply is inequality because Addis Ababa poorest areas still do not have access to clean water.


The economic consequences of climate change in Tanzania

by Romaisa Hussain & (Junna) – Art in Tanzania internship

Climate change has emerged as a potentially existential threat all across the globe that poses a serious risk to the survival of mankind and sustainable development. Over the last few decades, the world has witnessed changes in weather patterns as a result of global warming and human-caused greenhouse gas emissions. Based on a numerous lines of evidence, it is now more certain than ever that climate change is a threat multiplier that can amplify the effects of existing dangers. These threats include human security, scarcity of natural resources, environmental degradation, and poor economic growth.

The United Nations General Assembly set up the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 which serve as a blueprint for a sustainable future to be achieved by 2030. The 13th Sustainable Development Goal of the United Nations talks about Climate Action. The goal discusses the critical impact of climate change and encourages developing countries to move towards low-carbon emission in the environment. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is a separate organ working within the UN that deals with climate change and other environmental issues. The UN aims to adapt to low carbon development especially in the vulnerable regions that contribute towards climate action and sustainable natural resource management through collective action. Most of the states in the world are affected by climate change with East Africa being one of the most affected regions.

Tanzania is suffering the brunt of the consequences of climate change in East Africa. The agricultural-based economy of Tanzania has become vulnerable to the extreme climatic conditions. The majority of the population is located in the rural areas which heavily relies on agriculture and farming that is threatened by rising temperatures, droughts and extreme rainfalls. The country is home to the world’s largest river system, the River Tanzanian. Despite immense water resources, Tanzania struggles with a shortage of water both spatially and temporally which is worsened by the climate on its nine main river basins. In the recent years, there has been a severe decline in the water level in Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria and Lake Jipe as well as a decrease in the water level of about 7km in Lake Rukwa during the last fifty years. These are connected with climate change and are endangering towards socio-economic activities. The effect also puts the country’s hydropower system at risk. Furthermore, diseases such as diarrhea and malaria remain one of the prime causes of casualties in the country especially in the urban settlements consisting of poor infrastructure prone to flooding and increased temperatures. 

Tanzania’s economy relies on its natural and environmental resources where a good number of people depend on fisheries for their income which are at risk from rising sea waters and freshwater temperatures. Tourism is another aspect that has the potential to boost the economy of Tanzania as the country has a tropical climate and is home to wildlife, forests, beaches, mountains, rivers, lakes and minerals. The attractions are found in abundance in national and marine parks, historical and cultural sites and recreational sites. Currently, tourism generates 17.5 per cent of GDP and 25 per cent of export revenues, making it an important economic sector but climate unpredictability endangers the ecosystem services on which tourism relies. For example, the Serengeti National Park has been famous for tourism wildlife migration for decades which contributes significantly to Tanzania’s economy and serves as a key source of employment. There is a growing fear that the climate has shifted dramatically, potentially affecting wildlife tourism. 

Threats to the sustainability of the natural resources and environmental degradation remain an issue in Tanzania such as the untimely harvesting and usage of natural resources, unsupervised cultivation process, and trespassing on water sources. Collectively, these can seriously affect the sustainable development goals of a country. Due to the unsustainable consumption of resources, there can be problems in the production of sources that may affect livelihoods. In addition to that, they can lead to the deficiency of food which could eventually lead to poverty. An increase in the population and high reliance on agriculture becomes rather burdensome on the environment and its natural resources which contribute negatively to climate change and water-deficient regions. 

One of the leading factors that contributes to the environmental degradation is the unsustainable management of land and watershed. Many challenges are still needed to be tackled to reduce this issue including unexpected growth of human settlements, wildlife hunting, illegal farming and livestock, uncontrollable bushfires, weak inter-sectoral association and stakeholder linkages. This may lead towards the social and economic development of the country as well as reduce poverty. The Tanzanian Government has marked the water-oriented issues as a major factor that has affected the environment which is why it has been implemented in national policies and necessary plans and strategies needed to tackle it. The visibility of climatic changes in Tanzania is increased by 60% which are seen in the form of a decrease in water sources, land degradation and the reduction in agricultural land. The Government also tends to focus on carbon emission with the protection of ecosystems and biodiversity, the saving of wildlife to abolish the hunting system as a means of income, reducing vehicle usage and improving urban planning in the country to promote urbanization. It also placed environmental sections under the sector ministries to ensure and monitor the environmental issues as well as raising awareness amongst the community. The Government also needs to guarantee that efforts are being made in terms of the development of the environment and climate change in national as well as subnational plans. 

