AFRICA: A CONTINENT THAT SUFFERED SEVERAL CONFLICTS,ARTICLE DISCUSSING POSSIBLE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SUCH OUTRAGEOUS EVENTSBy Carolina Sideri – Art in Tanzania intern

Africa is the continent south of Europe, east of the Atlantic Ocean, west of the Indian ocean and north of Antarctica. It is the second-largest continent connected to Asia through the land bridge of Suez. It lies among the Mediterranean Sea and Indian and Atlantic oceans. Throughout its history, the continent faced several conflicts in different areas.
Civil wars took place in different areas of the territory; some of the conflicts in the past happened in Chad, Nigeria, Rwanda, Burundi, and Sierra Leone.
The causes of wars are different; each conflict may originate from distinct circumstances. Still, some factors characterizing the African continent may be analyzed as disputes may arise for a diversity of elements, and they can be determining factors to examine thoroughly:

⦁ The problem of ethnicity due to heterogeneity in the African population:
Rivalry for ethnic reasons is among the leading causes of conflicts in several African states, such as Uganda, Rwanda, Nigeria, Burundi and an array of other states.
Many people, who do not have in-depth knowledge of Africa, may think that this continent is just one group of people. Still, in reality, as it is a vast continent, more than 3000 groups are distinguished for different racial origins, and more than 2100 languages are spoken within this continent. In addition, there are a host of ethnical groups in Africa, so that is not simple to list all of them; the most well-known are:

⦁ Hausa (regards West Africa area, including regions like Benin, Ghana, Cameroon, and Sudan)
⦁ Hutu (comprises regions of central Africa as Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of Congo)
⦁ Igbo (encompassing regions of West Africa as Equatorial Guinea and Gabon)
⦁ Kanuri (regarding Central Africa regions like Niger and Chad)

⦁ Poverty

Africa is suffering conditions of absolute Poverty consequence of an assortment of factors like severe climate and environmental challenges and contexts such as desertification which has involved severe famines and caused many victims and fatalities.
A factor to be considered is the large amount of foreign debt borne by the continent, which is among the leading causes determining a worsening of the continent’s extreme poverty state.
Possible solutions to causes of conflicts:
Resources evenly distributed: resources to be spread and distributed equally among the several different geopolitical areas of Africa.

Safeguard of fundamental human rights: To guarantee fundamental human rights to citizens, such as freedom of speech, religion, and association.

Elimination or at least reduction of Poverty: people who are victims of Poverty suffer outrageous living conditions causing African people massive harm, endangering their health and being a real threat to survival.

The psychology of people suffering from Poverty can be affected by conditions as above. A person threatened by the uncertainty of survival is likely to attempt to steal, hurt or demolish around and cause pain and suffering.

Equal access to Education: the whole population, including children, should be able to receive qualitative Education, being fundamental for both social as well as economic development, as it is the most compelling resource to empower people through the learning of both theoretical concepts as well as practical skills and the most such against the ignorance and robust defense against ignorance.

Famine In Africa

https://www.ilpost.it/2012/07/18/un-anno-di-carestia-in-somalia/

https://www.tio.ch/svizzera/attualita/1160573/altro-appello-per-la-carestia-in-africa

https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2011/apr/27/africa-education-spending-aid-data

https://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2021/07/09/la-fame-e-la-carestia-come-armi-la-denuncia-di-oxfam-ogni-minuto-piu-morti-che-con-la-pandemia-di-covid/6255630/

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