Ben K. Gwamaka-Art in Tanzania Internship
All over the world, the capital market has played significant roles in national economic growth and development. One intermediary in the market that operates as a rallying point for the overall activities in the stock exchange market. It is a common postulation that without a functional stock exchange market, the capital market may be very illiquid and unable to attract investment.
In the effort of the Tanzania government’s Policy to transform its economy from a public government-dominant economy to a private sector-driven economy, it establishes the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange Market.
All trading system at the DSE Trading floor is conducted under an Automated Trading Electronic System (DATES), which matches bids and offers using an electronic matching engine.
This is so because the stock exchange market is the one that provides liquidity promotes efficiency in capital formation and allocation.
STOCK EXCHANGE MARKET
The stock exchange market mainly provides liquidity by enabling the firm to raise funds through the sale of securities with relative ease and speed. As a result, the stock exchange market is able to influence investment and economic growth. The large stock exchange market lowers the cost of mobilizing savings, facilitating investment in the most productive technologies.
Thus, for sustainable growth and Development, funds must be effectively mobilized and allocated to enable businesses and the economy harnessed their human, material, and managerial resources for efficient productivity. The stock exchange market enables, government to raise long–term funds (capital), which will enable it to expand, modernize projects, and finance new investments.
STOCK MARKET SYSTEM
- Primary Market
Is a financial market in which new issue of securities are sold to initial buyers for the first time commonly referred to as initial Public Affairs (IPOs). A good example is when a company floats its shares or sells its corporate bonds to the investing public for the first time. The securities issued in the primary market are later sold in the secondary market.
Primary Market provides the channel for the sale of new securities. It also provides an opportunity to issuers of securities; Government as well as corporate to raise resources to meet their requirements of investment and/or discharge some obligation.
2. Secondary market
A later market deals with buying and selling securities previously issued and subscribed to (in the Hand of investors) in the primary market. An example of secondary market institutions is a Stock Exchange like DSE, which is a market where investors through their brokers, sell and purchase listed securities. The DSE is therefore one of the key institutions of a financial system with unique functions.
To a market where securities are traded after being initially offered to the public in the primary market and/or listed on the Stock Exchange. The majority of the trading is done in the secondary market. The secondary market comprises equity markets and debt markets.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MARKETS
In Primary Market securities are offered to public for subscription for the purpose of raising capital or fund.
A secondary market is an equity trading venue in which already existing/pre-issued securities are traded among investors.
ROLE OF STOCK EXCHANGE MARKET
- Contributes to cultural transformation in Tanzania.
A the time the DSE was established, only a handful of Tanzanians could claim to be knowledgeable with stock market operations. The operationalization of the DSE has contributed substantially toward public enlightenment which has caused few Tanzanian to invest in listed companies as a result of this transformation.
2. Encourage and Mobilise domestic Saving
The stock market provides an additional channel to encouraging and mobilizing domestic savings for productive investment and as an alternative to bench deposit real estate investment and financing of consumption loan.
3. Provide Markets for Listed Securities.
Meaning it enables those wishing to join or leave the listed companies to do so and those wishing to leave to do so as well.
4. Facilitate Equity Financing.
The stock exchange market provides an equity financing cushion for companies against the variability of cash-flows and even possible losses: it is permanent financing that does not demand regular fixed returns like debt.•Stock exchange market improves the gearing of the domestic corporate sector by facilitating equity financing and this helps to reduce corporate dependence on borrowing thus making the financial system more strong.
5. A Barometer of Business Direction.
The stock market is in the focus of the economist and policymakers because of the perceived benefit it provides for the economy. According to Obadon (1995), the stock market provides the fulcrum for capital market activities and it is often cited as a barometer of business direction: An active stock market may be relied upon to measure changes in general economic activities using the stock market index.
6. Raise of Capital for Enterprise.
stock exchange market, facilitating the raising of capital for enterprises:- The stock exchange, facilitates companies to sell new share/bond at better prices which lower the cost of capital to such companies and increase the operating profit.
WHY TO TRADE IN STOCK MARKET?
1.You do not need a lot of money to start making money, unlike buying property and paying a monthly mortgage.
2. It requires very minimal time to trade – unlike building a conventional business
3. It’s ‘fast’ cash and allows for quick liquidation (You can convert it to cash easily, unlike selling a property or a business).