A National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) was developed by Tanzania’s government in 2007, as required by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. According to NAPA, the most affected areas in Tanzania that suffer from the impacts of climate change are agriculture, water, health, and energy. In 2012, Tanzania’s government devised a strategy to address the growing concern about the detrimental effects of climate change on the country’s economy and environment. Furthermore, the Government of Tanzania initiated the first phase of the Global Climate Services Framework (GFCS), held in 2014-2016, to strengthen the resilience of individuals who are most exposed to the effects of weather and climate-related disasters. On September 18, a ceremony in Dar es Salaam marked the start of the second phase from 2016-2019. It was conducted in partnership with the International Red Cross Federation and Tanzania Red Cross Society, Ministry of Health, Gender, Elderly Affairs, World Health Organization (WHO), Ministry of Agriculture, Tanzania World Food Program, and Tanzania Meteorological Agency.

The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) is one of the partners of the Government of Tanzania that has aided the development of the environment and contributed to measures regarding natural resources and climate change issues. The UNDP encourages the Government and respective communities in terms of sustaining the environment and contributing to the reversal of environmental degradation. As long as the correct policies are implemented, the chances for preserving the ecosystems in terms of food, energy, wood i.e. timber, clean water, consistent climate etc. are possible. Over the past few years, Tanzania has recently experienced high growth rates of about 7.4%.

The impact of climate change has had a huge effect on the incomes of the people in Tanzania. It has had a severe impact on the economy, agriculture, natural resources and livelihoods of people which exposes the vulnerable part of the country. It is, to say the least, the Government of Tanzania is to be respected for the progress it has made regarding the development and exercising of policies and strategies to prevent degradation and the protection of the environment. The Government tends to cater to the environmental needs of the country and maintain its natural resources as a means of saving economic and social development. This would mean effectively establishing immediate measures to improve the damages caused. The Government also needs to guarantee that efforts are being made in terms of the development of the environment and climate change in national as well as subnational plans.

Corporate Social Responsibility in Tanzania

Art in Tanzania internship report

What it is, why it matters and how it can help Tanzania

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a consistently used business practice in Tanzania, with huge corporations such as MIB Bank. Twiga Cement and Coca-Cola endorsing and investing in a large number of CSR schemes.

Despite its potential to greatly help local communities, it is a concept that has not taken root in Tanzania. For a number of reasons, whether it be poor organization, a failure to engage and educate local communities or businesses being held back by a desire to put its shareholders and profits first, CSR seems to be misunderstood and at times misused.

This holds Tanzania back, especially considering how important sustainable practices and further community engagement could greatly help both Tanzania and the corporations that operate within them. It can improve employment prospects for Tanzanian men and women across all sectors, help Tanzania’s environment become cleaner and safer and it can ensure sustainable and continued economic growth for Tanzania, which benefits everyone from the business directors to the local farmer.

What is CSR?

CSR stands for social corporate responsibility. It involves companies using their resources and money to try and benefit the communities they work in. This includes keeping pollution down, providing more energy and resources to the community and working alongside the community to improve conditions for the local people.

This can take many forms, from making its manufacturing or extracting processes more sustainable to helping pay for classroom equipment to ensure local students have the tools to succeed. It can also involve companies donating some of its profits to local projects such as building new irrigation systems or helping refurbish local community centers.

By providing these resources and funding, the companies can enhance their reputations both locally and across the region they operate in by helping to gain a loyal customer base, who trust and support the business due to their positive investment in the community.. When done well, CSR has the potential to improve society for the better and benefit everyone within it.

Why is CSR important to Tanzania?

While CSR schemes can be a huge benefit to any country or region willing to embrace them, it can be even more important for Tanzania. Firstly, by working with businesses to implement sustainable practices, it can ensure that Tanzania can maintain its key resources.

Around a quarter of Tanzania’s economy is taken up by mining, industry and construction. In particular, as of 2013, 89% of Tanzania’s mineral export wealth comes from gold, although diamonds and tanzanite also contribute to Tanzania’s export wealth. Therefore, it is vital that businesses mine these resources sustainably so that more people can use and profit from their natural resources for many generations, not just for short term profitability.

