Climate Change and Sustainability

By Grace Lewis – Art in Tanzania internship

Contribution of Anthropogenic Activities on global warming and the thei specific mitigation measures.

ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES:  these are human activities which contributes to an increasingly influence in the climate change and the earth’s temperature by burning fossil fuels, cutting down forests and farming livestock.

This thereby adds enormous amounts of greenhouse gases to those naturally occurring, thus in the atmosphere, increasing the greenhouse effect and global warming

List of Anthropogenic Activities

Anthropogenic activities include all human activities either for development or influential for survival support thus they include:

  • Agriculture and farming
  • Industrialization
  • Transportation
  • Buildings
  • Deforestation
  • Energy supply

Effects of Anthropogenic Activities

Generally, anthropogenic activities generally contribute to an additional production and emission of greenhouse gases, more than the expected normal occurrence of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, whereas the greenhouse gases expected in the atmosphere are:

  • Methane
  • Water vapour
  • Nitrous oxide
  • Ozone
  • Chlorofluorocarbons  (CFS)
  • Carbon dioxide

Mitigation Measures

Agriculture and Farming

1. Emission Reduction through improved:    

  • Rice cultivation
    • Animal husbandry
    • Fertilizer application
    • Cultivation methods

2. Carbon Sequestration through:     

  • Agro-forestry
    • Agricultural tree crops
    • Soil carbon storage
    • “No till” cropping


  • Research, development, and commercial demonstration of new technologies and processes
  • Tax incentives for energy efficiency, fuel switching, and reduction in GHG emissions
  • Removal of market barriers
  • Government procurement programs
  • Emission and efficiency standards
  • Voluntary agreements


  • Fuel Efficiency Improvements for Vehicles
    • Changes in vehicle and engine design (e.g., hybrids)
  • Alternative Fuel Sources
    • Hydrogen or electricity from renewable power
    • Biomass fuels, CNG, LPG, etc.
    • Fuel cell technology
  • Infrastructure and System Changes
    • Traffic and fleet management systems
    • Mass transportation systems and improved land-use planning.
    • Modal shifts
  • Transport Demand Management
    • Reducing travel demand (e.g., through land use changes, telecommunications, etc.)
  • Market-based Instruments
    • Increase in fuel tax
    • Incentives for mass transport systems
    • Fiscal incentives and subsides for alternative fuels and vehicles
    • Incentives through vehicle taxes and license fees for more efficient vehicles
  • Regulatory Instruments
    • Fuel economy standards
    • Vehicle design or alternative fuel mandates
  • Direct Investment by Governments


  • Building Equipment
    • Energy efficient space and heating (heat pumps, CHP)
    • Efficient lighting, air conditioners, refrigerators, and motors
    • Efficient cook stoves, household appliances, and electrical equipment
    • Efficient building energy management and maintenance
  • Building Thermal Integrity
    • Improved insulation and sealing
    • Energy-efficient windows
    • Proper building orientation
  • Using Solar Energy
    • Active and passive heating and cooling; climate-sensitive design
    • Effective use of natural light (“day lighting”)


Reducing GHG emissions through:

  • Conservation and protection
    • Efficiency improvements
    • Fossil fuel substitution

            2. Sequestering carbon through:

  • Increased forest area
    • Increased vegetation cover
    • Increased carbon storage in soils
    • Conversion of biomass to long-term products

Energy Supply

  • For mitigation, focus should be on renewable biomass, which has no net CO2 emissions.
  • Modern conversion of biomass into electricity, liquid and gaseous fuels shows great promise.
  • In addition, co-firing 10-15% biomass with coal can reduce GHG emissions


“Changes of human conducts from environmentally unfriendly to friendly activities is of paramount importance to safeguard our planet, thus sustainability will always be a vocabulary in our dictionary”


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