4. It’s easy to learn how to profit from the stock market.
But You need to have your basics clear. Unless you do….you will be wasting your time and losing money. You need to be crystal clear of each and every aspect of Investments, stock options, Stock Trading, Company, Shares, Dividend & Types of Shares, Debentures, Securities, Mutual Funds, IPO, Futures & Options, What does the Share Market consist of? Exchanges, Indices, SEBI, Analysis of Stocks – How to check on what to buy?, Trading Terms (Limit Order, Stop Loss, Put, Call, Booking Profit & Loss, Short & Long), Trading Options – Brokerage Houses, etc.
ADVANTAGES OF LISTING SECURITIES
a) The company can raise capital relatively cheaply from the public. While the normal practice for financial increases of the firms are raising capital through loan acquisitions from banks and other financial institutions, which culminates in the interest of about 16% to 23% in favor of the banks and other financial institutions.
b) On the contrary the Stock Exchange does the same role of raising the capital of the firm without subjecting the entire firm to interest charges against it. Thus the firm listing the securities with the DSE does so with minimum risk of losing its capital.
c) The listed companies also experience improved marketing of the products.
d) Listed companies are generally considered to be good performers and therefore are perceived to have the potentials of providing a good return to the investors. Thus listed companies experience other benefits.
e) Listing enables both firms and individuals to realize the value of the company through the interplay of the demand and supply of the company shares at the DSE. Normally, assessing oneself can be a difficult thing, and sometimes challenging. The difficulties arise due to the fact that self-assessment means giving the value of yourself using the criterion set the same. Nevertheless, listed companies can easily know their value through the interplay of the markets. This can be termed as facilitates open assessment as opposed to self-assessment. Since it is the market that gives the value of the company, therefore the assessment attained is open and done by the mixtures of professionals, businessmen, firms representatives, and the public in general.
f) The listing of shares facilitates economic growth and improved livelihood of the people. The wealth that would be enjoyed by few people who established the business or firm would benefit all subscribers of shares of the particular firm. This is a key to improved growth of income of the people. Most people who used to deposit their finance with banks have confessed that shares listed at the DSE have made them gain between 100 to 2500 percent in three years. The benefits which supersede gain resulting from the bank’s interest by far. Generally, on average in Tanzania banks provide an interest rate of 2 to 3 percent on deposits. The trend is similar the world over.
g) Listing shares lower the financing cost of the enterprises. This could be associated with raising capital without incurring any substantial amount as a fee to the capital such as interest. Thus, the burden for the company would be reduced.
• Investment, The money you earn is partly spent and the rest saved for meeting future expenses. Instead of keeping the savings idle, you may like to use savings in order to get a return on them in the future.
• One needs to invest to
1. earn return on your idle resources
2. generate a specified sum of money for a specific goal in life
3. make a provision for an uncertain future
TYPES OF INVESTORS
WHEN TO START INVESTING
•The sooner one starts investing the better. By investing early, you allow your investments more time to grow, increases your income, by accumulating the principal and the interest or dividend earned on it, year after year.
• The three golden rules for all investors are:
1. Invest early
2. Invest regularly
3. Invest for long term and not short term
WHERE TO INVEST
• One may invest in:
1. Physical assets, like real estate, gold/jewelry, commodities etc.
2. Financial assets, such as fixed deposits with banks, small saving instruments with post offices, insurance/provident/pension fund, etc., or securities market-related instruments like shares, bonds, debentures, etc.
There are many benefits for listing securities as discussed and narrated in this article. The sustenance of these benefits depends on many other factors which can be summarized as the fidelity of the firms regarding all transactions of the business.
Rules and regulations that are set in benefiting investors are one thing, and fidelity in observing the rules and regulations set by the firms is another. Both the CMSA and the DSE monitor the market trading activities to detect possible market malpractices such as false trading, market manipulation, insider dealing, short selling, and so forth.
DSE is responsible for on-the-line/on-site surveillance while the CMSA for online/off-site surveillance. The DSE can suspend any time offers and bids that are deemed to be suspicious (DSE, Ibid).
Efforts to monitor and/or supervise could be reduced through the observance of the rules and regulations as disclosed by CMSA and the DSE. The emphasis on fidelity assumes the fact that market performance implies both an intuitive sense of crowd psychology and a fundamental understanding of the context in which the game is played.
Trading is more than arithmetic concerns in economics, accountancy, and market models. There is an art to it as well.
•DSE (2007). DSE Annual Report. Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange, Dar es Salaam
• DSE (2008). DSE Handbook. Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange, Dar es Salaam
•Norman, A (2010).The Role of the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange in safeguarding Securities investors in Tanzania International Business Management. 4.222 – 228.