Another key aspect of the Tanzanian economy is farming, with agricultural workers representing around half of the employed workforce in Tanzania. However, climate change and unsustainable irrigation and farming practices mean that it is becoming harder and harder to farm successfully in Tanzania. Due to these challenges, people will struggle to grow crops or earn money, in turn leading to more people in poverty.

CSR projects take many different forms, but a key aspect is that they encourage businesses to use sustainable practices. This includes reducing water, soil and air pollution that can badly damage the farming land and environment. This will hugely benefit local farmers, who with more clean water and high quality land can continue to grow crops and farm successfully.  

It also means convincing extractive industries that they can still grow and produce profits for its shareholders without drying up Tanzania’s natural resources, which need to be preserved to ensure long term profit and economic growth for Tanzania. Therefore, CSR can be crucial in protecting Tanzania’s economic and environmental future.

Another factor to remember is the disparity between the economic growth in Tanzania and how much of it is reaching the people of Tanzania. In a recent World Bank report, they state how while the country has enjoyed sustained economic growth for the past 20 years, Tanzania’s wealth per capita- the sum of all its human, physical and natural capital has decreased.

This reflects how Tanzania’s natural resources, which as mentioned previously contribute heavily to Tanzania’s wealth overall, are not being managed effectively and are therefore not creating sustainable economic growth for the whole of Tanzania.

Tanzania also has one of the largest poor populations in Africa, with around 21.3 million citizens living below the poverty line. The World Bank report also states how with the population in Tanzania set to grow exponentially (the Tanzanian population is expected to triple to 138 million by 2050), there will be huge pressure on natural resources and necessities.

This will be compounded by increased urbanisation and climate change. In simple terms, more people (who are already struggling with poverty and rely on natural resources) will have to compete for less space, farmable land, water and reliable energy supplies.

CSR can help manage the worst affects. By getting businesses to commit more funding and expertise to local communities, they can help limit the worst effects of poverty, whether it be improving energy supply, helping to educate people and protecting the land from environmental damage, or by introducing schemes that will help jobseekers gain further qualifications and skills that will help them earn the money to improve their living standards.

How is CSR operating in Tanzania now?

The good news is that progress is being made. Government legislation implemented in 2017 has made sure businesses carry out their social responsibilities to the areas they operate in, whether through education and training, more sustainable practices or through providing funding equipment and facilities in the local communities. It also forces them to commit a small percentage (around 0.7%) of their income to CSR schemes. It is a huge step forward from businesses using their own discretion when deciding what their social responsibilities were.

In a recent article by the Citizen, they report on and highlight the key points of a recent social responsibility forum held in Dar Es Salaam focusing on women employment in extractive industries. At this forum, they commend extractive industries for their steps towards taking up greater social responsibility.

However, they also recommend that more should be done to educate girls at the school and university level. More women should be trained and educated in these industries to ensure in the future that these companies can cultivate local women to help them implement more effective and sustainable practices. They emphasized how it would be both economically valuable and socially beneficial to include more women in the extractive industries. What this conference reflects is that while steps are being made to make CSR better understood and more effective and better understood, more can always be done, especially at the local level.

Without continuing to highlight the importance of CSR schemes to both businesses and the community, their positive impact is reduced as companies sacrifice genuine positive change for profitability or some quick publicity. This is reflected in a 2017 study looking at the CSR policies implemented in the Msalala district of Tanzania by extractive and mining industries.

While the Bulyanhulu Gold Mine Company did provide dispensaries, latrines and school desks, the majority of the public response from those surveyed was negative. They felt they were not included in the use of CSR funds and companies in the region also scored poorly amongst the public on dealing with issues of environmental pollution, inflation, healthcare and poverty. This shows how even with the legislation, CSR schemes can still struggle to deliver positive change to local communities

This is not just an isolated case. A comprehensive study of CSR in Tanzania done by a student at the university of Dar Es Salaam concludes that while businesses are quick to proclaim how effective their CSR schemes are, in reality these companies often use these schemes to generate further publicity and create a greater demand for their service/product.

Supporting the local community is often a secondary concern. To solve this, the study concludes that more needs to be done to educate and involve the community in CSR schemes and help push the government to act as a coordinator and enforcer to ensure these schemes are a huge success for both businesses and the local people. This reflects that there is still much more that can be done to raise awareness of the concept in the local communities and ensure businesses help communities by aiding gender equality in employment, implementing sustainable business practices and helping to engage and solve problems within the local community.

So, what more can be done? 

With this article looking at how useful CSR is and how it can benefit Tanzania, it is also important to outline the steps that are needed to make it successful.

Community engagement is a key aspect, and ensuring that local businesses, schools, workers and groups are aware of CSR schemes and become more and more invested in making sure that these schemes truly benefit the community.

As part of this, it also involves educating people on the key reasons why CSR schemes are important. It is also crucial that young students are educated on the importance of CSR, as they can then take these ideas with them as the progress into further studies and a career. Therefore, outreach into schools and universities is important, whether it be through lectures, debates, seminars or even longer educational programs.

These ideas will help them become more employable but also help integrate these important ideas into whatever sector they go into, whether that be the private sector industries, into government or just into public life. This can then create more engagement on these issues with businesses, meaning there are more people who are ready and willing to work in tandem with businesses to ensure the greatest benefit to the local people and communities.

Alongside this, a crucial step is trying to continue to push businesses to invest in the local community. This can be done not only through creating demand for CSR schemes by educating the markets and consumers these businesses are selling too, but through negotiating agreements between non profits, businesses and local institutions that will bring about even more mutually beneficial CSR schemes.

In the long run, it will also be vital that the government becomes increasingly involved in co-ordinating CSR schemes to ensure that both business and societal interests are met. In an ideal world, they will come up with even stricter guidelines that ensure companies are forced to carry out their responsibilities and that they work with local communities to ensure that the local people are able to participate and improve their areas.

CSR therefore offers plenty of opportunity for businesses and communities to work together and create truly positive change, but there is plenty of work to do to ensure that the CSR concept can deliver on its huge potential.


-Citizen Article on CSR forum, March 30th 2019:

-World Bank Report May 2019:—new-world-bank-report

-2017 Study on the impact of CSR studies in the Msalala District by Jonas Kilave:

-Shukrani Mbirigend, Corporate Social Responsibility in Tanzania, Misconception, Misuse and Malpractices, Chapter 7 in particular, Dar Es Salaam Student Study:  

-All Statistics not found within other cited works were taken from the publicly available archives of the National Bureau of Statistics, done by Tanzania’s Ministry of Finance

Climate Change and Sustainability

By Grace Lewis – Art in Tanzania internship

Contribution of Anthropogenic Activities on global warming and the thei specific mitigation measures.

ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES:  these are human activities which contributes to an increasingly influence in the climate change and the earth’s temperature by burning fossil fuels, cutting down forests and farming livestock.

This thereby adds enormous amounts of greenhouse gases to those naturally occurring, thus in the atmosphere, increasing the greenhouse effect and global warming

List of Anthropogenic Activities

Anthropogenic activities include all human activities either for development or influential for survival support thus they include:

  • Agriculture and farming
  • Industrialization
  • Transportation
  • Buildings
  • Deforestation
  • Energy supply

Effects of Anthropogenic Activities

Generally, anthropogenic activities generally contribute to an additional production and emission of greenhouse gases, more than the expected normal occurrence of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, whereas the greenhouse gases expected in the atmosphere are:

  • Methane
  • Water vapour
  • Nitrous oxide
  • Ozone
  • Chlorofluorocarbons  (CFS)
  • Carbon dioxide

Mitigation Measures

Agriculture and Farming

1. Emission Reduction through improved:    

  • Rice cultivation
    • Animal husbandry
    • Fertilizer application
    • Cultivation methods

2. Carbon Sequestration through:     

  • Agro-forestry
    • Agricultural tree crops
    • Soil carbon storage
    • “No till” cropping


  • Research, development, and commercial demonstration of new technologies and processes
  • Tax incentives for energy efficiency, fuel switching, and reduction in GHG emissions
  • Removal of market barriers
  • Government procurement programs
  • Emission and efficiency standards
  • Voluntary agreements


  • Fuel Efficiency Improvements for Vehicles
    • Changes in vehicle and engine design (e.g., hybrids)
  • Alternative Fuel Sources
    • Hydrogen or electricity from renewable power
    • Biomass fuels, CNG, LPG, etc.
    • Fuel cell technology
  • Infrastructure and System Changes
    • Traffic and fleet management systems
    • Mass transportation systems and improved land-use planning.
    • Modal shifts
  • Transport Demand Management
    • Reducing travel demand (e.g., through land use changes, telecommunications, etc.)
  • Market-based Instruments
    • Increase in fuel tax
    • Incentives for mass transport systems
    • Fiscal incentives and subsides for alternative fuels and vehicles
    • Incentives through vehicle taxes and license fees for more efficient vehicles
  • Regulatory Instruments
    • Fuel economy standards
    • Vehicle design or alternative fuel mandates
  • Direct Investment by Governments


  • Building Equipment
    • Energy efficient space and heating (heat pumps, CHP)
    • Efficient lighting, air conditioners, refrigerators, and motors
    • Efficient cook stoves, household appliances, and electrical equipment
    • Efficient building energy management and maintenance
  • Building Thermal Integrity
    • Improved insulation and sealing
    • Energy-efficient windows
    • Proper building orientation
  • Using Solar Energy
    • Active and passive heating and cooling; climate-sensitive design
    • Effective use of natural light (“day lighting”)


Reducing GHG emissions through:

  • Conservation and protection
    • Efficiency improvements
    • Fossil fuel substitution

            2. Sequestering carbon through:

  • Increased forest area
    • Increased vegetation cover
    • Increased carbon storage in soils
    • Conversion of biomass to long-term products

Energy Supply

  • For mitigation, focus should be on renewable biomass, which has no net CO2 emissions.
  • Modern conversion of biomass into electricity, liquid and gaseous fuels shows great promise.
  • In addition, co-firing 10-15% biomass with coal can reduce GHG emissions


“Changes of human conducts from environmentally unfriendly to friendly activities is of paramount importance to safeguard our planet, thus sustainability will always be a vocabulary in our dictionary”


What is public relations representing and how it’s working and significant

By Enos Masaga – Art in Tanzania internship

              Public relations is an important and versatile marketing communication tools. It can be employed both internally and externally of an organizations many fees that public relations is an external marketing tools with the firm’s attempting to communicate with wide range of external publics in order to cast the organizations in favourite light in people mind. 1995 public relations professional emerged in Tanzania and the first university to offer this faculties is saint August university of Tanzania (SAUT) named PUBLIC RELATIONS AND MARKETING. Followed by university of Dar essalaam (UDSM) named PUBLIC RELATIONS AND ADVERTISING, Tumain university , National institute of transport (NIT) named MARKETING AND PUBLIC RELATIONS.

            The introduction of public relations association has been recognized by the United republic of Tanzania under the societies Acts (CAP 337 R.E. 2002).among of association is National public relations association (NPRA), Saut student public relations association (SSPRA), University of Dar essalaam advertising student association (UDPRASA), Marketing and public relations association national institute of accountancy ( MPRA) , Tumaini public relations student association (TPSA)  Public relations association introduced in the university and higher learning institutions purpose to expose news skills and knowledge for the PR students on strategic communication,  event preparations , community relations, charity ,developing community involvement programs, understanding them WHAT is PR and NOT,

              In 2005 established Public relations society of Tanzania ( PRST ) is governed by the board trustees, and executive committee and encompasses different kind of membership to the association.  It’s the body that regulate the practice of public relations professional in Tanzania by oversight directing and facilitating the professional that is adhered to the highest of standard and excellent in all aspects of communication

            Public relations association has significantly economic, social and political aspects, hence enabled community strength they dream by encouraging them to develop skills and talent examples NPRA YOUTH GALA in 2018 allowed people to demonstrate they talent during the event, also it has enabled society to ensure human right and emphases equal participation among them, by demonstrating negative impact of genital mutilation to the children’s and telling them every body has equal right to participate in decision-making without regarding his or her color, religions and age.

Tanzania Pension Schemes and their Benefits

By Marina Joseph – Art in Tanzania internship

In a lifetime one expects to retire from whatever profession they have chosen for sustenance. To be able to retire one must plan and save to enjoy the retirement benefits. Pension funds are investment pools that pay for workers’ retirements. Funds are paid for by either employee, employers, or both. When paid by employers’ funds, the funds are invested on the employee’s behalf, and the earnings generated on investment are considered income to the employee upon retirement. A worker can also choose to voluntarily contribute part of his income to an investment plan to help fund retirement. Retirement plans are a valuable benefit that impacts the present and future lives of employees. An organization that provides a retirement plan presents advantages to the employer and employee.

Benefits of Pension Schemes to Employer:

Attraction of Employees
An organization has an effective retirement plan. It attracts the best talent from the pool of workforce. A potential employee is more likely to choose an employer with better retirement benefits than the one with not. This is because the pension plan is a huge part of the total compensation for an employee. It also makes it easier to retain competent employees.

Maintain Productivity
A good retirement plan is to promise a better financial status for the employee upon retirement. It motivates employees to know that they are working in anticipation of a better retirement package.

Public Image
Having a retirement plan puts any organization in a positive image. However, an organization with an effective and successful retirement plan greatly adds to the goodwill of the company. This shows the value an organization places on the service of the employees and a willingness to ensure their financial security when they are old. Employees who have a good retirement package will proudly speak of their former employers and hence create a good public image for the organization.

Benefits of Pension Schemes to Employee:

• Tax Saving

An employer usually takes pension contributions before deducting tax. Therefore, tax is paid on the remainder of the salary. Saving taxes with each contribution paid into the plan will contribute to higher returns over time.

Opportunity to diversify across asset classes
Pension funds give investors an option to choose what kind of asset classes they would like maximum exposure to maximize their earnings.

Employer Contribution
When an employer decides to make contributions to the pension plan, the plan becomes even more profitable for employees as the accumulated funds will grow faster.

Multiple options of payment and Guaranteed Income at the end
Flexibility is offered to investors when it comes to how they want to make the payments. Investors can choose to invest a lump sum amount and receive immediate annuity payments, or they can choose a deferred annuity plan which will let their corpus earn more interest until the payouts begin.

Can provide benefits of a life insurance cover
Some pension plans offer a life cover as well in which a lump sum amount is paid to the family member/nominee at the death of the insured. If there is no surviving spouse, a benefit can be paid to a designated beneficiary or to the member’s heirs.

Emergency Access to Funds
Adjustments in the pension policy can be made to allow for access to funds in case of an emergency. These emergencies are pre-defined.

Long-term Investing
As this long-term investing, investments will reap the benefits of long-term investing. Pension plans create an annuity which can provide a steady flow of cash post your retirement after ensuring a good amount of corpus is accumulated by the time one retires.

Background on Pension Systems in East Africa:

Diverse retirement benefits systems exist within the member states of the East African Community (EAC). These include a mixture of cash transfer programs, national mandatory schemes, work-based retirement schemes and individual retirement savings plans. The regulatory framework for retirement benefits in EAC member states mirrors the policies adopted by each state, as well as the historical influence of their colonial past. With the introduction of the modern state, traditional social support systems were gradually dismantled, and market-based social protection policies were introduced with the gradual collapse of traditional social protection practices. New policies were established which rewarded civil servants who remained loyal to the colonial government. The bulk of the employees who benefited from the policies of their colonial powers were themselves white employees. Their benefits were guaranteed by statute even after independence. The effect of providing coverage to loyal civil servants was that the rest of the citizenry remained uncovered, including the casual and agricultural workers employed in white-owned plantations. In the Francophone countries of Rwanda and Burundi, the colonial powers established contributory defined benefits schemes for civil servants. Soon after independence, these were converted to contributory defined benefit social insurance schemes for all formal workers. The situation was different in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, where the British left a legacy of non-contributory defined benefit pension schemes for civil servants working in the colonial government. These were originally designed to cover European employees. The scheme was gradually extended to Africans working for colonial governments, but it excluded women who were employed on short-term government contracts. (World Bank Group, 2019)
In 1999, Tanzania enacted the Public Service Retirement Benefits Act No. 2 to provide for the establishment of the contributory Public Service Pension Fund. The Act repealed the Pension Ordinance of 1954, which was non-contributory. In 2012, Kenya’s efforts to reform the civil service non-contributory pension scheme (which commenced in early 2000) culminated with The Public Service Superannuation Scheme Act, which is intended to make the scheme contributory. Unfortunately, the Act has not yet been implemented by the Minister of Finance. The pension scheme for civil servants in Kenya has remained the same scheme, that is, it continues to utilize the system established by its colonial powers in 1946. In Uganda, the non-contributory public pension scheme began in 1946 with the enactment of the Pensions Act. To date, efforts to reform the system to a contributory scheme have been slow and tedious. (World Bank Group, 2019)
Aside from these traditional civil service schemes, policies and regulatory frameworks extending coverage to the formal private sector workers were nearly absent during colonial days. After independence, mandatory contributory retirement benefit schemes were established. These required private sector formal workers and employers to contribute to national mandatory social security schemes. In some countries, these mandatory schemes were defined contribution provident funds, whereas in other countries, they were defined benefit pension schemes. The various policy approaches were informed by colonial legacies or national development policies adopted after independence. In the case of Tanzania, in keeping with its affinity for eastern socialism, institutions were nationalized, and social security choice demanded solidarity rather than the individualistic approach of the west. This explains the existence of mandatory defined benefit schemes which currently operate in Tanzania. The Francophone countries, Burundi and Rwanda, reformed the contributory public schemes established during colonial days to include private sector workers. Kenya and Uganda adopted the neoliberal economic principles of the west, which to a large extent prioritize individual responsibility over collectivism or solidarity vis-à-vis retirement savings. These national socioeconomic development choices led to the development of defined contribution provident funds in Kenya and Uganda, where there is no intergenerational transfer or redistribution within the scheme. Kenya, which is more capitalist than other countries, established the national social security scheme in 1965. (World Bank Group, 2019)
Kenya currently has the largest number of private occupational and individual retirement benefit schemes among the EAC countries. The legal framework for retirement benefits in the EAC is Eurocentric, that is, it favors the formal sector rather than the informal sector. (World Bank Group, 2019)

TANZANIANational Social Security Fund – NSSF (main)  Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) Defined Benefit (DB)  Public Service Sector Security Fund – PSSSF PAYG DB
KENYANational Social Security Fund – NSSF DC Provident Fund  Public Service Superannuation Fund – PSSF DB – Transitioning to DC
UGANDANational Social Security Fund – NSSF DC Provident Fund  Public Service Pension Scheme – PSPS Non-Contributory DB
BURUNDIInstitut National de la Securite (National Institute of Social Security) – INSS Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) Defined Benefit (DB)Office Nationale des Pensions et Risques Professionals (National Office of Pensions and Occupational Risks) – ONPR PAYG DB
RWANDARwanda Social Security Board – RSSB PAYG DB        


The World Bank Group. (2019). Pension Systems in East Africa: A Deep Dive.

‘Adoption in Tanzania’

Interview with Joel from Glory of Africa Orphanage


Glory of Africa is  an orphanage located in Mivumoni where Art in Tanzania teaches, gives seminars and organizes activities for the kids. Joel and his wife Felista have been running the organization since 2012 and strive to give each kid a promising future by providing them with food, shelter and education. What surprised me is that no kids get adopted, ever. In this interview I asked Joel why this is the case and what happens when the kids grow older.

“How many kids have been adopted from this orphanage?”


“Why do you think children don’t get adopted by foreigners that are often in Tanzania?”

The governmental procedures are very strict. It takes such a long time that inevitably most of the potential parents looking to adopt just give up. Also the orphanages don’t like kids to be adopted. This is because they are scared to give the kids to strangers. It’s always a guess, you never really know what the intentions for the adoption are.

Since most of the kids still have family here, they (kids and family) prefer to stay here. The family sends their kids to the orphanage because they know they will get an education here and stay out of trouble. In the future they expect the kid to come back to the family and provide them with a better future.

The kids who do get adopted are expected to come back to Tanzania after their education to take care of the family. This is an unwritten rule and the decision fundamentally lays fully with the kid, of course. However, the family does expect that. For example some adoption contracts ask the kid to keep in contact with their biological family. This is also because the kid should not forget the country and culture in which he/she was born. This doesn’t happen often though.

“Do Tanzanian families ever adopt Tanzanian children or does this also not happen?”

No. Tanzanian families have enough difficulties in taking care of their own families. So they barely ever adopt a child. The financial situation of most Tanzanian citizens is not strong enough to adopt a child out of their family.

“Are you afraid that people come here do adopt with bad intentions?”

Yes, that always crosses my mind. Sometimes kids get adopted to do chores in the house, to work on the farm, … This is not a good future for them. That’s why I prefer to keep them here until they are grown up and can make decisions on their own. When they turn 18 they can be adopted if they still want to be adopted. Before that age, anything attracts them and they make decisions without thinking. When they regret the decision, they might run away from the adoption family, live on the streets and get in contact with bad people and learn to behave badly.

“How many kids are staying here now?”

35 kids come here daily to get food and education. 7 of the 35 kids are also sleeping here. This is because a lot of the kids here still have family, however they can’t provide for them. Common examples of the children’s situations are having a single, disabled or mentally ill parent or no parents at all with only grandparents or possibly an uncle left. Most of them do keep in touch with their family. This might not be a registered orphanage but the government passes by once in a while and they have the contacts of every kid staying here at the orphanage. The orphanage provides food, shelter and education for kids who need it.

“Do kids want to be adopted? Do they ever mention it?”

No, they like to be at the orphanage. They are surrounded by kids who are the same age, who speak the same language and all of them are in a similar situation. This comforts them and they wouldn’t like it any other way. They feel safe.

“What happens when the kids turn 18?”

When the kid turns 18 he can do whatever he wants. He can go to college, he can go back to his family, he can start working or he can stay at the orphanage. It’s all up to the kid. The kid can also choose the get adopted, but this happens rarely. If the kid gets adopted, he can stay at the family for one month as a trial. If everything works out well and both parties are happy, the adoption can officially go through.

If the kid wants to stay at the orphanage, that is possible if he keeps following the rules. If the kid doesn’t listen, goes out, drinks alcohol, or is badly behaved and influencing the other kids than he/she will no longer  be welcome at the orphanage. 

“Do they get proper support from the government to build an independent life?”

No the government doesn’t support them. This is because this orphanage is not registered (yet). The orphanage itself barely gets any support from the government as well. Sometimes  when the person from the government has a heart he will provide us supplies such as food or mosquito nets. But this depends only on the heart of the person. I also work as a tailor and that enables this orphanage to stay up and running. Sometimes I get donations from people who volunteer here. That helps as well. I don’t like asking for money, if people donate it’s because they proposed it themselves.

Some orphanages exploit the system as a way to earn money. They ask the remaining relatives to give money, they send kids to the city and let them work jobs selling peanuts, for example. When they don’t sell enough peanuts, the kids get kicked out or thrown on to the streets.

“Can kids (financially) go to university after staying in the orphanage?”

Yes, they can but it depends on their own financial situation. If the family saved money to let the kid go to university, he is lucky and he can go. If the family is poor and he wants to go to university, he’ll have to work and study at the same time to be able to pay for his studies.

Written by Alice Coetsier

If you are interested in supporting this orphanage, please click the link below. More information about this project can be found on this gofundme webpage.


Interview with an Intern: Tomoki

Art in Tanzania receives many different interns and volunteers from different parts of the world, all year round. As an intern myself, it is interesting to meet and live among such a diverse group of people, learn about their home countries and what they are doing with Art in Tanzania. So I decided to interview one intern originally from Japan; Tomoki…

Q: What is your name and where are you from?

A: My name is Tomoki Noguchi and originally I am from Japan but I go to university in New York in the US.


Tomoki hard at work in the office

Q: How long have you been in Tanzania?

A: So far I have been here for 15 days and I am staying for 1 month. So I’m about half way through. It is also my first time in Africa.

Q: Where did you hear about Art in Tanzania?

A: I heard about Art in Tanzania through my university on the internship website. AIT was posted on the webpage. Also, one of my friends came here last year so he told me all about it.

Q: What is your job as an intern with Art in Tanzania?

A: I am working on sanitation projects. So currently I am analysing the efficiency of composting/dry toilets. In the future Art in Tanzania are hoping to put dry toilet systems in schools all across Tanzania and I am helping to do the research for this.

Q: Is living in Tanzania very different to living in your home country?

IMG_3507 (1)

Boxing Day at the beach with Glory of Africa Orphanage

A: Yeah, of course, no place is the same. The roads here are rubbish, I hate shaking. I get stomachache and headache, the government should fix that; there should be pavement. I don’t understand, that should be top priority – I was shocked.

Q: What are you enjoying most about Tanzania?

A: I enjoy making new friends from all over the world. Some of the food I enjoy but some I don’t really like. I haven’t tried much traditional food but I really like cassava. I’m used to eating things like chapatis and cassava so it’s good.

Q: What do you miss most about your home?

A: I don’t really miss America that much. I’ve been missing many things from Japan. For example sanitation and traditional Japanese food, of course. Tokyo city overall. But what i’ve been missing is the culture in more developed countries. When I went to the hospital I didn’t feel like they were professional or had the responsibility of doctors.

Q: Do you think you will come back and visit?

A: I would definitely like to come back and visit Moshi to see Kilimajaro and may be even climb it. I would also like to see a national park.

IMG_3852 (1)

Tomoki with one of the house dogs; JJ


“I’m really enjoying my time in Tanzania because of the people here, everyone is so friendly and welcoming, especially JJ!”

Asante sana,